Test Bank For Psychology And Life 20th Edition by Gerrig – Test Bank

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Test Bank For Psychology And Life 20th Edition by Gerrig – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

3.1-1.  Nature is to nurture as heredity is to

 

  1. evolution.

Incorrect: Evolution and heredity are both nature-based concepts. The best answer that correlates to nurture is environment.

  1. aggression.
  2. environment.

Correct: Nature refers to the effects of an individual’s biology, including his/her genetic makeup. Nurture refers the features of the environment within which the individual was raised. To discover the causes of behavior, it is useful to be able to discriminate the forces of heredity from the forces of the environment.

  1. natural selection.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. environment.

 

 

3.1-2.  A prisoner is violent and hostile, although he wasn’t always this way. His therapist believes that the environment the prisoner was raised in brought about his aggressive tendencies. The therapist is espousing the view that behavior is primarily influenced by

 

  1. nature.
  2. biology.

Incorrect: Influences of one’s environment are connected to a “nurture” view of behavior development. This prisoner’s therapist assesses the behaviors in question as having been produced by the environment in which he was raised. Therefore nurture is the best answer.

  1. nurture.

Correct: Nurture refers to the effects of the environment on the behavior of the individual; in this case the therapist likely believes that all people are equally predisposed to aggression and that the particular environment in which they were raised creates more or less aggression in them.

  1. heredity.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. nurture.

 

 

3.1-3.  The book The Origin of Species was written by

 

  1. Sigmund Freud.
  2. Charles Darwin.
  3. Sir Charles Sherrington.
  4. Peter and Rosemary Grant.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. Charles Darwin.

 

 

3.1-4.  To help him explain the variety of species he observed during exploration of the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin suggested the process of

 

  1. bipedalism.
  2. encephalization.
  3. natural selection.
  4. behavior genetics.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47-48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. natural selection.

 

 

3.1-5.  Charles Darwin noted that among the finches on the various Galápagos Islands, the factor that differentiated those that survived from those that didn’t was

 

  1. the shape of their beaks.
  2. the nesting sites they chose.
  3. their speed and endurance in flying.
  4. their ability to camouflage their eggs.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. the shape of their beaks.

 

 

3.1-6.  According to the theory of natural selection,

 

  1. organisms prefer natural environments to artificial habitats.
  2. each organism has the ability to choose which of nature’s laws it will follow.
  3. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring.

Correct: Over time, those organisms which are suited to their environment will become more numerous because they will better adapt and survive. Thus, they will be able to produce more offspring who will also have a good chance of surviving because they, too, will be suited to their environment.

  1. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce fewer offspring.

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring.

 

 

3.1-7.  In evolutionary terms, an individual’s success is measured by the

 

  1. amount of territory one controls.

Incorrect: The most critical component of the theories of evolution is reproductive success of individual members of a species.

  1. degree of comfort an individual attains.
  2. number of offspring an individual produces.

Correct: If the species is well adapted to the environment it inhabits, it will produce and support more offspring who will in turn survive, produce, and support more offspring of their own.

  1. level of intelligence an individual acquires.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. number of offspring an individual produces.

 

 

3.1-8.  One explanation for new species is that they emerge when two populations from an original species become geographically separate. With respect to this explanation, contemporary research has shown that

 

  1. geographically isolating a species brings about its extinction.
  2. it is not possible to geographically isolate members of a species from one another.

Incorrect: This is not consistent with the information presented in your text. Geographic isolation is, in fact, a possibility.

  1. there are many examples of new species that have emerged without geographic isolation.

Correct: Modern researchers have discovered that there are other influences on the emergence of two species from one than the influence of geographically different environments. For instance, different chemical cues may emerge for recognizing appropriate mates. If over time cues become distinct for two different groups of the same species, two different populations of the same species may emerge in the same geographical area.

  1. new species never have ancestors in common with original species.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        48-49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. there are many examples of new species that have emerged without geographic isolation.

 

 

3.1-9.  Members of a species who possess the range of physical and psychological attributes best adapted to the environment are most likely to survive. This concept is known as

 

  1. natural selection.

Incorrect: Natural selection is a larger evolutionary concept. The best, most specific, answer to this question is survival of the fittest.

  1. genotypical structure.
  2. phenotypical structure.d. survival of the fittest.

Correct: To the extent that attributes that foster survival can be passed from one generation to the other and these adaptations match environmental stresses, the species is likely to survive.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. survival of the fittest.

 

 

3.1-10.  As you enter a crowded room, you catch a glimpse of your friend’s dark hair and slim frame. What you are noticing most directly are aspects of your friend’s

 

  1. genotype.

Incorrect: A genotype refers to one’s genetic code, which is established at the moment of conception. The expression of that code is one’s phenotype.

  1. phenotype.

Correct: The outward characteristics of an individual—those that can be directly observed—are known as the phenotype.

  1. adaptations.
  2. selective advantage.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. phenotype.

 

 

3.1-11.  In the vocabulary of evolutionary theory, you have inherited ________ from your parents.

 

  1. a genotype
  2. a phenotype
  3. a behavioral repertory
  4. your outward appearance

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. a genotype

 

 

3.1-12.  Imagine, for a moment, that you are a finch and that you live in an environment in which seeds of all types are plentiful. Under these circumstances, the size of your beak would

 

  1. be irrelevant to your survival.

Correct: The size of your beak becomes relevant to survival when seeds are of specific size and shape and do or do not allow you to easily consume them.

  1. enhance your chances of survival.

Incorrect: If seeds of all sizes are available, then the size of your beak would not be relevant to your ability to gather and consume food.

  1. detract from your chances of survival.
  2. enhance your chances of survival, but not your offspring’s chances.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. be irrelevant to your survival.

 

 

3.1-13.  While surfing the Web, you stop at an anthropology website. There, you learn that natural selection favored two major adaptations in the evolution of the human species:

 

  1. fire and the wheel.
  2. reading and writing.
  3. language and emotion.
  4. bipedalism and encephalization.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        50

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. bipedalism and encephalization.

 

 

3.1-14.  Your genetics professor has asked you to simplify the process of natural selection into a sequence of steps. Which of the following will your professor agree is the correct sequence?

 

  1. competition for resources, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases, selection of fittest genotype, environmental pressure

Incorrect: In this response, the different steps are scrambled in several different locations. Please refer back to Figure 3.1 to see the correct order of steps.

  1. reproductive success, competition for resources, frequency of genotype increases, environmental pressure, selection of fittest genotype
  2. selection of fittest genotype, competition for resources, environmental pressure, reproductive success, frequency of that genotype increases
  3. environmental pressure, competition for resources, selection of fittest genotype, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases

Correct: Only those who can reproduce can survive; the environment presents challenges to survival that must be met. The species that best adapt to the challenges survive to pass their genetic material on to their offspring, who in turn pass the genotype on . . . and the species continues, survives, and increases.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        49 (Figure 3.1)

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. environmental pressure, competition for resources, selection of fittest genotype, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases

 

 

3.1-15.  Gregor Mendel is best known for his research on

 

  1. how human intelligence is inherited.
  2. ethnic and racial differences.
  3. identical and fraternal twins.
  4. garden peas.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. garden peas.

 

 

3.1-16.  Sex chromosomes

 

  1. contain 23 pairs of genes.
  2. are identical for males and females.
  3. bring about the union of a sperm and an egg.
  4. code the development of male or female physical characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. code the development of male or female physical characteristics.

 

 

3.1-17.  In the human male, the sex chromosomes normally consist of a(n) ________ pair; in the human female they consist of a(n) ________ pair.

 

  1. XY; XX
  2. XX; XX
  3. YY; XX
  4. XX; YY

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. XY; XX

 

 

3.1-18.  The goal of the Human Genome Project is to

  1. identify all of the human genes.
  2. verify Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
  3. show research support for the major events in human evolution.
  4. build human-like robots or cyborgs.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. identify all of the human genes.

 

 

3.1-19.  Heritability is measured on a scale of

  1. -1.0 to +3.1.
  2. 0 to 1.
  3. 0 to 10.
  4. 1 to 100.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. 0 to 1.

 

 

3.1-20. In a study by Vink et al. (2009) described in your textbook, which of the following behaviors yielded a “rather large” heritability estimate of about 0.62 for monozygotic (identical) twins?

 

  1. preferring coffee over tea
  2. preferring baseball over football
  3. preferring to get dressed “pants first” over “shirt first”
  4. preferring a partner with their own hair color over a partner with a different hair color

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. Preferring coffee over tea

 

 

3.1-21.  Which cell part and description is matched correctly?

  1. soma; contains the nucleus and cytoplasm that sustains its life
  2. terminal button; extends outward from the cell body and receives incoming signals
  3. dendrite; conducts information along its length, at the end of which can be found terminal buttons
  4. axon; bulblike structure through which stimulation of nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons is made possible

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. soma; contains the nucleus and cytoplasm that sustains its life

 

 

3.1-22.  The children in a classroom are playing the role of different parts of a neuron and arranging themselves in the order that information follows as it passes along the neuron. Beginning with incoming signals, the correct order is

 

  1. dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons.

Correct: The dendrites pass information on to the soma or cell body, which integrates the information and passes it to the axon, which passes the information to the terminal buttons that are then able to stimulate other neurons (or glands, muscles, etc.) by releasing the neurotransmitter that is stored in them. The neurotransmitter crosses the synapse to the dendrites and the process starts again.

  1. axon, dendrites, soma, terminal buttons.

Incorrect: Incoming chemical information is received by dendrites, so they would have to come first in the system. Then the information goes to the soma, the axon, and the terminal buttons.

  1. terminal buttons, soma, dendrites, axon.
  2. soma, terminal buttons, axon, dendrites.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-55

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons.

 

 

3.1-23.  At one end of the neuron are swollen, bulblike structures called ________, which make it possible for the neuron to stimulate nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons.

 

  1. soma
  2. axons
  3. dendrites
  4. terminal buttons

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        54-55

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. terminal buttons

 

 

3.1-24.  The primary function of ________ is to carry messages away from the central nervous system toward the muscles and glands.

 

  1. glial cells
  2. interneurons
  3. motor neurons
  4. sensory neurons

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. motor neurons

 

 

3.1-25.  Imagine that you have gone to the garden to pick a rose. Unfortunately, when reaching for a flower, your thumb encounters a thorn and you jerk your hand away. What is the order in which information is communicated, from the time of the prick through withdrawal of your hand and realization of pain?

 

  1. sensory neuron, brain, interneuron, motor neuron
  2. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, brain

Correct: Sensory neurons take the information from the environment (the thorn) to an interneuron in the spinal cord. This interneuron stimulates a motor neuron, which excites appropriate muscles to pull your hand away from the thorn. Only after this has occurred does the brain receive the information; the perception of pain occurs in the brain after you have physically responded to the danger.

  1. motor neuron, interneuron, brain, sensory neuron

Incorrect: In this answer, motor and sensory neurons are reversed from their correct positions.

  1. brain, interneuron, sensory neuron, motor neuron

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, brain

 

 

3.1-26.  While jotting down the numerous functions of glial cells being rattled off by your professor, you make an error: glial cells do NOT

 

  1. prevent the formation of a myelin sheath around axons.

Correct: Glial cells form this fatty insulation, which greatly increases the speed of neural transmission.

  1. make up a blood-brain barrier around blood vessels in the brain.
  2. help guide newborn neurons to appropriate locations in the brain.
  3. take up excess neurotransmitters and other substances at the gaps between neurons.

Incorrect: This is not one of the functions of glial cells.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. prevent the formation of a myelin sheath around axons.

 

 

3.1-27.  The myelin sheath, which is found around some types of axons,

  1. has no known function.
  2. is composed of glial cells.
  3. decreases the speed of nerve signal conduction.
  4. increases the likelihood that harmful substances will reach the brain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. is composed of glial cells.

 

 

3.1-28.  In loose terms, the “decision” as to whether a neuron will produce a response or not depends upon the

 

  1. excitatory inputs it receives.

Incorrect: In deciding whether or not to create an action potential, a neuron’s soma weighs the information of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs that it receives from dendrites.

  1. inhibitory inputs it receives.
  2. removal of the action potential.
  3. excitatory and inhibitory inputs it receives.

Correct: Whether the neuron fires or not will depend on the pattern of excitatory and inhibitory inputs over time. When inputs reach the right threshold, the neuron will fire. The decision to fire or not is made on the basis of information arriving at the dendrites, then integrated and passed on by the soma.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. excitatory and inhibitory inputs it receives.

 

 

3.1-29.  When the neuron is inactive, we say it is in a resting state. When it is in such a state,

 

  1. we say the neuron is depolarized.

Incorrect: Depolarization happens when a neuron shifts from is negative resting state to its positive action state.

  1. potassium is being actively pumped out of the cell.
  2. it does not have the capacity to respond to stimulation.
  3. the fluid inside the neuron is slightly negative electrically, relative to the fluid outside the neuron.

Correct: The fluid inside the cell is polarized with respect to the fluid outside the cell (fluid inside the cell has a slightly more negative voltage). This slight polarization is called a resting potential.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. the fluid inside the neuron is slightly negative electrically, relative to the fluid outside the neuron.

 

 

3.1-30.  You arrive at class late, and walk in during the part of the lecture describing how action potentials work. The professor says, “the channels that allow sodium to flow into the neuron have just closed and the channels that allow potassium to flow out have opened.” You can conclude that the cell is

 

  1. in its leaking state.

Incorrect: There is no such thing as a “leaking” state for a neuron.

  1. in the process of being depolarized and will soon fire.
  2. in the process of returning to its original resting state.

Correct: When the inside of the neuron becomes positive because sodium has rushed into it, the neuron is depolarized. The channels that allow sodium in then close and the channels that allow potassium to flow out open. The outflow of potassium allows the cell to return to a resting state. This progression happens successively down the axon until all of the axon has depolarized and then been returned to the resting state.

  1. not behaving as it normally would and might be damaged.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. in the process of returning to its original resting state.

 

 

3.1-31.  In the context of the action potential, all of the following are consequences of the all-or-none law EXCEPT that

 

  1. if the threshold is not reached, no action potential occurs.
  2. the size of the action potential does not diminish along the length of the axon.
  3. once started, the action potential needs no outside stimulation to keep going.
  4. the size of the action potential varies as a function of the intensity of stimulation.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57-58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the size of the action potential varies as a function of the intensity of stimulation.

 

 

3.1-32.  The nodes of Ranvier are found in

 

  1. myelinated neurons only.
  2. unmyelinated neurons only.
  3. the dendrites of the neuron.
  4. both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. myelinated neurons only.

 

 

3.1-33.  During the absolute refractory period,

 

  1. neurons can fire continuously.
  2. no amount of further stimulation can induce another action potential to develop.
  3. only the strongest stimulation will cause another action potential to be generated.
  4. the neuron will fire to a stimulus that is slightly stronger than what is normally necessary.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. no amount of further stimulation can induce another action potential to develop.

 

 

3.1-34.  On the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in

 

  1. synaptic vesicles.
  2. the nodes of Ranvier.
  3. the myelin sheath.
  4. synaptic clefts.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58-59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. synaptic vesicles.

 

 

3.1-35.  Which of the following most accurately reflects the sequence of events involved in synaptic transmission?

 

  1. binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; action potential
  2. rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; action potential; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules
  3. action potential; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules
  4. action potential; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules; rupturing of synaptic vesicles

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        58-59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. action potential; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules

 

 

3.1-36.  The image of a key fitting into a keyhole is most useful in understanding how

 

  1. synaptic vesicles are opened by an action potential.
  2. the end of one neuron fits snugly into another.

Incorrect: Remember that neurons are separated by microscopic gaps called synaptic clefts.

  1. ion channels open and close.
  2. neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules.

Correct: Neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules if no other neurotransmitters or chemical substances are attached to the receptor molecule and if the shape of the neurotransmitter matches the shape of the receptor molecule, just as a key fits into a keyhole.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules.

 

 

3.1-37.  A mystery writer can’t decide how the victim will meet his end. One possibility is to have him suffer botulism poisoning, but curare, a poison used by Amazon Indians, is also a possibility. In either case, the victim’s death will involve the neurotransmitter

 

  1. acetylcholine.

Correct: The botulism toxin prevents the release of acetylcholine in the respiratory system, causing death by suffocation. Curare paralyzes lung muscles by occupying critical acetylcholine receptors so that the neurochemical cannot work as it normally does.

  1. GABA.
  2. dopamine.

Incorrect: Your authors discuss the poison curare and its effects on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, not dopamine.

  1. norepinephrine.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. acetylcholine.

 

 

3.1-38.  A patient has just received a prescription drug that will decrease her high level of anxiety. It is most likely that the drug she has received will increase the activity of the neurotransmitter

 

  1. acetylcholine.
  2. GABA.

Correct: GABA inhibits neural activity; when levels of this neurotransmitter are low, people may experience anxiety or depression. Medications that help alleviate the symptoms of these disorders increase GABA activity.

  1. nitric oxide.

Incorrect: Nitric oxide is not a neurotransmitter.

  1. dopamine.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. GABA.

 

 

3.1-39.  A student is interrupted while making notes for a test on neurotransmitter substances. When he returns to the task, he makes a mistake. Can you see the error?

 

  1. norepinephrine – depression
  2. dopamine – schizophrenia
  3. dopamine – Parkinson’s disease
  4. norepinephrine – botulism

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. norepinephrine – botulism

 

 

3.1-40.  Psychologists are especially interested in neurotransmitters that belong to the class of substances called catecholamines because research suggests that these substances play a major role in

 

  1. long-term memory.
  2. mood disturbances and schizophrenia.
  3. drug addiction.
  4. pain.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. mood disturbances and schizophrenia.

 

 

3.1-41.  A friend is taking a drug awareness class. One of the things he learns is that LSD, a hallucinogenic drug that produces bizarre sensory experiences, is believed to work because it

 

  1. suppresses the effect of serotonin neurons.

Correct: For some reason this serotonergic suppression is known to produce the hallucinogenic effects that are associated with LSD.

  1. increases the production of serotonin.
  2. enhances the effect of serotonin, which is normally excitatory.
  3. removes serotonin from the body.

Incorrect: While LSD does work by affecting the serotonin system, it is not by removing it from the body but rather by suppressing its effects on the body.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. suppresses the effect of serotonin neurons.

 

 

3.1-42.  You come across a magazine article on endorphins. It doesn’t surprise you that it is subtitled “the keys to paradise,” because

 

  1. they have the capacity to alter a person’s mood state.

Incorrect: If you were talking about serotonin, for example, this would be a correct answer.

  1. these substances can reduce the addictive properties of illegal drugs.
  2. of their pleasure-pain controlling properties.

Correct: Endorphins are neuromodulators that play an important role in the regulation of emotional behavior—they modify or modulate the activity of the neuron that receives them postsynaptically.

  1. many of the new prescription medications will have endorphins as their primary component.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. of their pleasure-pain controlling properties.

 

 

3.1-43.  A research participant is given a dose of the drug naloxone and then his arm is placed in a bucket of ice water, which is normally quite a painful experience. It is likely that the

 

  1. participant will experience little or no pain.
  2. participant will experience a placebo effect.
  3. participant will undergo a painful experience.
  4. participant’s body will stop producing endorphins.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. participant will undergo a painful experience.

 

 

3.1-44.  Much of the research related to how our brains respond when we have to make decisions about trust has been focused on a hormone called oxytocin. Oxytocin

 

  1. functions in our brains to enhance social bonds between animals.
  2. is unlikely to have much of an impact on social behavior.
  3. helps us to act on information that tells us that our trust has been broken.
  4. influences brain activity no differently from a placebo.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        61

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life:  How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. functions in our brains to enhance social bonds between animals.

 

 

3.1-45.  Historically speaking, the case of Phineas Gage, a railroad worker who was injured in 1848, is important because it provides evidence for a link between

 

  1. verbal and motor behavior.
  2. the brain and complex psychological processes.

Correct: The traumatic piercing of his brain led his doctor to hypothesize that personality and rational behavior might be based in the brain.

  1. near-death experiences and motivation.
  2. intellectual faculties and equilibrium.

Incorrect: These neurological functions were not the main lesson we learned from the tragic case of Phineas Gage.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        61-62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. the brain and complex psychological processes.

 

 

3.1-46.  Broca’s area in the brain is most closely associated with

 

  1. memory.
  2. emotion.
  3. language.
  4. physical movement.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. language.

 

 

3.1-47.  The problem with relying on participants whose brains have been accidentally damaged in order to understand brain functioning is that

 

  1. researchers have no control over the location or extent of the damage.

Correct: To produce a well-founded understanding of the brain and its relationship to behavior and cognition, scientists need methods that allow them to specify the brain tissue that has been damaged or incapacitated.

  1. people with damaged brains no longer allow themselves to be studied by researchers.
  2. the brain damage is never extensive enough and does not produce noticeable changes in behavior.
  3. governmental agencies prohibit research with people who have suffered damage to their brains.

Incorrect: There is no such prohibition on research involving those who have suffered brain damage, though they must be cared for with the same ethical principles that govern all research.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. researchers have no control over the location or extent of the damage.

 

 

3.1-48.  You see a notice to recruit participants for an experiment that will use rTMS. If you participated in such a study, you should expect that

 

  1. a series of words will be read to you rapidly through earphones.
  2. reversible “lesions” will inactivate areas of your brain.

Correct: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation uses pulses of magnetic stimulation to create temporary reversible lesions in human brains so that, without any damage being done, brain regions will temporarily be inactive.

  1. you will be expected to make decisions with others in a group.
  2. you will be given a physical stress test and your oxygen levels will be monitored.

Incorrect: These are not procedures that will be included in an assessment using rTMS.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. reversible “lesions” will inactivate areas of your brain.

 

 

3.1-49. In a study by Cappelletti et al. (2008) described by your authors, the different parts of the brain associated with producing spoken nouns and spoken verbs were examined. Which of the following techniques was used to temporarily lesion specific brain areas in this study?

 

  1. fMRI
  2. rTMS
  3. EMG
  4. SPECT

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. rTMS

 

 

3.1-50.  A project director is committed to using a noninvasive technique to examine the functions of the brain. If she is true to her word, she will avoid the use of

 

  1. lesioning techniques.

Correct: Lesions are highly localized brain injuries. Lesions that create permanent damage to the brain can be carried out only with nonhuman animals. The ethics of this kind of research has now come under heightened scrutiny.

  1. magnetic resonance imaging.

Incorrect: Magnetic resonance imaging does not “invade” the body of the person being assessed, so this would not be a neuroimaging technique to avoid.

  1. positron emission tomography.
  2. functional magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. lesioning techniques.

 

 

3.1-51.  In the 1950s, Walter Hess examined 4500 brain sites in nearly 500 cats using which technique?

 

  1. brain lesions
  2. functional MRI
  3. electrical recording
  4. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. electrical stimulation

 

 

3.1-52.  The ________ shows where different types of activity are occurring in the brain and involves the use of a safe radioactive substance that is given to participants.

 

  1. MRI
  2. fMRI
  3. PET scan
  4. electroencephalogram

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. PET scan

 

 

3.1-53.  Which technique uses special radio receivers to detect information from resonating atoms in order to assess brain activity?

 

  1. MRI
  2. EEG
  3. PET scan
  4. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. MRI

 

 

3.1-54.  A researcher wants to be able to make precise claims about both the structure and the function of the brain. It will be best if she uses ________ to accomplish both goals.

 

  1. a PET scan

Incorrect: A PET scan does not give both information about structure and function. This would require an fMRI.

  1. EEG tracings
  2. functional MRI

Correct: The fMRI detects magnetic changes in blood flow to cells in the brain, allowing identification of cognitive functions such as attention, perception, language processing, and memory.

  1. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. functional MRI

 

 

3.1-55.  The nervous system is subdivided into two major divisions. What are they?

  1. somatic and autonomic
  2. peripheral and somatic
  3. central and peripheral
  4. sympathetic and parasympathetic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. central and peripheral

 

 

3.1-56.  All the neurons of the brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system.

 

  1. central
  2. somatic
  3. autonomic
  4. peripheral

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. central

 

 

3.1-57.  You remember as a child seeing an insect buzzing on a flower and trying to catch the insect. You may also remember the pain and your hand automatically jerking away. Although you didn’t know it at the time, your reflexive withdrawal was controlled by your

 

  1. brain.

Incorrect: As your authors note, reflexive actions often do not require the immediate involvement of the brain.

  1. spinal cord.

Correct: Although the brain will be notified of the action, the spinal cord takes care of simple reflex actions on its own.

  1. frontal lobe.
  2. autonomic nervous system.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. spinal cord.

 

 

3.1-58.  Involvement of the brain is not necessary for a person to

 

  1. shake someone else’s hand.
  2. pull his or her hand from a hot stove.

Correct: The spinal cord is responsible for simple fast-action reflexes such as pulling a hand away from a hot stove.

  1. imagine what it feels like to be paralyzed.
  2. feel the difference between velvet and sandpaper.

Incorrect: The brain would have to interpret the tactile input from your sensory receptors, so this would not be a correct answer.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. pull his or her hand from a hot stove.

 

 

3.1-59.  A first-time marathon runner is learning that running a marathon can be quite stimulating. The applause from the spectators, sights along the road, and the pain in her legs are all experiences brought to her central nervous system by her

 

  1. CNS.
  2. brain.
  3. brain stem.

Incorrect: The brain step is part of the brain, so it would not make sense as an answer to this question.

  1. peripheral nervous system.

Correct: The central nervous system is isolated from the outside world.  It is the role of the peripheral nervous system to give the central nervous system information from sensory receptors and to then relay messages from the brain to the body’s muscles and glands.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. peripheral nervous system.

 

 

3.1-60.  You are typing a letter to your friend. Suddenly, an image of a car wreck pops up on your screen and you are startled by it. In this situation, the act of typing the letter is regulated by your ________, while your response of fear is regulated by your ________.

 

  1. sympathetic division; parasympathetic division
  2. parasympathetic division; sympathetic division
  3. somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system

Correct: The somatic system regulates the action of skeletal muscles and is involved with the behavior of writing. The autonomic system includes the sympathetic division, which governs responses to emergency situations.

  1. autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system

 

 

3.1-61.  Each fifth grader is supposed to play the role of a part of the body for the school play. One of the children says that she is responsible for respiration, digestion, and arousal. You can surmise that she must be playing the role of the

 

  1. spinal cord.

Incorrect: The spinal cord is not responsible for these important tasks, but rather the autonomic nervous system controls them.

  1. somatic nervous system.
  2. central nervous system.
  3. autonomic nervous system.

Correct: The autonomic nervous system works even when we are asleep, sustaining basic life processes.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. autonomic nervous system.

 

 

3.1-62.  One way to conceptualize the relationship among the elements of the nervous system is to use a hierarchical organization. Using this kind of scheme, the

 

  1. sympathetic and parasympathetic are divisions of the somatic nervous system.
  2. peripheral nervous system can be divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

Correct: The somatic nervous system regulates the action of the body’s skeletal muscles.  The autonomic nervous system sustains basic life processes and survival of the organism.

  1. autonomic nervous system is composed of the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Incorrect: The autonomic nervous system is comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

  1. two divisions of the central nervous system are the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        65-66

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. peripheral nervous system can be divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

 

 

3.1-63.  Taking a shortcut through the park late one night, you catch a glimpse of movement in the shadows. Automatically, your ________ mobilizes your body into action and your ________ tells the muscles in your legs to run.

 

  1. sympathetic nervous system; spinal cord
  2. parasympathetic nervous system; brain
  3. sympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Correct: The sympathetic branch of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for survival of the individual in emergency situations. The somatic system controls the skeletal muscles which are necessary for response to this emergency.

  1. parasympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Incorrect: The second half of this answer is correct, but the first half should refer to the sympathetic nervous system.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64-65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. sympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

 

 

3.1-64.  In the middle of the night, you hear two loud thumps outside your bedroom door. Your ________ nervous system increases your heart rate and sends blood away from internal organs to your muscles, preparing you for “fight or flight.” When you learn it is just your roommate coming in late, your ________ nervous system slows down your heart rate and calms you down.

 

  1. peripheral; somatic
  2. somatic; peripheral
  3. sympathetic; parasympathetic

Correct: The sympathetic system is responsible for response to emergency situations. The parasympathetic nervous system monitors the body’s internal routine operations and returns the body to its day-to-day state when the emergency is resolved.

  1. parasympathetic; sympathetic

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. sympathetic; parasympathetic

 

 

3.1-65.  A student is walking through an exhibit at the science museum entitled “The Living Brain.” The exhibit takes her from the outer layers of the brain to its deepest recesses. What is the route she will follow?

 

  1. cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem

Correct: The brain has three interconnected layers. The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the cerebrum wraps around the limbic system, which in turn wraps around the brain stem in the deepest recesses of the brain.

  1. brain stem, limbic system, cerebrum

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. limbic system, cerebrum, brain stem
  2. cerebrum, brain stem, limbic system

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem

 

 

3.1-66.  You are working with a friend to develop flash cards to help your study of brain structures and their functions. Your friend remembers correctly that the ________ is involved primarily in autonomic processes such as heart rate and breathing, and you remember that the ________ is involved in motivation, emotion and memory processes.

 

  1. cerebrum; cerebral cortex
  2. brain stem; limbic system

Correct: The brain stem is in the deepest recesses of the brain and contains structures primarily responsible for automatic functions that keep us alive. The limbic system envelops the brain stem.

  1. limbic system; brain stem

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. cerebral cortex; brain stem

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. brain stem; limbic system

 

 

3.1-67.  In the brain, the ________ and its surface layer, the ________, integrates sensory information, coordinates your movements, and facilitates abstract thinking and reasoning.

 

  1. cerebrum; cerebral cortex
  2. cerebral cortex; cerebrum
  3. cerebellum; cerebral cortex
  4. cerebral cortex; cerebellum

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. cerebrum; cerebral cortex

 

 

3.1-68.  A child is having a tantrum. He tells his parents that he is going to hold his breath until he turns blue. Fortunately, the ________, which controls his breathing (along with the beating of his heart), won’t let him do so.

 

  1. pons
  2. medulla

Correct: The medulla is located at the very top of the spinal cord within the brain stem. The medulla is essential for breathing, blood pressure, and the beating of the heart, which all happen automatically, without conscious control.

  1. amygdala

Incorrect: The amygdala does not play an active role in regulation of essential tasks, including respiration.

  1. hippocampus

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. medulla

 

 

3.1-69.  All of the following are located in the brain stem EXCEPT the

 

  1. hypothalamus.
  2. medulla.
  3. reticular formation.
  4. pons.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. hypothalamus.

 

 

3.1-70.  While discussing the functions of the brain stem, the lecturer notices that many of his students appear to have fallen asleep. This reminds him of the ________, which arouses the cerebral cortex to attend to new stimulation and keeps the brain alert even during sleep.

 

  1. pons

Incorrect: While the pons does play a role in arousal and sleep, it is the reticular formation that carries messages to the cerebral cortex regarding stimulation and monitoring of our surroundings.

  1. medulla
  2. cerebellum
  3. reticular formation

Correct: This is a dense network of nerve cells that arouses the cerebral cortex to pay attention to new input even during sleep. Severe damage to this area results in a coma.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. reticular formation

 

 

3.1-71.  As you read this question, the ________ is relaying information from the eyes to cortical areas for vision.

 

  1. thalamus

Correct: Fibers run from the reticular formation to the thalamus which channels incoming sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex where the information is processed.

  1. cerebellum
  2. hypothalamus

Incorrect: It is the other half of the diencephalon, the thalamus, which has this particular task.

  1. reticular formation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. thalamus

 

 

3.1-72.  Imagine that the size of structures within people’s brains grow as skills are developed. If this were true, you can predict that the size of the ________ in a ballerina or gymnast would be larger than normal because of their ability to coordinate bodily movements, control posture, and maintain equilibrium.

 

  1. thalamus
  2. cerebellum

Correct: The cerebellum is attached to the brain stem. Damage to this area interrupts the flow of smooth movement causing movement to appear uncoordinated. The cerebellum is also involved in the ability to learn and perform sequences of body movements.

  1. hippocampus

Incorrect: The hippocampus is not responsible for these tasks. It is the cerebellum that controls things like posture and balance.

  1. reticular formation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. cerebellum

 

 

3.1-73.  The limbic system includes the

 

  1. medulla, hippocampus, and pons.
  2. hypothalamus, cerebrum, and cerebellum.
  3. hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.
  4. reticular formation, amygdala, and thalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.

 

 

3.1-74.  As you leave class, you hear the professor mention that the next class will deal with the largest of the limbic system structures and one that is also implicated in the acquisition of memories. The most likely topic for the next class will be the

 

  1. hypothalamus and homeostasis.
  2. importance of the amygdala.

Incorrect: The amygdala is responsible for some of our memory functions, but the brain structure most salient in remembering is the hippocampus.

  1. characteristics of the hippocampus.

Correct: The hippocampus is the largest of the limbic structures. With damage to this area of the brain, we would likely still be able to learn new tasks but we would not be able to remember that we had learned them!

  1. thalamus: the brain’s relay station.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the characteristics of the hippocampus.

 

 

3.1-75.  A doctor on television is discussing the curious case of G.R., a patient who has suffered damage to his brain. G.R. believes that it is still 1970 and that the last Olympic games were held in Mexico in 1968, even though it is now the 21st century. Before the doctor divulges the part of the brain that is damaged in this individual, you predict that it is the

 

  1. thalamus.
  2. hypothalamus.
  3. hippocampus.

Correct: Damage to the hippocampus does not allow G.R. to put new information into long-term memory.  He can remember the distant past, before the damage to his brain occurred. He could likely learn new tasks, but knowledge of learning them would not be stored in his long-term memory.

  1. medulla.

Incorrect: The medulla does not control the acquisition and retention of memories. That is the job of the hippocampus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. hippocampus.

 

 

3.1-76.  Damage to parts of this area of the brain may have a calming effect on “mean-spirited” people and has recently been implicated in the acquisition and use of knowledge related to threat and danger. It is the

 

  1. amygdala.
  2. thalamus.
  3. hippocampus.
  4. hypothalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. amygdala.

 

 

3.1-77.  A woman is a hypochondriac. She is always reading medical journals and is constantly experiencing imagined symptoms of medical problems. Lately, she has been gaining a lot of weight, and feels that her internal physiological processes are out of balance. She is most likely to conclude that she has suffered brain damage to her

 

  1. amygdala.

Incorrect: The amygdala is not responsible for regulation of behaviors such as eating and drinking.

  1. thalamus.
  2. hypothalamus.

Correct: The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors such as eating. It maintains the body’s internal equilibrium or homeostasis. When the body’s energy reserves are low, the hypothalamus stimulates the organism to find food. Disregulation of the hypothalamus might affect both motivated eating and homeostasis.

  1. parietal lobe.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. hypothalamus.

 

 

3.1-78.  In science class, a nine-year-old is learning about how thermostats work. The teacher tells her that the furnace goes on when the temperature gets too cold, and then goes off when the temperature reaches a certain level. The student doesn’t know it, but this operation is similar to the concept of

 

  1. evolution.
  2. determinism.
  3. homeostasis.

Correct: Homeostasis is the maintenance of internal body equilibrium.  When the body is low on energy, the hypothalamus stimulates the organism to find food. When the body’s temperature drops, the hypothalamus causes blood vessel constriction or tiny involuntary movements (shivering) and motivates us to get warmer.

  1. the action potential.

Incorrect: The action potential is the neural impulse that travels down a neuron, from dendrite to terminal button.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. homeostasis.

 

 

3.1-79.  A child is playing an educational game called Brain Power. He reads clues about a part of the brain that occupies two-thirds of its total mass and that regulates higher thinking and emotional functions. He should recognize this part to be the

 

  1. cerebrum.

Correct: The cerebrum dwarfs the rest of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres by the corpus callosum.

  1. hypothalamus.
  2. corpus callosum.
  3. cerebral cortex.

Incorrect: The outer surface of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex. This is not the best answer to this question.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. cerebrum.

 

 

3.1-80.  The cerebrum is divided into two almost symmetrical halves, called the ________, which are connected by a mass of fibers called the ________.

 

  1. nuclei; nerve fibers
  2. lobes; cerebral connector
  3. cerebral cortices; equator
  4. cerebral hemispheres; corpus callosum

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. cerebral hemispheres; corpus callosum

 

 

3.1-81.  With respect to the lobes of the brain, the frontal lobe is involved in ________ and the occipital lobe is the final destination for ________.

 

  1. motor control; visual information
  2. pain sensations; auditory sensations
  3. planning activities; touch sensations
  4. touch sensations; cognitive activities

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        68-69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. motor control; visual information

 

 

3.1-82.  While going for the ball in the soccer league championship, a player slips and hits the back of his head so hard that he “sees stars.” Which lobe of the brain was stimulated when he hit his head?

 

  1. frontal
  2. temporal
  3. parietal

Incorrect: It is the occipital lobe of the cerebrum where visual information is processed.

  1. occipital

Correct: This lobe is the final destination for visual information.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. occipital

 

 

3.1-83.  Which statement most accurately describes what is going on in the brain when you are engaged in an everyday activity?

 

  1. Each activity is associated with only one lobe.

Incorrect: There are many activities that require multiple brain areas to be active, working in a coordinated fashion.

  1. For most activities, only the frontal lobes are active.
  2. Although the brain operates as a whole, some functions are associated with specific areas.

Correct: The structures of the brain work as a smoothly integrated unit. While each lobe has specific functions that may be interrupted or lost if the lobe is damaged, each lobe also contributes to the action of the brain in its entirety by interacting and cooperating with all other lobes.

  1. The brain operates as a unit, and no single area is necessary for any specific function.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Although the brain operates as a whole, some functions are associated with specific areas.

 

 

3.1-84.  A friend is having trouble locating the motor cortex, so you try to help her out. You should explain that the motor cortex is located

 

  1. below the lateral fissure, in the temporal lobes.
  2. above the lateral fissure, in the occipital lobes.
  3. in front of the central sulcus, in the frontal lobes.
  4. just behind the central sulcus, in the left and right parietal lobes.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. in front of the central sulcus, in the frontal lobes.

 

 

3.1-85.  Imagine that you have been asked to give a short talk on the functioning of the auditory cortex. Make sure NOT to tell your audience that

 

  1. the auditory cortex is located in the two temporal lobes.

Incorrect: This is a correct statement, so there would be no reason not to tell this to your audience!

  1. the auditory cortex in each hemisphere receives information from both ears.
  2. the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere receives information only from the right ear.

Correct: The auditory cortex in each hemisphere receives information from both ears.

  1. different areas of the auditory cortex are involved in language comprehension and production of language.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere receives information only from the right ear.

 

 

3.1-86.  You are looking at a drawing that represents the relationship between the motor cortex and different parts of the body. What strikes you is that

 

  1. the shoulders are missing from the drawing.
  2. only the areas related to the eyes, ears, and nose are larger than normal.
  3. the feet are huge, compared to the rest of the body.

Incorrect: The feet may be bigger than some areas, but overall this is not an accurate statement.

  1. the areas related to the fingers, thumb, and the muscles that control speech are quite large.

Correct: The greater brain area coincides with the importance of different body parts in terms of manipulating objects, using tools, eating, and talking.

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. the areas related to the fingers, thumb, and the muscles that control speech are quite large.

 

 

3.1-87.  The majority of the cerebral cortex is involved in

 

  1. language behavior.
  2. processing sensory information.
  3. commanding the muscles to action.
  4. interpreting and integrating information.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. interpreting and integrating information.

 

 

3.1-88.  After having suffered a stroke, a man is unable to plan his daily activities and finds it difficult to decide what to do for that day. You suspect that he has most likely suffered damage to his

 

  1. visual cortex.
  2. association cortex.

Correct: Processes such as planning and decision-making are believed to occur in the association cortex, a part of the cerebral cortex.

  1. primary motor area.
  2. primary somatosensory area.

Incorrect: The somatosensory area does not have the responsibility of higher-level functions, such as planning and sequencing of one’s daily activities.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. association cortex.

 

 

3.1-89.  When Paul Broca carried out his autopsy on the patient known as “Tan,” he discovered damage in the ________ hemisphere; other patients studied by Broca who showed similar disruption of their language abilities had damage on the ________ side of their brains.

 

  1. left; left
  2. left; right
  3. right; left
  4. right; right

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. left; left

 

 

3.1-90.  All you know about someone is that she is a “split-brain” patient. You can conclude that she

 

  1. has had her corpus callosum severed.
  2. will be unable to eat or walk unassisted.
  3. will probably demonstrate multiple personalities.
  4. has been born with the equivalent of half of a brain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. has had her corpus callosum severed.

 

 

3.1-91.  A friend has been told by his girlfriend that his hormones are out of balance, so he decides to do a little research. He is compiling a list of all of the characteristics of hormones. Which of the following statements should you tell him to remove from his list?  Hormones

 

  1. help fight infections and disease.

Correct: Hormones do not play a role in the body’s immune response to infections and diseases.

  1. serve as the basis for mood changes.
  2. have general, rather than specific or targeted effects.

Incorrect: Hormones are released into the blood and travel to distant target cells. Hormones exert their influences only at places that are genetically predetermined to respond to them. They influence diverse but specific target organs or tissues, thereby regulating an enormous range of biochemical processes.

  1. initiate, maintain, and stop development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        73

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. help fight infections and disease.

 

 

3.1-92.  In the brain, the ________ serves as a relay station between the endocrine system and the central nervous system.

 

  1. thalamus
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. cerebral cortex

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. hypothalamus

 

 

3.1-93.  The endocrine glands produce hormones that regulate various bodily functions. Which gland-function pair is mismatched?

 

  1. thyroid; metabolism
  2. parathyroid; glucose metabolism
  3. anterior pituitary; reactions to stress
  4. posterior pituitary; uterus contraction

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. parathyroid; glucose metabolism

 

 

3.1-94.  A classmate is working on her presentation on the endocrine system for class. You overhear her as she says, “This gland is often called the ‘master gland’ because it has an effect on the secretions of all the other endocrine glands.” It sounds as though she is talking about the

 

  1. adrenals.
  2. pancreas.

Incorrect: The pancreas is important in your ability to metabolize glucose, but it is not the “master gland.”

  1. pituitary.

Correct: The pituitary gland produces ten different kinds of hormones that influence the secretions of all the other endocrine glands, as well as a hormone that influences growth.

  1. hypothalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. pituitary.

 

 

3.1-95.  A young man has begun to look and sound more physically mature, with the beginnings of a beard and a deeper voice. These changes can be attributed to the secretions of the

 

  1. ovaries.
  2. pancreas.
  3. pituitary.

Correct: In males, secretions of the pituitary gland activate the testes to secrete testosterone, which stimulates the production of sperm and secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, voice change, and physical maturation.

  1. parathyroid.

Incorrect: The parathyroid is not responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. pituitary.

 

 

3.1-96.  A magazine article describes a new drug that blocks the production of a hormone, preventing the release of ova and resulting in infertility in women. The hormone that is being blocked is most likely

 

  1. estrogen.

Correct: Estrogen production is stimulated by the pituitary gland.  Estrogen is essential for the chain reaction that triggers the release of ova from the ovaries making a woman fertile.

  1. dopamine.
  2. adrenaline.

Incorrect: Estrogen is what prompts the release of ova in women, not adrenaline.

  1. testosterone.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. estrogen.

 

 

3.1-97.  If we can apply Mark Rosenzweig’s research on rats raised in impoverished or enriched environments to humans, then we would encourage humans to live in a(n)

 

  1. environment that is deprived of unnecessary stimulation.
  2. environment that is full of stimulation when children, but not when adults.

Incorrect: In the research discussed in your textbook, even adults would benefit from enriched environments.

  1. enriched environment even after childhood.

Correct: Researchers have now determined that enriched environments not only affect the weight and thickness of young animals but continue to have this effect with adult animals.

  1. stressful environment in order to strengthen the functioning of the hippocampus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. enriched environment even after childhood.

 

 

3.1-98.  It has been reported that the production of new brain cells from naturally occurring stem cells occurs in the brains of adult mammals. This process is called

 

  1. plasticity.
  2. transformation.
  3. neurogenesis.
  4. reuptake.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        75

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. neurogenesis

 

 

True/False Questions

 

3.2-1.  Charles Darwin wrote The Origin of Species.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-2.  Your observable characteristics are known as your genotype.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-3.  DNA is organized into units called genes.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-4.  The human genome contains about four million genes.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-5.  Interneurons are one type of neuron.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-6.  An inflow of sodium causes a nerve cell to become depolarized.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56-57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-7.  The all-or-none law states that the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-8.  During the absolute refractory period, further stimulation, no matter how intense, cannot cause another action potential to be generated.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-9.  GABA is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-10.  Broca’s area of the brain is most closely associated with emotional behavior.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-11.  A patient is given a radioactive substance that eventually travels to the brain and allows for the production of detailed pictures of activity in the living brain. This individual has been given an MRI scan.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-12.  The procedure known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) should only be used in life-threatening situations, as it produces small but irreversible brain damage.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-13.  The peripheral nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves that connect the body’s sensory receptors to the central nervous system.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-14.  The somatic nervous system is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous that regulates the actions of the body’s skeletal muscles.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-15.  The medulla and pons are two structures found within the cerebellum of the brain.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-16.  The amygdala is the part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-17.  One of the functions of the hypothalamus is to maintain the body’s homeostasis.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-18.  The parietal lobe is located at the front of the head and is the final destination for visual information.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-19.  The size of a particular region of the body is directly related to the amount of space in the cerebral cortex devoted to that region. For example, the arms and legs occupy nearly one hundred times the space devoted to the fingers and hand.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-20.  In males, the testes secrete testosterone, which stimulates production of sperm and may increase aggression and sexual desire.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

3.3-1.  Due to favorable adaptations to features of the environment, some members of a species reproduce more successfully than others.  This captures the essence of the process called  __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47-48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: natural selection

 

 

3.3-2.  The biological units of heredity are called  __________. They are responsible for the transmission of traits and are tiny sections of  __________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: genes; chromosomes

 

 

3.3-3.  The relative influence of genetics versus environment in determining patterns of behavior is called __________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  heritability

 

 

3.3-4.  The gap between one neuron and another is called a(n)  __________.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: synapse

 

 

3.3-5.  Due to its precision and clarity, researchers use a brain imaging technique known as __________.  It combines benefits of both MRI and PET scans by detecting changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

 

 

3.3-6.  The autonomic nervous system has two divisions.  The __________ subdivision deals with emergency response and the mobilization of energy, and the __________ subdivision monitors the routine operation of the body’s internal functions and conserves and restores body energy.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: sympathetic; parasympathetic

 

 

3.3-7.   The  __________ is the part of the limbic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memories.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: hippocampus

 

 

3.3-8.  The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a thick mass of nerve fibers collectively referred to as the  __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: corpus callosum

 

 

3.3-9.  The  __________ system manufactures and secretes chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        73

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: endocrine

 

 

3.3-10.  The  __________ gland is often called the “master gland.”

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  pituitary

 

 

Essay Questions

 

3.4-1.  One day, you take your teenage niece to the zoo and she becomes particularly fascinated with the birds in the aviary. She asks you why they all seem to have differently shaped beaks. Use the research of Charles Darwin and Peter and Rosemary Grant to explain why animals look the way they do today, incorporating a discussion of natural selection.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        47-49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: The theory of natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin suggests that organisms that are well adapted to their environments will produce more offspring and therefore survive longer than those not so well-adapted. The Grants studied finches, their habits, environment, and population size. They took note of the ones that survived a terrible drought and why they survived when others didn’t.

 

 

3.4-2.  Diagram a neuron, label its parts, and describe how it works. In your description, be sure to provide a brief explanation of the resting potential and the action potential. Then, explain how information flows from neuron to neuron. How does information transmission in the nervous system differ from the information transmission that takes place in the endocrine system?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-59; 73

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action; Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual/Factual

Answer: Include soma, dendrites, axon, terminal buttons, synapse, neurotransmitters, electrochemical action, and resting and action potentials. Glia and myelin sheath are also suggested. The endocrine system is a network of glands whose hormones are transmitted throughout the body in the bloodstream. The endocrine and nervous systems form complex communication systems in the body.

 

 

3.4-3.  Describe and discuss four major neurotransmitters and their effects. Discuss how neurotransmitters are released from the neuron and the importance of neural transmission.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual/Conceptual

Answer: Include discussion of four of the following: acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, endorphins.  Discuss how these neurochemical messengers are released from the terminal buttons of the axon into the synapse and taken up by the receiving neuron.

 

 

3.4-4.  Neuroscientists have developed a variety of techniques for studying the workings of the brain and the relationship between the brain and behavior. Describe these methods along with the pros and cons of each. Why are these new imaging techniques so important to understanding the functions of the brain as they relate to behavior?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60-64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Neuroscientists want to understand the brain at many levels, from visible structures to the properties of nerve cells. Researchers have developed a number of ways to produce lesions in order to study functioning of the brain. Give examples. Include discussion of PET scans, MRI, EEG, fMRI, and repetitive transcranial stimulation.

 

 

3.4-5.  Draw a diagram of the organization of the nervous system, including the divisions and subdivisions. Give a brief description of the function of each of the parts of your diagram. What is the overall significance of having two major divisions of the nervous system?

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64-66

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual/Factual

Answer: Include the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, with the autonomic and somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.  Briefly define each. The CNS is vitally important, but it would be isolated from the outside world without the actions of the PNS.

 

 

Chapter 5: Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

5.1-1.  The book suggests that, to say the least, the term consciousness is

 

  1. cogent.
  2. precise.

Incorrect: In fact, there are many different definitions of consciousness, and it is a very imprecise term.

  1. ambiguous.

Correct: We can use the term to refer to a general state of mind or to the specific contents of the mind. Sometimes we say we are conscious as opposed to unconscious.  Sometimes we use the term to refer to awareness of internal and external events.

  1. tangible.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        121

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. ambiguous.

 

 

5.1-2.  With respect to the term consciousness, the textbook makes the point that the concept of consciousness

 

  1. is typically defined in terms of specific physiological processes that are occurring in the brain.
  2. refers to the contents of consciousness, not a general state of mind.

Incorrect: In the textbook, it is pointed out that consciousness can also refer to a general state of mind.

  1. refers to a general state of mind, not the contents of consciousness.
  2. can refer to a general state of mind or to its specific contents.

Correct: We are conscious when we are aware (a general state of mind). We are also conscious when we speak of the information of which we are aware (contents of consciousness).

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        121

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. can refer to a general state of mind or to its specific contents.

 

 

5.1-3.  In his classic text written in 1892, William James defined psychology as the description and explanation of

 

  1. behavior.
  2. states of consciousness.
  3. animal and human intelligence.
  4. emotion and motivation.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        121

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. states of consciousness.

 

 

5.1-4.  Although you were not thinking about what you had for dinner the night before, when your friend asked you about that meal, it sparked the recollection of your visit to a local restaurant and a very tasty spaghetti dish. Your recollection of the dinner is an example of

 

  1. nonconscious processes.
  2. preconscious memories.

Correct: These memories are accessible to consciousness only after something calls your attention to them. They function silently in the background of your mind until a situation arises in which they are consciously necessary.

  1. unattended information.
  2. the unconscious.

Incorrect: In the unconscious we are barred from accessing certain information, and thus the ability to recall this data suggests that it is not in the unconscious.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        122

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. preconscious memories.

 

 

5.1-5.  A tourist had never been to Paris before, and when she got off the train she was totally confused. People were everywhere and she was being swept along by the crowd. Suddenly, she was aware that someone was calling her name. This example best illustrates

 

  1. the unconscious.
  2. preconscious memories.

Incorrect: In this example, the attention to certain stimuli but not others is not consistent with the concept of preconscious memories.

  1. unattended information.

Correct: At any given time, we are surrounded by a vast amount of stimulation. We can only attend to a small part of it. What we focus on, in combination with the memories it evokes, will determine to a large extent what is in consciousness.

  1. nonconscious processes.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        122

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. unattended information.

 

 

5.1-6.  Sigmund Freud believed that certain experiences are so painful and threatening that they are barred from consciousness. These speculations were part of his development of a theory of

 

  1. nonconscious processes.
  2. preconscious memories.

Incorrect: While preconscious memories might not be in one’s immediate, conscious “radar,” they are still accessible with some effort.

  1. unattended information.
  2. the unconscious.

Correct: Freud thought that in order to avoid anxiety, some unacceptable thoughts, ideas, and motives must be hidden from our conscious awareness. This process is called repression. Our behaviors are influenced still even though we are not aware of the source of the influence.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        122-123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. the unconscious.

 

 

5.1-7.  Your analyst tells you that the reason you cannot remember your early childhood is because you have repressed it. According to Sigmund Freud, unconscious, repressed experiences

 

  1. have never really existed.
  2. can easily be brought into conscious awareness.

Incorrect: Although these memories do impact our actions, according to Freud, they are barred from conscious awareness.

  1. are no longer threatening.
  2. can still influence your behavior.

Correct: The strong feelings associated with repressed materials continue to influence behavior even when we are unaware of the influence.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. can still influence your behavior.

 

 

5.1-8.  The fact that people automatically use context to help decide between different meanings of ambiguous words in sentences supports the idea that

 

  1. Freud’s concept of repression is valid.

Incorrect: The idea of context-driven processing is not related to the Freudian defense mechanism of repression.

  1. language processes are not capable of being consciously influenced.
  2. processes that operate below the level of consciousness can affect behavior.

Correct: Unconscious language processes use context to make choices between the meanings of words that have been learned. The ease with which we understand ambiguous words depends on these unconscious processes and the contexts within which the words appear.

  1. rational beings have access to all of the activities of their own minds.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. processes that operate below the level of consciousness can affect behavior.

 

 

5.1-9.  A woman has volunteered for an investigation of mental strategies. The experimenter asks her to express verbally what she is thinking as she works through some problems. The researcher is probably

 

  1. introspecting.
  2. using the experience-sampling method.

Incorrect: This is another method used for studying consciousness, but it is not the correct one based on the given question.

  1. collecting think-aloud protocols.

Correct: Think-aloud protocols are used to document mental strategies and knowledge that participants use to do tasks, in this case the problems presented to the woman. She reports in as much detail as possible the sequence of thoughts experienced as she completes the task.

  1. measuring nonconscious processes.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. collecting think-aloud protocols.

 

 

5.1-10.  Participants in a research study are asked to report what they are thinking about when a pager signals at different times during the day. The researcher is using a procedure that is known as the ________ method.

 

  1. experience-sampling

Correct: Participants provide information about their thoughts and feelings in the normal course of their daily lives. They often carry a device such as the pager to signal when they should write down the contents of their consciousness. A response to questions provided gives researchers a running record of participants’ thoughts, awareness, and focus of attention.

  1. think-aloud protocol

Incorrect: This is another method used for studying consciousness, but it is not the correct one based on the given question.

  1. “beeper”
  2. circadian rhythm

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. experience-sampling

 

 

5.1-11.  Which of the following is NOT one of the types of comparisons that researchers found often occupy people’s thoughts when their immediate conscious experiences were assessed?

 

  1. social
  2. counterfactual
  3. temporal-past
  4. temporal-present

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  d. temporal-present

 

 

5.1-12.  A psychologist would be most likely to use the experience-sampling method to determine

 

  1. how much daydreaming people do.

Correct: The experience-sampling method allows researchers to provide an account of how people think throughout the day and what state of consciousness they are in (alert/daydreaming/concentrating.)

  1. what strategies people use to solve problems.
  2. how long it takes people to respond to changes in temperature.
  3. how hunger affects the ability to store new information.

Incorrect: The experience-sampling method calls one’s attention to their own conscious processes at various points in the day, thus potentially gaining information about daydreaming and not the relationship between hunger and memory.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. how much daydreaming people do.

 

 

5.1-13.  The restrictive function of consciousness is most responsible for your ability to

 

  1. hide feelings of fear or anger.

Incorrect: This function allows us to “shut off,” or restrict, certain stimuli at any given moment in time.

  1. decide whether you can lift a heavy object without hurting yourself.
  2. tell the difference between the odors of fish and coffee.
  3. carry on a conversation at a noisy party.

Correct: The restrictive function of consciousness reduces the flow of stimulus input (noise at the party) by restricting what you notice and focus on (a single conversation).  Much of the conversation around you (noise) is tuned out because it is irrelevant to your immediate goals.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        124

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. carry on a conversation at a noisy party.

 

 

5.1-14.  Your best friend’s birthday is coming up and you ought to buy her a present. Your ability to consider what things she has, how she might react to what you get her, and how you are going to pay for her present, are all made possible by the ________ function of consciousness.

 

  1. selective storage
  2. preconscious
  3. planning

Correct: One function of consciousness is to make us stop, think, and consider alternatives based on past knowledge, and imagine the consequences of each alternative. We suppress strong desires if they conflict with moral, ethical, or practical concerns, and use knowledge of the past and expectations of the future to influence current decisions.

  1. restrictive

Incorrect: This function allows us to “shut off,” or restrict, certain stimuli at any given moment in time.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        124

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer:  c. planning

 

 

5.1-15.  After watching a television show on the use of physical punishment by parents, a husband and wife come to different conclusions about the efficacy of punishment. These differences in perspective are most likely due to the fact that each of them has a different

 

  1. consensual validation.
  2. cultural construction of reality.

Incorrect: This refers to ways of thinking about the world that are shared by most members of a particular group of people.

  1. personal construction of reality.

Correct: No two people interpret reality in the same way.  We all interpret current situations based on general knowledge, memories of past experience, needs, values, beliefs, future goals, and the cultures and environments within cultures with which we are familiar.

  1. restrictive function of consciousness.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        124

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. personal construction of reality.

 

 

5.1-16.  When one’s personal construction of reality remains relatively stable, one is also likely to experience

 

  1. consensual validation.
  2. extreme sociability.
  3. heightened activity in the left hemisphere.

Incorrect: There is nothing in your textbook that supports this answer.

  1. a stable sense of self.

Correct: We attend to certain stimuli in the environment more than to others because our personal constructions of reality are formed from a selection of unique inputs. This continues over time in a relatively stable way, giving us our sense of a personal and continuous sense of self.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        124

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. a stable sense of self.

 

 

5.1-17.  Conscious processes often affect or are affected by

 

  1. reflexes.
  2. exposure to light.
  3. unconscious processes.

Correct: People’s behavior is most often affected by both conscious and unconscious processes.  Many functions of consciousness include implicit comparisons with what is unconscious. Just as unconscious processes affect conscious ones, conscious processes affect unconscious ones.  Researchers study both conscious and unconscious processes to understand the functions of consciousness.

  1. repression.

Incorrect: Those impulses or thoughts that are repressed exist in your unconscious, and so this is not the best answer.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        125

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. unconscious processes

 

 

5.1-18.  One way to study the functions of consciousness is to demonstrate

 

  1. how people’s responses change when conscious processes are not allowed to function normally.
  2. repression of ideas.
  3. that no matter how much a person has to attend to, conscious processes are consistently easy to use.
  4. that behavior is more strongly influenced by conscious than by unconscious processes.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        125

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. how people’s responses change when conscious processes are not allowed to function normally.

 

 

5.1-19.  You come across a friend who is reading a request for volunteers to participate in a study of circadian rhythms. Your friend seems puzzled and asks you what the study might involve. You should tell your friend that circadian rhythms are

 

  1. bodily cycles that affect such things as arousal levels and metabolism.
  2. patterns of rhyme and meter used in studies of language behavior.
  3. birth control techniques.
  4. likely to be found on tests of musical intelligence.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. bodily cycles that affect such things as arousal levels and metabolism.

 

 

5.1-20.  Suppose you are taking part in a study of circadian rhythms. You have been asked to live in a special room in which there are no windows, clocks, or watches, and no access to time cues of any sort. How will these conditions affect your biological clock?

 

  1. Your biological clock will be totally disrupted, showing little consistency from day to day.
  2. Your biological clock will be completely unaffected and you will establish a precise 24-hour cycle.

Incorrect: Strange though it may seem, it appears that our biological clock attunes to a day that is slightly greater than 24 hours.

  1. It is likely that your biological clock will be just a few minutes longer than 24 hours.

Correct: Without external time cues that help us adjust to a 24-hour cycle, it is likely that our internal clock will establish a 24.18-hour cycle. Our exposure to sunlight helps us make the slight adjustment each day.

  1. Females will show little change in their biological clocks, whereas males will show about a 23-hour rhythm.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. It is likely that your biological clock will be just a few minutes longer than 24 hours.

 

 

5.1-21.  The small adjustment that is necessary to help people synchronize the human internal “pacemaker” with a 24-hour cycle is brought about by

 

  1. the rods and cones of the eye.
  2. exposure to sunlight.
  3. the consumption of food.
  4. the changes in temperature that are associated with night and day.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. exposure to sunlight.

 

 

5.1-22.  An executive’s company requires her to engage in a lot of long-distance travel. At first, after a long trip she would experience fatigue, uncontrollable sleepiness, and a disruption of her sleep-wake schedule that would continue for days. She probably was experiencing

 

  1. narcolepsy.

Incorrect: This is a sleep disorder that is characterized by sudden, irresistible sleep attacks.

  1. jet lag.

Correct: Jet lag is an indication that the internal circadian rhythm is not in phase with the environment. Two variables that affect development of jet lag are the direction of travel and the number of time zones through which you travel.

  1. insomnia.
  2. sleep apnea.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. jet lag.

 

 

5.1-23.  A pilot flies regularly between Japan and California. He also flies the San Francisco to Los Angeles route in California. The pilot will experience the greatest symptoms of jet lag after flying

 

  1. either portion of the Japan-California route.
  2. northbound from Los Angeles to San Francisco.

Incorrect: Because a north-south or south-north trip is likely to remain in the same time zone, jet lag should not result.

  1. eastward from Japan to California.

Correct: Traveling eastward creates greater jet lag than traveling westward because your biological clock is more easily extended than shortened (it is easier to stay awake longer than to fall asleep sooner). The longer trip also requires passing through more time zones, another variable that strongly affects jet lag.

  1. westward from California to Japan.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. eastward from Japan to California.

 

 

5.1-24.  The methodological breakthrough for the study of sleep came in 1937 when researchers began using

 

  1. electroencephalograms.
  2. experience-sampling.
  3. hypnosis.
  4. think-aloud protocols.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. electroencephalograms.

 

 

5.1-25.  Your job is to monitor the EEG recordings of a patient in a sleep laboratory. You observe that the patient’s brain waves change from about 14 cycles per second (cps) to 8-12 cps and then to 3-7 cps. What changes, if any, have likely occurred in the patient?

 

  1. First the patient was deeply asleep, then lightly asleep, then awake.

Incorrect: This patient is not in deep sleep at the start, because the brain activity is far too active.

  1. The patient moved progressively from stage 1 to stage 3 sleep.
  2. First the patient was awake, then relaxed, then in stage 1 sleep.

Correct: These are recordings of brain waves in the awake state of consciousness, the relaxed state, and the first stage of sleep.

  1. The patient was awake through all the changes in brain wave patterns.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. First the patient was awake, then relaxed, then in stage 1 sleep.

 

 

5.1-26.  The sleep spindles that occur during sleep are minute bursts of electrical activity of ________ cycles per second.

 

  1. 1 to 2
  2. 3 to 7
  3. 8 to 12
  4. 12 to 16

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. 12 to 16

 

 

5.1-27.  The melodic tones of your teacher’s voice have put you to sleep. Though the other students in the class can’t see them, sleep spindles have begun to appear in your brain waves. You are likely in stage

 

  1. 1.
  2. 2.

Correct: The EEG shows minute bursts of electrical activity (sleep spindles) in stage 2 sleep at a rate of 12-16 cycles per second (cps).

  1. 3.
  2. 4.

Incorrect: This stage is marked by a sleep rate of about 1-2 cps.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. 2.

 

 

5.1-28.  The EEG tracing of the patient in the sleep laboratory shows that brain waves have slowed to about 1 to 2 cycles per second. In addition, breathing and heart rate have decreased. It is most likely that the patient is

 

  1. in stage 1 non-REM sleep.
  2. experiencing feelings of anxiety.
  3. in stages 3 and 4 of sleep.

Correct: These are the deepest stages of sleep. You are relaxed, your breathing and heart rate are slower, and brain waves have slowed.

  1. in paradoxical sleep.

Incorrect: This stage is marked by brain activity that is similar to being awake.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. in stages 3 and 4 of sleep.

 

 

5.1-29.  Paradoxical sleep was so called because

 

  1. this type of sleep is a mystery to scientists.

Incorrect: The ability to track the brain activity during various sleep stages reduces the mystery of sleep.

  1. the EEG tracings during paradoxical sleep vary wildly from person to person.
  2. the EEG tracings during paradoxical sleep can only be interpreted by the sleeper.
  3. the EEG tracings during this type of sleep resemble those of a person who is awake.

Correct: During this final stage of sleep when we begin to dream, the EEG pattern resembles an awake pattern, and because we are truly asleep, not awake, it was considered a paradox.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. the EEG tracings during this type of sleep resemble those of a person who is awake.

 

 

5.1-30.  People have about ________ periods of REM sleep each night, and these periods ________ in length with each sleep cycle.

 

  1. four to six; decrease
  2. four to six; increase
  3. ten; decrease
  4. ten; increase

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. four to six; increase

 

 

5.1-31.  Most of a person’s sleep time is spent

 

  1. dreaming.
  2. in REM sleep.
  3. in paradoxical sleep.
  4. in NREM sleep.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. in NREM sleep.

 

 

5.1-32.  Researchers who have looked at changes with age in total amounts of daily REM sleep and NREM sleep have found that

 

  1. the amount of REM sleep increases considerably over the years.

Incorrect: This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. NREM diminishes more sharply than REM sleep over the years.
  2. the amount of REM sleep decreases considerably over the years.

Correct: We start out as infants sleeping about sixteen hours a day with nearly half of that time spent in REM sleep. By age 50, we may only sleep six hours with 20% of that time spent in REM sleep.

  1. REM sleep remains fairly constant over the years, but NREM increases slightly.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. the amount of REM sleep decreases considerably over the years.

 

 

5.1-33.  When researchers studying healthy older adults looked to see whether there was a relationship between sleep efficiency and longevity, they found that

 

  1. there was no relationship between sleep efficiency and longevity.
  2. the most important factor was the time at which people went to bed, not sleep efficiency.
  3. people who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep lived the longest.
  4. those individuals who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep died at the earliest ages.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. people who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep lived the longest.

 

 

5.1-34.  In research described by your authors, participants were asked to complete a specific task. In some cases, they were told that they would complete this task again after some sleep. In other cases they were not told, but allowed to sleep. In still a third group, they were not warned about taking the test again and were not given a chance to sleep. What was the task that these research participants completed?

 

  1. the Stroop color test
  2. learning word pairs
  3. remembering lists of numbers
  4. identifying pictures of movie stars and other famous persons

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        128

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. learning word pairs

 

 

5.1-35.  A man has problems sleeping. He rarely falls asleep quickly, is frequently aroused during sleep, and wakens too early in the morning. It is most likely that the man is suffering from

 

  1. insomnia.

Correct: When people are dissatisfied with the amount or the quality of the sleep they get, this is called insomnia. Insomnia has been shown to have a consistent negative impact on the well-being of the affected individual.

  1. narcolepsy.

Incorrect: In cases of narcolepsy, people fall asleep without warning, going directly from wakefulness to REM sleep.

  1. sleep apnea.
  2. nightmares.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. insomnia.

 

 

5.1-36.  All of following are symptoms of insomnia EXCEPT

 

  1. delayed onset of sleep.
  2. sleep during the daytime.
  3. frequent arousals during sleep.
  4. early morning awakening.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. sleep during the daytime.

 

 

5.1-37.  A student claims that he has severe insomnia and hardly sleeps at all. The fact that his roommate says that he appears to sleep deeply and is not even bothered by dorm noises when he is asleep suggests that the student’s condition is most probably

 

  1. non-REM sleep.
  2. paradoxical insomnia.

Correct: This is a condition in which there are completely normal patterns of sleep in people who complain of significant lack of sleep.

  1. narcolepsy.

Incorrect: In cases of narcolepsy, people fall asleep without warning, going directly from wakefulness to REM sleep.

  1. sleep apnea.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. paradoxical insomnia.

 

 

5.1-38.  Characterized by periodic sleep during the daytime, ________ is a sleep disorder that is quite often combined with ________, a complete loss of muscle control that causes sufferers to fall down suddenly.

 

  1. insomnia; sleep apnea
  2. sleep apnea; narcolepsy
  3. cataplexy; narcolepsy
  4. narcolepsy; cataplexy

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. narcolepsy; cataplexy

 

 

5.1-39.  You would probably be most concerned if you were being driven somewhere by a person who has the sleep disorder called

 

  1. insomnia.
  2. narcolepsy.

Correct: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.

  1. sleep apnea.

Incorrect: In cases of sleep apnea, people stop breathing for extended periods while they are asleep, and this can seriously interrupt their ability to get a “good night” of rest.

  1. subjective insomnia.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. narcolepsy.

 

 

5.1-40.  Scientists believe that narcolepsy

 

  1. is related to multiple personality disorder.
  2. is caused by oxygen deprivation.
  3. has a genetic basis.
  4. is caused by cataplexy.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. has a genetic basis.

 

 

5.1-41.  You see a story on television about a woman who stops breathing hundreds of times during the course of the night. Without being told, you realize that this woman suffers from a condition that is technically known as

 

  1. oxygen deprivation disorder.
  2. cataplexy.
  3. narcolepsy.

Incorrect: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.

  1. sleep apnea.

Correct: This is a respiratory sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. sleep apnea.

 

 

5.1-42.  At a sleep disorder clinic, a man learns that he has sleep apnea. When he asks for more information, he is likely to be told all of the following EXCEPT that

 

  1. most individuals have a few such apnea episodes a night.
  2. it is almost unheard of in infants.
  3. when apnea occurs, the body secretes emergency hormones that cause the individual to awaken and resume breathing.
  4. it affects roughly 2 percent of women and 4 percent of men.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. it is almost unheard of in infants.

 

 

5.1-43.  A new roommate confides that she suffers from somnambulism. You should expect that she is likely to

 

  1. talk in her sleep.
  2. walk in her sleep.

Correct: Sleepwalkers leave their beds and wander while still asleep. This condition is more common among children than among adults. It is associated with NREM sleep.

  1. have nightmares.
  2. stop breathing in her sleep.

Incorrect: This would describe a roommate who suffered from sleep apnea, not somnambulism.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. walk in her sleep.

 

 

5.1-44.  A six-year-old child suddenly awakens in a state of extreme arousal accompanied by panicky screams.  He is experiencing

 

  1. somnambulism.
  2. sleep apnea.
  3. narcolepsy.

Incorrect: This disorder causes sudden irresistible sleepiness and is often accompanied by cataplexy, the sudden loss of muscle control.

  1. a sleep terror.

Correct: Sleep terrors, or night terrors, typically occur during NREM sleep in the first third of a night’s sleep. Most episodes are not recalled in the morning. They are most common during childhood, with the greatest number occurring between the ages of 5 and 7.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. a sleep terror.

 

 

5.1-45.  Research on nightmares suggests that they

 

  1. are more likely to be experienced by children than by adults.
  2. are not related to real-life experiences.
  3. occur on average about once per year in undergraduate students.
  4. increase in likelihood as one gets older.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. are more likely to be experienced by children than by adults.

 

 

5.1-46.  A girl has a dream in which she is terribly frightened when she is abducted by space aliens. But then she is taken to a fantastically beautiful solar system and is overjoyed when she is made queen of her new world. The presence of strong emotional and sensory content in this dream suggests that it

 

  1. occurred during NREM sleep.

Incorrect: Remember that most dreams that have strong sensory and emotional components occur during REM sleep, not NREM sleep.

  1. occurred during REM sleep.

Correct: Dreaming during NREM sleep is less likely to have story content that evokes strong emotions.  It is more like daytime thought than is REM dreaming and it contains less sensory imagery.

  1. occurred during either REM or NREM sleep.
  2. did not occur in either REM or in NREM sleep.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. occurred during REM sleep.

 

 

5.1-47.  Sigmund Freud described dreams in all of the following ways EXCEPT as

 

  1. “transient psychoses.”
  2. “everynight madness.”
  3. “the royal road to the unconscious.”
  4. “uncensored visions.”

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        130-131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. “uncensored visions.”

 

 

5.1-48.  The classic book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was written by

 

  1. William Domhoff.
  2. J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley.
  3. Barbara Tedlock.
  4. Sigmund Freud.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. Sigmund Freud.

 

 

5.1-49.  In a classroom exercise, a student is recounting a dream in which she finds herself exploring a steamy tropical jungle when suddenly she comes upon a group of monkeys dressed in tuxedos talking to one another. In Freudian dream analysis, the student is describing

 

  1. hostile yearnings.
  2. the latent content of the dream.

Incorrect: The latent content refers to the underlying, hidden meaning of a dream. The student would be describing the actual content, or the manifest, of her dream.

  1. the manifest content of the dream.

Correct: The censor transforms the hidden meaning, or latent content of the dream, into manifest content.

  1. the “wish” in dreams.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the manifest content of the dream.

 

 

5.1-50.  In a seminar on dream analysis, a woman recounts a dream in which she went on a boat ride down the Nile River. It was so hot that she wanted to take off her shirt. After a while she became very hungry, but all the guides could offer her to eat were bananas. Dream researchers would agree that

 

  1. the dream definitely has a hidden meaning.
  2. her dream appears to be a lucid dream.
  3. all she remembers is the latent content of the dream.

Incorrect: The latent content refers to the underlying, hidden meaning of a dream. It would not be something that a person would remember.

  1. all she remembers is the manifest content of the dream.

Correct: The latent, unacceptable part of the dream is translated into the acceptable (manifest) content.  In this way, she can express powerful unexpressed wishes in disguised symbolic form.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. all she remembers is the manifest content of the dream.

 

 

5.1- 51.  The distortion process by which the hidden meaning of a dream is transformed into what is remembered by the dreamer was referred to by Freud as

 

  1. manifest content.
  2. latent content.
  3. dream wish.
  4. dream work.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. dream work.

 

 

5.1-52.  A therapist espouses a Freudian perspective of dream interpretation. When she interprets dreams she is likely to

 

  1. not worry about the effects of dream work.
  2. work backwards from the latent content to the manifest content.

Incorrect: On the contrary, she would probably work backward from the manifest to the latent content.

  1. believe that the dreams reveal the patient’s unconscious wishes.

Correct: Freud suggested that all dreams are instances of wish-fulfillment, through which we can safely express powerful unconscious wishes in safe symbolic form.

  1. believe that dreams include universal symbols, but not idiosyncratic symbols.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. believe that the dreams reveal the patient’s unconscious wishes.

 

 

5.1-53.  Among the Archur Indians of Ecuador, dream interpretation

 

  1. is punished severely.
  2. follows the Freudian emphasis on individual importance.
  3. is part of the customs of the culture.
  4. is practiced only by those on the margins of the society.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. is part of the customs of the culture.

 

 

5.1-54.  One difference between the Freudian approach to dream interpretation and the interpretation made by non-Western groups such as the people of the Ingessana Hills, along the border of Ethiopia and the Sudan, and the Kalapalo Indians of central Brazil, is that the latter groups

 

  1. view dreams as a vision of the future.
  2. focus more on childhood experiences and repressed wishes.
  3. do not rely on symbolism in their interpretations.
  4. encourage religious leaders to keep the content of their dreams secret.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. view dreams as a vision of the future.

 

 

5.1-55.  Which of the following statements most closely represents Hobson and McCarley’s activation-synthesis model of dreaming?

 

  1. Dreams originate with an unconscious wish or motive.

Incorrect: This would be consistent with Freudian dream theory, not the activation-synthesis model.

  1. Dreams result from neural signals in the brain stem that stimulate areas of the brain’s cortex.

Correct: Signals emerge from the brain stem to stimulate the forebrain and association areas of the cortex to produce random memories and connections with the dreamer’s past experiences. There is no intrinsic meaning, and there are no logical connections or coherent patterns to random bursts of electrical signals in the brain.

  1. A dream will occur only if a person has an unresolved conflict or problem.
  2. Latent content is more important than manifest content in the interpretation of dreams.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        132

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Dreams result from neural signals in the brain stem that stimulate areas of the brain’s cortex.

 

 

5.1-56.  Studies of dream content confirm the fact that content of dreams shows a good deal of

 

  1. continuity with the dreamer’s fantasies.
  2. discontinuity with the dreamer’s waking concerns.
  3. continuity with dreamer’s waking concerns.
  4. discontinuity with the dreamer’s desires.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        132

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. continuity with dreamer’s waking concerns.

 

 

5.1-57.  Suppose you wanted to take control of your dreams and direct them in a way that would satisfy your own needs. According to some dream researchers, you should

 

  1. drink warm milk before going to sleep.
  2. sleep with eye shades to keep out light and movement.
  3. learn techniques for lucid dreaming.
  4. learn how to prevent your eyes from moving during dream states.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        132

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. learn techniques for lucid dreaming.

 

 

5.1-58.  Researchers have suggested that people can be divided into chronotypes. A chronotype identifies an individual as a(n)

 

  1. light sleeper or a deep sleeper.
  2. morning type or an evening type.
  3. thin body type or a heavy body type.
  4. extraverted person or an introverted person.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        133

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. morning type or an evening type.

 

 

5.1-59.  There has been ample evidence gathered through research that circadian rhythms affect peak performance.  Given this impact, individuals with different chronotypes will most often peak at different times of day. This rule applies to

 

  1. physical and cognitive tasks.
  2. physical tasks only.
  3. tasks that require complex reasoning.
  4. cognitive tasks only.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        133

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. physical and cognitive tasks

 

 

5.1-60.  What is the relationship between sleep and hypnosis?

 

  1. Sleep and hypnosis are controlled by the same brain structure.
  2. Sleep and hypnosis are virtually identical in all ways.
  3. People need to be asleep before they can respond to hypnotic commands.
  4. Sleep plays no part in hypnosis.

                                                                                                              

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        134

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. Sleep plays no part in hypnosis.

 

 

5.1-61.  Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction. In part, this process

 

  1. encourages participants to fall asleep.

Incorrect: It is a common misconception that being hypnotized is the same as being asleep. As your authors not, they are unrelated processes.

  1. involves the use of anesthesia.
  2. distracts participants so they do not realize that they are being hypnotized.
  3. minimizes external distractions and encourages concentration.

Correct: It is a set of activities in the process of hypnosis that encourages people to believe they are entering a special state of consciousness. The induction procedure functions as a learned signal so that when it is practiced repeatedly, the participant can eventually enter the hypnotic state quickly.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        134

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. minimizes external distractions and encourages concentration.

 

 

5.1-62.  Research on hypnosis has generally supported the conclusion that

 

  1. being hypnotized involves turning personal control over to another.

Incorrect: People who undergo hypnosis are always in control of themselves, even when they are “under.”

  1. all individuals are equally hypnotizable by a skilled hypnotist.
  2. hypnosis is not just a kind of “placebo response.”

Correct: There are effects of hypnosis that are demonstrated through research. For instance, people who are higher in hypnotizability are able to gain greater pain relief through hypnosis. The power of hypnosis resides in the person being hypnotized, not in any special abilities of the hypnotist.

  1. hypnosis is generally ineffective in the control of pain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        134-135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. hypnosis is not just a kind of “placebo response.”

 

 

5.1-63.  Recent studies have reported that variations in ________ are related to individual differences in hypnotizability.

 

  1. norepinephrine.
  2. serotonin
  3. GABA
  4. COMT

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        134

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. COMT

 

 

5.1-64.  Hypnotic analgesia refers to

 

  1. the use of hypnosis to reduce anxiety.
  2. hypnotic techniques designed to reduce fear.
  3. the use of hypnosis to reduce pain.
  4. the tendency for hypnotized individuals to feel more pain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. the use of hypnosis to reduce pain.

 

 

5.1-65.  The primary goal of meditation is to

 

  1. focus consciousness on immediate worldly concerns.

Incorrect: On the contrary, reducing consciousness on “worldly concerns” would be a goal of meditation.

  1. achieve a state of heightened bodily arousal but lowered awareness.
  2. help individuals feel physically relaxed and provide a time-out from tension.
  3. change consciousness to enhance self-knowledge and well-being.

Correct: The goal of meditation is to achieve a deep state of tranquility, which enhances well-being and self-knowledge.  Practitioners suggest that some forms of meditation heighten consciousness and allow people to see familiar things in new ways.  Recent research suggests that meditation might help slow the natural loss of cortical thickness as we age.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. change consciousness to enhance self-knowledge and well-being.

 

 

5.1-66.  In contrast to concentrative meditation, a person who practices mindfulness meditation learns to

 

  1. focus on and regulate his or her breathing.
  2. minimize external stimulation.
  3. generate specific mental images.

Incorrect: This might be a goal of concentrative meditation.

  1. let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind.

Correct: During concentrative meditation, a person may focus on breathing, free the mind from all thought, assume certain yogic positions of the body, minimize external stimulation, or generate certain mental images.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind.

 

 

5.1-67.  When she first started taking drugs, a person suffering from an addiction found that they markedly affected her perceptions. Now, however, she finds that greater dosages are required to achieve the same effects. The addict is experiencing

 

  1. withdrawal symptoms.

Incorrect: Withdrawal refers to the negative, unpleasant physical symptoms that occur when a person who has a drug addiction stops using their drug of choice.

  1. psychological dependence.
  2. tolerance.

Correct: Repeated episodes of drug use condition the brain to produce responses that push back against the drug’s effects.  Because the body pushes back, greater doses are required for the drug to have the same effect.

  1. intolerance.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        136

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. tolerance.

 

 

5.1-68.  Someone who normally drinks a substantial amount of alcohol shows up at the local drug treatment center complaining of nausea, sweats, shakes, and other physical symptoms. He comments that he has not had a drink of alcohol for quite some time. From this description, it would appear that he

 

  1. has developed tolerance for alcohol.
  2. suffers from psychological dependence on alcohol.
  3. has a craving for alcohol.

Incorrect: There is a bigger problem than a simple craving here, and it is called addiction.

  1. has become addicted to alcohol.

Correct: A person who is addicted may have painful withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not in his body.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. has become addicted to alcohol.

 

5.1-69.             A worker says to his friend that he craves alcohol and can’t wait to get home to drink a few cans of beer. From this description, it appears that the worker has developed ________ alcohol.

 

  1. tolerance for
  2. physiological dependence on

Incorrect: The craving that is described in this question refers to psychological, not physiological, dependence.

  1. an addiction to
  2. psychological dependence on

Correct: In this case, a person’s lifestyle revolves around the substance and his capacity to function is limited or impaired.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. psychological dependence on

 

 

5.1-70.  Which type of drugs lead to the most dramatic changes in consciousness?

 

  1. barbiturates
  2. depressants
  3. hallucinogens
  4. opiates

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. hallucinogens

 

 

5.1-71.  Which of the following drugs does NOT belong in the same group as the others?

 

  1. LSD

Incorrect: LSD is a hallucinogen. So are PCP and cannabis. Morphine is an opioid.

  1. cannabis
  2. PCP
  3. morphine

Correct: All of these drugs can be put in the hallucinogen category except morphine. Morphine is an opiate and works through the action of suppressing reaction to stimuli and suppressing physical sensation.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. morphine

 

 

5.1-72.  Hallucinogenic drugs typically act in the brain by affecting the use of

 

  1. cannabinoids.
  2. THC.
  3. the neurotransmitter serotonin.
  4. the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. the neurotransmitter serotonin.

 

 

5.1-73.  Imagine that you have received a book about plants for your birthday. As you thumb through it, you come across a plant that apparently produces euphoria, a sense of well-being, and depending on the context, fear, anxiety, and confusion. Its active ingredient is THC and it has psychoactive effects. Because of a course you took at school, you recognize this plant as

 

  1. cannabis.

Correct: Cannabis is found in both hashish (the solidified resin of the plant) and marijuana (the dried leaves and flowers of the plant). Whatever the dose, the effects may be negative, including fear, anxiety, and confusion, and/or range from mild and pleasant to hallucinogenic.

  1. cocoa.
  2. toadstools.
  3. coffee.

Incorrect: The active ingredient in coffee is caffeine, not THC.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. cannabis.

 

 

5.1-74.  Researchers have determined that the active chemicals in marijuana, the cannabinoids, bind to specific receptors in the brain.  Later research has shown that endogenous cannabinoids exist in the brain, and that they play an ongoing role in food consumption.  Besides their role in regulating appetite, endocannabinoids also

 

  1. play a role in reward systems in the brain.

Correct: Because they play a role in reward systems in the brain, endocannabinoids have the effect of making people seek foods that are tasty or sweet. The knowledge that endocannabinoids increase appetite has stimulated research regarding drugs that prevent endocannabinoids from having their usual effect, possibly leading to appetite suppression and weight loss.

  1. cause cravings for sour tastes.

Incorrect: There is nothing in your textbook that supports this statement.

  1. decrease pleasure when sweet foods are eaten.
  2. play a role in inhibition of depressed mood.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        138

Topic:  Critical Thinking in Your Life:  What Can We Learn from “the Munchies”?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. play a role in reward systems in the brain.

 

 

5.1-75.  What does the research regarding “the munchies” demonstrate in addition to possible development of drugs that can assist in weight control?

 

  1. Researchers should not depend on real-world observations.
  2. Researchers can use the information they have now about endocannabinoids only for expanding research regarding weight control.
  3. Research progresses from real-world observations to a productive research agenda.

Correct: With the goal of understanding why marijuana has an effect on appetite, researchers have generated insights that have led to promising treatments for people who eat too little and people who eat too much.  With the knowledge that endocannabinoids have important impact on the brain’s reward circuits, researchers believe that drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system may also lead to successful treatments for pain and addiction.

  1. Real-world observations always lead to hypotheses that cannot be tested.

Incorrect: The opposite is correct. Observations lead to hypotheses that can be tested.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        138

Topic:  Critical Thinking in Your Life:  What Can We Learn from “the Munchies”?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Research progresses from real-world observations to a productive research agenda.

 

 

5.1-76.  This drug, classified as an opiate, produces a rush of pleasure when injected and is likely to lead to serious addiction. What is it?

 

  1. LSD
  2. benzodiazepine
  3. cocaine
  4. heroin

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        138

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. heroin

 

 

5.1-77.  Drugs such as barbiturates and alcohol are classified as depressants because they

 

  1. inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

Correct: By doing so, these drugs depress (slow down) the mental and physical activity of the body.

  1. lead to tolerance.

Incorrect: Tolerance is not unique to the category of drugs called depressants.

  1. bring about depression when they are not being used.
  2. are likely to cause a variety of mood disorders, especially depression.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        138

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

 

 

5.1-78.  Depressants achieve their effects, in part, by facilitating neural communication at synapses that use the neurotransmitter

 

  1. serotonin.
  2. dopamine.
  3. norepinephrine.
  4. GABA.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        138-139

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. GABA.

 

 

5.1-79.  An elementary school student is putting together facts for a brochure on alcohol use. The student should check his facts, however, because it is NOT true that

 

  1. driving accidents occur six times more often to individuals with 0.10% alcohol in their bloodstream than to those with half that amount.
  2. at blood concentration levels as low as 0.05%, perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes can already begin to deteriorate.
  3. the body can break down alcohol at a very fast rate.
  4. at small dosages alcohol can slightly improve an adult’s speed of reaction.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        139

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. the body can break down alcohol at a very fast rate.

 

 

5.1-80.  Along with other depressants, alcohol appears to affect ________ activity.

 

  1. serotonin

Incorrect: As your textbook notes, these drugs most rapidly affect the GABA system in your brain.

  1. endorphin
  2. norepinephrine
  3. GABA

Correct: GABA is an inhibitor, decreasing the rate of neural transmission in the central nervous system, thereby slowing down the activity of the body and mind.  This activity occurs in addition to alcohol stimulating the release of dopamine, which enhances pleasure.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        139

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. GABA

 

 

5.1-81.  The serious addiction that often accompanies stimulant use

 

  1. is a urban myth.
  2. is time-limited and will fade on its own over a short period of time.
  3. is not related to the actions of neurotransmitters in the brain.

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. may be related to long-term changes in the brain’s neurotransmitter systems.

Correct: Stimulants achieve their effects by increasing brain levels of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.  For example, stimulants act to prevent the action of molecules that ordinarily remove dopamine from synapses.  Addiction may arise because changes may become long-term with use of stimulants over time.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        140

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer d. may be related to long-term changes in the brain’s neurotransmitter systems.

 

 

5.1-82.  Although they may seek increased self-confidence, greater energy, and euphoria, heavy users of this stimulant drug may experience hallucinations and paranoid delusions. What is it?

 

  1. alcohol
  2. cocaine
  3. Valium
  4. Xanax

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        140

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. cocaine

 

 

5.1-83.  In the brain, nicotine

 

  1. affects regions which are also targeted by depressants.

Incorrect: Nicotine is a stimulant, so it would not work on the same brain regions as depressants.

  1. does not seem to mimic the natural chemicals released by the brain.
  2. stimulates receptors that make you feel good when you have achieved a rewarding goal.

Correct: Nicotine mimics natural chemicals in the brain that make us feel good when we do something right, a mechanism that aids survival.  When nicotine causes these receptors to respond, it feels to the smoker as if smoking is the right thing to do.

  1. fools receptor sites into responding as if it were bad for you to be smoking, although the smoker continues to smoke due to nicotine addiction.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. stimulates receptors that make you feel good when you have achieved a rewarding goal.

 

 

True/False Questions

 

5.2-1.  Psychologists have only recently become interested in the topic of consciousness. In fact, early researchers such as Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, and William James argued against the inclusion of consciousness as appropriate subject matter for modern psychology.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        121

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-2.  The textbook suggests that consciousness aids in our survival and provides a sense of where we fit in the world, but does not contribute to our sense of who we are (our sense of self).

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        121

Topic:  Introduction

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-3.  There is a range of nonconscious processes that rarely, if ever, impinge upon consciousness.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        122

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-4.  When someone asks Tony who won the World Series last year, he has to think a moment before giving the correct answer. Psychologists who study consciousness would say that the information was one of his preconscious memories.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        122

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-5.   A think-aloud protocol could be used to document the mental strategies and representations of knowledge that participants employ while engaged in a task.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-6.  It is likely that everyone within a culture shares the same personal construction of reality.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        124

Topic:  The Functions of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-7.  The change in seasons over course of a year is a good example of a circadian rhythm.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-8.  Traveling eastbound creates greater jet lag than does westbound flight.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-9.  The EEG pattern during REM sleep resembles that of a person who is awake.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-10. Individuals are most likely to be dreaming when in NREM sleep.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        127

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-11.  Recent research has shown that nearly all individuals who report that they are suffering from insomnia actually have normal sleep.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-12.  The technical term for sleep disorders involving nightmares is somnambulism.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-13.  The activation-synthesis model proposed by Hobson and McCarley is most useful as an explanation of the processes underlying hypnosis.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        132

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-14.  Nearly everyone can be hypnotized.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        134

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

5.2-15.  Research suggests that hypnosis may be a valuable aid to pain reduction.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-16.  During mindfulness meditation, a person learns to let thoughts and memories pass freely through the mind without reacting to them.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        135

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-17.  Technically, a person can experience psychological dependence and craving for a drug without developing addiction.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-18.  LSD and PCP are two common hallucinogens.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

5.2-19.  Caffeine and alcohol are two widely used drugs that are classified as stimulants.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        140-141

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b.  false

 

 

5.2-20.  Chemicals in nicotine stimulate receptors that make you feel good whenever you have done something rewarding.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        141

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

5.3-1.  __________ are memories that are accessible to consciousness only after something draws your attention to them.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        122

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Preconscious memories

 

 

5.3-2.  In a research study, participants are wearing devices that signal them when they should provide reports about what they are feeling and thinking. The researcher is using the __________ method.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: experience-sampling

 

 

5.3-3.  Daily changes in arousal levels, metabolism, body temperature, and hormonal activity are influenced by the day and night time cycle known as a(n) __________ rhythm.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: circadian

 

 

5.3-4.  Often combined with cataplexy, __________ is a sleep disorder characterized by periodic sleep during the daytime. It should not be confused with __________, a sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        129-130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: narcolepsy; sleep apnea

 

 

5.3-5.  A child who wakes suddenly in a state of extreme arousal often marked by a panicky scream is experiencing a __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: night terror (sleep terror)

 

 

5.3-6.  In Freudian dream analysis, the __________ content is the hidden meaning of a dream, whereas the __________ content is the surface description.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        131

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: latent; manifest

 

 

5.3-7.  Have you ever been aware that you are dreaming while you are dreaming? This conscious awareness is called __________ and some people believe that it is a learnable skill.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        132

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Factual/Conceptual

Answer: lucid dreaming

 

 

5.3-8.  Researchers have suggested that people can be sorted into __________ according to their preferred patterns of sleep and wakefulness.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        133

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life: Are You a Morning Type or an Evening Type?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: chronotypes

 

 

5.3-9.  A drug addict needs more and more of a drug in order to achieve his desired state. This situation is referred to as __________ and is related to physiological dependence.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        136

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: tolerance

 

 

5.3-10.  A person hears voices when none are present. Such false perceptions, in the absence of objective stimulation, are known as __________.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        137

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Factual

Answer: hallucinations

 

 

Essay Questions

 

5.4-1.  Once again, your teacher has startled you with a question when your mind is elsewhere. You try to bluff your way out of the dilemma you find yourself in, but to no avail. In order to help you understand the question she has asked you, your teacher asks you to write an essay on the topic of consciousness, in which you first must compare consciousness with nonconscious processes, preconscious memories, and the unconscious, and show why we need consciousness.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        121-123

Topic:  The Contents of Consciousness

Skill:    Applied

Answer: Consciousness is an ambiguous term. Define the following: consciousness, nonconscious processes, preconscious memories, and unconscious. Explain some of the uses of consciousness such as its role in survival and in personal and cultural constructions of reality.

 

 

5.4-2.  One night you dream that you are a world-famous sleep researcher. Discuss the kinds of things you have learned from your sleep research. Discuss circadian rhythms, the physiological changes that accompany sleep, and examples of the various sleep disorders.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        126-130

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Applied

Answer: We have internal clocks to which our bodies are attuned. Discuss circadian rhythms. Are they synchronized to external cues?  Include some events that can disrupt circadian rhythms. Include information about sleep cycles; mention each stage of sleep and how it fits in the cycle. Give examples of sleep disorders such as insomnia, narcolepsy, or nightmares.

 

 

5.4-3.  Discuss dreams. What are the theories proposed to explain why people dream? Include a discussion of the importance of REM sleep. What is a lucid dream and how does it relate to the theories of why people dream?

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        130-133

Topic:  Sleep and Dreams

Skill:    Conceptual/Factual/Applied

Answer: When do dreams most often occur?  Discuss two theories of why we dream.  Include a discussion of REM sleep. For what does REM stand, and how does this paradoxical sleep state differ from NREM sleep in terms of dreaming? Define lucid dreams. Discuss the thought that they allow people to gain “control over uncontrollable” events.

 

 

5.4-4.  In every culture, there are people who push the limits of consciousness and seek altered states of experience. What choices are available with respect to expanding the normal boundaries of consciousness? Describe the possibilities, including in your description information about lucid dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, and psychoactive drugs.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        132-141

Topic:  Altered States of Consciousness; Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Altered states of consciousness transcend the normal boundaries of conscious experience. Define and describe lucid dreaming. Discuss hypnosis and suggestibility.  Meditation is designed to increase self-awareness. Explain how it might do that. How do drugs affect consciousness? Mention tolerance and dependence.

 

 

5.4-5.  Though there are many positive uses of psychoactive drugs such as the treatment of psychological disorders, many people use drugs that are not prescribed to enhance physical and psychological health. Discuss the physiological and psychological consequences of drug use, giving examples of both illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drugs. Be sure to include information about the four categories of psychoactive drugs.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        135-141

Topic:  Mind-Altering Drugs

Skill:    Conceptual; Factual; Applied

Answer: Include a definition of psychoactive drugs. Include the four categories of them.  Give examples of legitimate uses of drugs in each category, as well as illegal and unhealthy uses. Describe psychological dependence, physiological dependence, addiction and tolerance, as well as withdrawal.