Test Bank for Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns – Test Bank

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Test Bank for Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal Synthesis 7th Edition By Grove Burns – Test Bank

 

 

Sample:

 

Chapter 6: Review of Relevant Literature

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following would be landmark research?
a. The discovery that during pancreatitis, the pancreas is actually digested by its own enzymes
b. A description of the importance of injecting immunizations in the proper location of the deltoid
c. The third in a series of four papers describing patterns of emergency room use in vacation communities
d. The first paper on the effect of using insulin for type I diabetes in humans

 

 

ANS:  D

Seminal studies are the first studies that prompted the initiation of the field of research. Landmark studies are the studies that led to an important development or a turning point in the field of research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. A publication is printed every two months. Its volume number coincides with its year of publication (2008 = 1; 2009 = 2; 2010 = 3; etc.). Its issue number coincides with the order of publication, within a given year (Jan–Feb = 1; Mar–Apr = 2; etc). What kind of a publication is this?
a. A monograph
b. A periodical
c. An e-book
d. A serial

 

 

ANS:  D

Serials are published over time or may be in multiple volumes, but do not necessarily have a predictable publication date. Periodicals are subsets of serials with predictable publication dates, such as journals, which are published over time and are numbered sequentially for the years published. This sequential numbering is seen in the year, volume, issue, and page numbering of a journal. Monographs, such as books, hard-copy conference proceedings, or pamphlets, are usually written once and may be updated with a new edition as needed. Textbooks are monographs written to be used in formal education programs. Entire volumes of books available in a digital or electronic format are called e-books.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. The type of literature that describes concept analyses, models, and frameworks is which of the following?
a. Empirical
b. Applicable
c. Able to be replicated
d. Theoretical

 

 

ANS:  D

Theoretical literature consists of concept analyses, models, theories, and conceptual frameworks that support a selected research problem and purpose. Empirical literature comprises knowledge derived from research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 100

 

  1. What primary sources might be available to someone writing a biography of Queen Elizabeth I, who died in the 17th century?
a. An interview with one of her maids-in-waiting
b. A previous history written about her
c. An article about her in a 17th-century publication
d. A diary written by her

 

 

ANS:  D

The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source. A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by using secondary sources rather than primary sources. You should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used only if primary sources cannot be located or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 101

 

  1. What is the purpose of the minimal review of relevant studies that the grounded theory researcher undertakes before writing the research proposal?
a. It compares the anticipated findings with the findings of similar research.
b. It directs the researcher in how to strategize data collection.
c. It helps the researcher to identify previous findings that will assist in interpretation of the planned study.
d. It reveals the need for the planned research by identifying what others have done.

 

 

ANS:  D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. In development of a grounded theory study, a minimal review of relevant studies provides the beginning point of the inquiry, but this review is only a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted. This information, however, is not used to direct the collection of data or interpretation of the findings in a grounded theory study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In terms of the literature review, how are quantitative research and ethnographic research similar?
a. Both require the researcher to review the literature before beginning the study.
b. Both require the researcher to review the literature after completion of data analysis.
c. Both require the researcher to utilize the literature as the primary data source.
d. Both consider the literature review extraneous, postponing it until after the study is published.

 

 

ANS:  A

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Considering phenomenologists’ belief that experience constitutes reality, how does their approach to the literature review dovetail with that belief?
a. The literature is exactly as real as the other research data, and it is all analyzed and valued equally during the data analysis portion of the study.
b. If the literature reports other phenomenologists’ findings, based on experience, these can be considered alternative data sources.
c. The literature is a false interpretation of reality and cannot be considered, either before or after data analysis is complete.
d. The literature review is usually postponed until after data analysis completion, so that the understanding of the phenomenon will emanate solely from the data.

 

 

ANS:  B

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In historical research, what is the reason that the literature review begins so early and extends so far into the process?
a. Historians must include exact dates in their histories. The literature must be checked and double-checked, in order to verify the correctness of these dates.
b. Historical research demands one extra stage of data review, just prior to publication, since new published data could bring the results under scrutiny.
c. Historians develop their ideas for research proposals from reading other histories. As discrepancies arise, these provide the ideas for research.
d. The literature essentially comprises the bulk of the data set. From this, plus other artifacts and interviews, if available, the historian writes the story.

 

 

ANS:  D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review vary based on the type of study to be conducted. In historical research, the initial review of the literature helps the researcher define the study questions and make decisions about relevant sources. The data collection is actually an intense review of published and unpublished documents that the researcher has found.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Why would the Boolean article OR be used if a researcher is conducting a digital literature search of journals on the topic of prolonged adolescent grieving after parental loss?
a. It focuses the search on parental loss, the last search term.
b. It is useful when a researcher is undecided.
c. It narrows the search to articles containing all terms.
d. It allows the researcher to enter the search terms without excluding those whose authors did not “keyword” all the words of the topic.

 

 

ANS:  D

The Boolean operators are the three words AND, OR, and NOT. Often they must be capitalized. The Boolean operators AND and NOT are used with the identified concepts. The Boolean operator OR is most useful with synonymous terms or concepts. It is used to search for the presence of any of a group of terms in the same search.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 105

 

  1. The original quotation in the fictional text by Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe (2009) is as follows:

“Because of overemphasis on academic excellence, especially test grades, the high schools studied had a disproportionate number of students who reported sleeplessness, nervousness, nightmares, and guilt. These were attributed to various factors, the most significant of which was a very strict principal, who voiced open disapproval of students she felt were underachieving their enormous academic potential. Parents were very accepting of this behavior, echoing it in their interactions with the students.”

What is the acceptable way to properly attribute this content in a literature review?

a. Parents were very accepting of the principal’s behavior, which included voiced disapproval of underachieving students, echoing it in their interactions with their sons and daughters.
b. Because of overemphasis on academic excellence, especially test grades, the high schools studied had a disproportionate number of students who reported sleeplessness, nervousness, nightmares, and guilt. These were attributed to various factors, the most significant of which was a very strict principal, who voiced open disapproval of students she felt were underachieving their enormous academic potential. Parents were very accepting of this behavior, echoing it in their interactions with the students. (Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe, 2009).
c. As compared with other high schools, Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe (2009) reported a higher incidence of distress manifestations, such as nightmares and nervousness, in a strictly college-prep school with an extremely disapproving principal, who verbally berated students for less-than-expected academic performance.
d. High schools with disapproving authority figures have a higher incidence of somatization (see Atchison et al, 2009).

 

 

ANS:  C

Rather than using direct quotes from an author, the writer of the literature review should paraphrase the author’s ideas. Use of the author’s exact words represents plagiarism. Eliminating the quotation marks, and citing an entire paragraph, with the authors’ names at the end, also constitutes plagiarism. Paraphrasing involves expressing the ideas clearly and in one’s own words. The meanings of these sources are then connected to the proposed study.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 111

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following might a researcher include in a review of the literature concerning acupuncture and conscious sedation for major surgical procedures? (Select all that apply.)
a. A research article from the Journal of Acupuncture comparing the use of acupuncture with general anesthesia
b. Bryson’s Human Physiology textbook
c. A research synthesis on alternatives to general anesthesia compiled by the Agency for Health Policy and Research
d. An article in National Enquirer on the dangers of major surgery
e. A master’s thesis on the use of acupuncture during closed reduction of radial-ulnar fractures
f. A Wikipedia article on how acupuncture works
g. A monograph written by a physician in a third world country who used acupuncture to control pain during surgical procedures

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E, G

“The literature” consists of all written sources relevant to the selected topic. The literature includes newspapers, monographs, encyclopedias, conference papers, scientific journals, textbooks, other books, theses, dissertations, and clinical journals. Websites and reports developed by government agencies and professional organizations are also included. Online encyclopedias to which anyone can contribute, such as Wikipedia, are not considered scholarly sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 97

 

  1. A student’s first draft of her thesis contains the following:

Evidence to the contrary was provided in several studies of efficacy but never examined in a context of “the adolescent at sea with the ghost of his losses” (Reynolds, 2011).

The student’s reference list contains the following citation for this work:

Reynold, A. R. (2010). Never underestimate depression. Journal of Applied Psychology.

What is wrong with it? (Select all that apply.)

a. The reference list should re-state the quotation.
b. The reference is incomplete, lacking volume number and page numbers.
c. The years of the citation differ.
d. The author’s name is spelled differently in the citation and in the reference list.
e. No page number is provided for the direct quotation.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D, E

Sources that will be cited in a paper or recorded in a reference list should be cross-checked two or three times to prevent errors. Questions that will identify common errors are displayed in Box 6-1. To prevent these errors, the author checks all the citations within the text of the literature review and each citation in his or her reference list, to assure agreement and completeness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 112

 

  1. In which of the following methods does substantive review of the literature take place after data analysis? (Select all that apply.)
a. Grounded theory
b. Historicism
c. Phenomenology
d. Ethnography
e. Quantitative descriptive

 

 

ANS:  A, C

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness. In development of a grounded theory study, a minimal review of relevant studies provides the beginning point of the inquiry, but this review is only a means of making the researcher aware of what studies have been conducted. This information, however, is not used to direct the collection of data or interpretation of the findings in a grounded theory study. During the data analysis stage, a core variable is identified and the researcher theoretically samples the literature for extant theories that may assist in explaining and extending the emerging theory. In historical research, the initial review of the literature helps the researcher define the study questions and make decisions about relevant sources. The data collection is actually an intense review of published and unpublished documents that the researcher has found. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings. The review of literature in quantitative research directs the development and implementation of a study. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 98

 

  1. Which of the following are purposes of the literature review in quantitative research concerning patient compliant with alternating leg pressure stockings (ALPs)? (Select all that apply.)
a. It gives the researcher an overview of anecdotal reports about how it feels to the patient to wear ALPs.
b. It allows the researcher to use the data from previous research on ALPs to add to his or her database.
c. It allows the researcher to construct theory about compliance with ALPs.
d. It gives the researcher something with which to compare his or her findings on compliance with ALPs.
e. It allows the researcher to discover previous research in the area of ALPs, so as to identify what is not known (the research gap).

 

 

ANS:  D, E

The review of literature in quantitative research directs the development and implementation of a study. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known. The study is designed to add knowledge in the area of the identified gap. After a thorough review of the literature, the researcher identifies a specific gap in knowledge. After the data have been analyzed and the findings described, the researcher will return to the literature in the generalization phase of the research report to integrate knowledge from the literature with new knowledge obtained from the study. The purpose of the literature review is similar for the different types of quantitative studies (descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 98

 

  1. In phenomenology, often the review of the literature is conducted after data analysis is complete. What is the reason for this? (Select all that apply.)
a. The data analysis phase of phenomenology includes a literature review.
b. Phenomenology is data-free, and analyses are based only on the interpretation of the researcher.
c. Some phenomenologists do believe that one can “bracket” what is known, in order to perform an unbiased analysis, but it seems pointless to absorb information just to then put it aside, so literature review is usually postponed.
d. Some phenomenologists don’t believe that one can “bracket” what is known, in order to perform an unbiased analysis of the data, so they try to minimize what they read about the topic of the study until data analysis is complete.
e. The review of the literature provides an objective cross-check for the researcher’s interpretation.

 

 

ANS:  C, D

In qualitative research, the purpose and timing of the literature review depends on the type of study to be conducted. Some phenomenologists believe the literature should not be reviewed until after the data have been collected and analyzed so that the literature will not interfere with the researcher’s ability to suspend what is known and approach the topic with openness.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. It is appropriate to conduct a review of the literature in which of the following circumstances? (Select all that apply.)
a. An ethnographic study is planned.
b. A nurse is interested in conducting research on patients who “sundown.”
c. One requirement for a graduate course paper is a written literature review.
d. A hospital is attempting to develop a policy on bathing frequency for elders.
e. The hospital attorney is preparing a brief relative to a fall suffered by a patient.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D

For most course papers, instructors expect students to review published sources related to the paper’s topic. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed through the synthesis of the literature on the clinical problem. The purpose of the literature review designed to examine the strength of the evidence is to identify all studies that provide evidence of a particular intervention, to critically appraise the quality of each study, and to synthesize all of the studies providing evidence of the effectiveness of a particular intervention. The purposes for reviewing the literature for ethnographic studies and for exploratory descriptive qualitative research are more similar to the literature review for quantitative research. The researcher develops a general understanding of the concepts to be examined related to the selected culture or topic. The literature review also provides a background for conducting the study and interpreting the findings. The focus of the major literature review at the beginning of the research process is to identify a gap in what is known.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 98

 

  1. The review of literature in quantitative research directs everything from the first ideas about the study variables through recommendations based upon the study’s conclusions. Which of the following are outputs of the literature review in quantitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Development of conceptual definitions of concepts
b. Determining the statistical power of the sample
c. Determination of how many subjects will drop out of the study
d. Description of what studies have been performed, so as to provide initial direction for the study method
e. Interpretation of the study findings, in comparison with previous research

 

 

ANS:  A, D, E

In quantitative studies, information obtained from the review of literature influences the development of several steps in the research process (Table 6-1), which include, among other items: developing conceptual and operational definitions, defining the purpose of the study, establishing the research gap, synthesizing previous research in the area, selecting a research design, and finally interpreting the study, in light of previous research.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   Page 99

 

  1. Why would a reputable researcher use a secondary source instead of a primary one? (Select all that apply.)
a. The primary publication is written in a language not currently spoken.
b. The primary source person will not consent to be interviewed, but a person who knows the story secondhand will consent.
c. The primary publication is so steeped in jargon that it is very difficult to decipher.
d. The researcher has limited time and cannot squander it searching for primary sources.
e. The primary publication describes only the beginnings of a theory, and a later publication presents it in entirety.
f. There have never been any primary sources in this area.
g. The primary publication is no longer in print, and there are no extant copies.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, E, G

The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source. A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by using secondary sources rather than primary sources. One should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used when primary sources cannot be located or utilized, or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis             REF:   Page 101

 

Chapter 7: Frameworks

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is a framework?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  A

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a concept?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity of meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  B

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a construct?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning

 

 

ANS:  B

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is concept analysis?
a. Evaluation of the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  D

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is concept synthesis?
a. Creations of the interrelationships between concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  B

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is concept derivation?
a. The process of distilling meaning from concepts and statements in a framework
b. The process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept
c. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage
d. A strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified

 

 

ANS:  C

Concept analysis is a strategy through which a set of characteristics essential to the connotative meaning of a concept is identified. Concept synthesis is the process of describing and naming a previously unrecognized concept. Modifying conceptual definitions from other disciplines to be consistent with nursing usage is known as concept derivation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 119

 

  1. What is a conceptual model?
a. A model made up of constructs, between which a relationship may or may not exist
b. A set of highly abstract, related constructs
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  B

A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 117

 

  1. What is a conceptual map?
a. A model connecting objects, phenomena, or ideas
b. A set of highly abstract, related constructs
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements in a framework

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework. A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. It broadly explains phenomena of interest, expresses assumptions, and reflects a philosophical stance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. What is a theory?
a. The abstract, logical structure of meaning
b. A concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning
c. An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon
d. A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements

 

 

ANS:  C

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Identification       REF:   Page 116

 

  1. An author makes a hypothetical relational statement, linking seven concepts to a central idea, and denoting which ones are causes and which are results. The hypothetical relational statement is called a
a. Theoretical map
b. Point of view
c. Hybrid correlational array
d. Framework

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher and reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A researcher tests the effect of a medication previously used for psoriasis on patients with Huntington’s chorea. The medication reduces symptom severity from an average of 7.7 to 4.6, on a scale from 0 to 10. This change is known as the
a. Direction
b. Shape
c. Effect size
d. Frequency

 

 

ANS:  C

The strength of a relationship is sometimes discussed using the term effect size. The effect size explains how much “effect” variation in one concept has on variation in a second concept. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. One statement may have several of these characteristics—each characteristic is not exclusive of the others. Some of the variation in a concept, but not all, is associated with variation in another concept.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   Page 121

 

  1. What is the difference between a concurrent relationship and a sequential one, in terms of A and B?
a. In a sequential relationship, A occurs before B; in a concurrent relationship, A occurs independently of B.
b. In a concurrent relationship, causation is clear; in a sequential relationship, causation is unclear.
c. Variable values do not change at the exact same time in a sequential relationship, whereas they change at the exact same time in a concurrent one.
d. Measurement of variables is possible in a sequential relationship, whereas measurement of variables is impossible in a concurrent relationship.

 

 

ANS:  C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The amount of time that elapses between one concept and another is stated as the sequential nature of a relationship. If both concepts occur simultaneously, the relationship is concurrent. When there is a change in one concept, there is change in the other at the same time. If one concept changes and the second concept changes later, the relationship is sequential.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluation           REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A variable is more concrete than a concept. A concept is more concrete than a construct. Which one is the most abstract?
a. Construct
b. Concept
c. Variable
d. Measurement strategy

 

 

ANS:  A

A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identify or meaning. At high levels of abstraction concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. Concepts are often described as the building blocks of theory. Abstract concepts are descriptive but may not be as applicable to clinical practice or research because of their abstractness. To make a concept more concrete, one identifies how it can be measured or observed. These measurable terms are referred to as variables. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. The word variable implies that the numerical values associated with the term vary from one instance to another.

 

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  1. Evaluate the use of the Melzack and Wall’s Gate Control Theory of Pain as the framework for a quantitative descriptive study of the frequency of headaches in men, versus women.
a. The framework is well connected to the study’s constructs.
b. The framework is suitable because headache is pain.
c. The framework is gratuitous; it discusses pain at the cellular level.
d. The framework is well integrated with the methodology.

 

 

ANS:  C

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. Frameworks are used in quantitative research and sometimes in qualitative research. In quantitative studies, the framework may be a testable theoretical structure or may be developed inductively from published research or clinical observations. Every quantitative study has a theoretical framework, although some researchers do not identify or describe the theoretical framework in the report of the study. Ideally, the framework of a quantitative study is carefully structured, clearly presented, and well integrated with the methodology. One needs to identify and evaluate the extent to which the framework guides the study methodology. Melzack and Wall’s Gate Control Theory of Pain identifies neural contributions to the perception of pain; its explanation is at the cellular level, so it is an illogical choice for this research. The difference in headache frequency between men and women is best explained by a framework that includes gender differences in perception, metabolism, glucose levels, stress, or something that explains the differences between the two groups.

 

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  1. A nurse researcher has an idea that neonates perceive all interactions with humans as either stressors or comfort. She is conducting qualitative research to describe the types of stressors or comfort that neonates typically experience in the first 24 hours of life. Is this a theory, or a model, or what?
a. A scientific theory
b. A substantive theory
c. An idea but not a theory or model yet
d. A conceptual model

 

 

ANS:  C

A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual model, also known as a grand theory, is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. Scientific theories are those for which repeated studies have validated the relationships among the concepts. Middle-range theories, or substantive theories, present a partial view of nursing reality. These theories are less abstract and address more specific phenomena than grand theories do. They directly apply to practice and focus on explanation and implementation.

 

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  1. The Process of Incorporation of a Rescue Dog into One’s Home

Wariness  ® Mutual Protectiveness ® Compassion ® Adoption

 

What is this?

a. A relational statement
b. A research framework
c. A theory
d. A conceptual map

 

 

ANS:  D

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between two or more concepts. A conceptual map is a visual representation of a research framework. A theory is a set of concepts and relational statements explaining the relationships among them.

 

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Use the following Table for Questions 17 through 20.

High to low Level
Highest level of abstraction Construct (general statement)
Middle level of abstraction Conceptual (theory)
Lowest level of abstraction Variable (hypothesis)
Specific way variables will be measured Operationalizations

 

 

  1. “Happiness is a requisite of the human condition” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  A

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

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  1. “Chronic disappointment in goal achievement produces an attenuated period of decreased goal-setting” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  B

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is narrower and more specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

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  1. “If you give a raccoon a cookie, he will become a permanent resident on your property” is a statement written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  C

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

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  1. “Intelligence is measured as the subject’s score on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient Test” and “Ability to juggle is operationally defined as the number of seconds, as timed with the research assistant’s stopwatch, that the subject can keep three oranges in the air simultaneously” are statements written at which level of abstraction?
a. Construct level (general construct)
b. Conceptual level (specific theoretical statement)
c. Hypothesis level (composed of the study variables)
d. Operationalization level (consisting of the operationalizations of the variables)

 

 

ANS:  D

Statements about the same two conceptual ideas can be made at various levels of abstractness. The statements found in conceptual models and grand theories (general propositions) are at a high level of abstraction. Statements found in middle range theories (specific propositions) are at a moderate level of abstraction. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. As statements become less abstract, they become narrower in scope. Statements at varying levels of abstraction that express relationships between or among the same conceptual ideas can be arranged in hierarchical form, from general to specific. This arrangement allows you to see (or evaluate) the logical links among the various levels of abstraction. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. At high levels of abstraction, concepts have general meanings and are sometimes referred to as constructs. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. Hypotheses, which are a form of statement, are at a low level of abstraction and are specific. A theory is more narrow and specific than a conceptual model and is directly testable. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. The instrument itself is an operational definition of the concept. Operational definitions must be consistent with the conceptual definition and should be accepted methods of measurement used for testing the selected theory.

 

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MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. What is a symmetrical relational statement?
a. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, so does ‘A’.
b. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, ‘A’ does not.
c. A pair of statements, in which the second is the same as the first, but the order of the variables is reversed.
d. One in which the number of variables is even, not odd.
e. As ‘A’ changes in value, so must ‘B’ and ‘C’; if both ‘B’ and ‘C’ change, so must ‘A’; if ‘B’ changes and ‘C’ does not change, ‘A’ may change or remain the same.

 

 

ANS:  A, C

A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as, if A occurs (or changes), B will occur (or change); if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). In an asymmetrical relationship, if A occurs (or changes), then B will occur (or change), but there may be no indication that if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). As one variable in a symmetrical relational statement changes, the other changes, as well.

 

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  1. What is an asymmetrical relational statement?
a. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, so does ‘A’.
b. As ‘A’ changes in value, so does ‘B’; as ‘B’ changes in value, ‘A’ does not.
c. A pair of statements that represents a relationship that is not the same when the order of the variables is reversed.
d. One in which the number of variables is even, not odd.
e. As ‘A’ changes in value, so must ‘B’ and ‘C’; if both ‘B’ and ‘C’ change, so must ‘A’; if ‘B’ changes and ‘C’ does not change, ‘A’ may change or remain the same.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as, if A occurs (or changes), B will occur (or change); if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). In an asymmetrical relationship, if A occurs (or changes), then B will occur (or change), but there may be no indication that if B occurs (or changes), A will occur (or change). As one variable in a symmetrical relational statement changes, the other changes, as well.

 

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  1. What is the purpose of a framework, in a study of hypoxia as a possible cause for autism in the genetically susceptible? (Select all that apply.)
a. It ensures that the researcher treats the subjects with autism ethically during the study.
b. It implies that the study is well-constructed and logical, and that the researcher’s reasoning about causes of autism is correct.
c. The framework’s relationships between autism and other concepts assist the researcher to formulate research questions and hypotheses.
d. It demonstrates for the reader where the findings of this study related to hypoxia fits into all that is known about autism.
e. It gives the reader a collection of connected ideas, from which to think about both the study and the entire research area of autism’s causes.

 

 

ANS:  C, D, E

A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher and reader to link the findings to the body of knowledge in nursing. Clear relational statements are essential for constructing an integrated framework for guiding study design. The relationships expressed in the framework will direct the development of a study’s objectives, questions, or hypotheses. The types of relationships described by the statements will determine the study design and the statistical analyses needed to address the study objectives, questions, or hypotheses.

 

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  1. How does the researcher know that a certain framework is the correct one for a planned research study? (Select all that apply.)
a. The framework has been tested, using quantitative research.
b. The framework contains concepts that the researcher is studying.
c. Relationships among concepts are similar to the ones the researcher is studying.
d. Grounded theory research generated the framework.
e. The framework helps explain the anticipated or expected research results.
f. The type of research selected by the researcher (the method) agrees with the relationships in the framework.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E, F

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to the body of knowledge used in nursing. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identify or meaning. Statement sets link the relationships expressed in the framework with the hypotheses, research questions, or objectives that guide the methodology of the study.

 

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  1. What are the differences between symmetrical relationships and nonsymmetrical relationships? (Select all that apply.)
a. In a symmetrical relationship, a change in either variable produces a predictable change in the other; in a nonsymmetrical relationship, a change in only one of the variables produces a predictable change.
b. A symmetrical relationship possesses considerably less predictability than does a nonsymmetrical one.
c. A symmetrical relation explains both positive and negative changes in the value of either variable, but a nonsymmetrical one can explain only positive changes in the value of the variables.
d. A symmetrical relationship’s variables both have a predictable effect on one another; in a non-symmetrical relationship, this is untrue.
e. A symmetrical relationship is represented by a curve, whereas a nonsymmetrical relationship is represented by a straight line.

 

 

ANS:  A, D

Relationships may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. A symmetrical relationship is complex and contains two statements, such as if A changes, B will change; if B changes, A will change. The relationship between concepts in a symmetrical relationship is like a two-way street with influence going in both directions. Symmetrical relationships may also be called reciprocal or reversible. In an asymmetrical relationship, if A or changes, then B will or change; however, the reverse is not necessarily true: there may be no indication that if B changes, A will change. An asymmetrical relationship is not reversible (Fawcett, 1999). The relationship between concepts in an asymmetrical relationship is like a one-way street, with influence going only in one direction.

 

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  1. A framework about bipolar disorder contains information about the direction, sequencing, and strength of the relationship between treatment of the bipolar disorder and client functioning, over time, because it is a relational statement. What other components may be included, so that the relational statement is meaningful to research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Shape
b. Exclusivity
c. Exhaustiveness
d. Sufficiency
e. Symmetry

 

 

ANS:  A, D, E

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. One statement may have several of these characteristics—each characteristic is not exclusive of the others. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship.

 

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  1. Which of the following are variables? (Select all that apply.)
a. Sanctity
b. How many times the experimental monkey rings the bell
c. Déja vu
d. The number of speeding tickets Richard receives in July of this year
e. Darwin’s theory of evolution

 

 

ANS:  B, D

To make a concept more concrete, the researcher identifies how the concept will be measured or observed. These measurable terms are referred to as variables. A variable is more specific than a concept and implies that the term is clearly defined and measurable. The word variable implies that the numerical values associated with the term vary from one instance to another. The key concept here is measurement: can this idea by measured, as stated?

 

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  1. Directional statements are relational statements with the specific relationship between variables defined. These are diagrammatically represented by letters and arrows. The diagram BD means which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
a. B causes D only a small amount of the time.
b. When D is high, B is low in value.
c. When B is high, D is low in value.
d. There is no relationship between B and D.
e. B is smaller than D.
f. D is smaller than B.

 

 

ANS:  B, C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The direction of a relationship may be positive, negative, or unknown. A positive linear relationship implies that as one concept (the value or amount of the concept increases or decreases), the second concept will also change in the same direction. For example, the literary statement “The risk of illness (A) increases as stress (B) increases” expresses a positive relationship. This positive relational statement could also be expressed as “The risk of illness decreases as stress decreases.” Diagrammatically, this relationship could be depicted as follows: BA. Diagrammatically, AB depicts a negative relationship and AB depicts that the relationship between the variables is unknown.

 

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This figure provides an illustrated example of a curvilinear relationship. What does a curvilinear relationship signify? (Select all that apply.)

a. The relationship is more complex than can be illustrated by a straight line.
b. The most positive value of one variable is seldom associated with the most positive value or the most negative value of the other variable.
c. The value of one variable cannot be predicted if the other is known.
d. A relationship represented by an arc explains a large portion of the variation in the independent variable.
e. The relationship between the variables is statistically significant.
f. An increase in the value of one variable may be associated with either an increase or a decrease in the value of the other.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, F

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship. In regard to shape, most relationships are assumed to be linear. In a linear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts remains consistent regardless of the values of each of the concepts. The relationship can be illustrated by a straight line. Relationships can be curvilinear or some other shape. In a curvilinear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts varies according to the relative values of the concepts. This type of relationship is illustrated by a curved line, as shown in the figure.

 

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This diagram refers to correlational relationships. What does it mean? (Select all that apply.)

a. A negative relationship is smaller than no relationship.
b. A negative relationship occurs before a positive relationship.
c. Negative relationships evolve in a positive direction.
d. The strength of the relationship depends upon its numerical value, not the positive or negative sign preceding that number.
e. There is no strength in a negative or positive relationship.
f. A positive relationship is better than none; no relationship is better than a negative one.
g. The further away from 0, the stronger the relationship.

 

 

ANS:  D, G

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. Researchers usually determine the strength of the relationship between concepts by correlational analysis. The statistic r is the coefficient obtained by performing the statistical procedure known as Pearson’s product moment correlation. A value of 0 indicates no strength, whereas a +1 or a –1 indicates the greatest strength, as in the diagram. The + or – does not have an impact on strength. For example, r = –0.35 is as strong as r = +0.35. The greater the strength of a relationship, the easier it is to detect relationships between the variables being studied.

 

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This figure provides an illustrated example of a linear relationship. What does it mean? (Select all that apply.)

a. As A becomes larger, B becomes larger.
b. There is an indirect link between High and Concept A.
c. As B becomes smaller, A becomes smaller.
d. Concept A causes Concept B.
e. The strength of the relationship is large because the portions of the concepts are explained.
f. When A is absent, B is also absent.

 

 

ANS:  A, C

A relational statement declares that a relationship of some kind exists between or among two or more concepts. Relational statements describe the direction, shape, strength, symmetry, sequencing, probability of occurrence, necessity, and sufficiency of a relationship. The strength of a relationship is the amount of variation explained by the relationship. In a linear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts remains consistent regardless of the values of each of the concepts. For example, if the value of A increases by 1 point each time the value of B increases by 1 point, the values continue to increase at the same rate whether the value is 2 or 200. The relationship can be illustrated by a straight line, as shown in the figure. In a curvilinear relationship, the relationship between the two concepts varies according to the relative values of the concepts. A negative relationship implies that as one concept changes, the other concept changes in the opposite direction.

 

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