Test Bank for Psychology Perspectives and Connections 4th Edition By Feist

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Test Bank for Psychology Perspectives and Connections 4th Edition By Feist

1) Sarah is observing high school students use Facebook and Skype. Her purpose is to see how these students perceive information, how they acquire and use language, and how these media change the way they communicate in the society. She is most likely a student of

  1. A) anthropology.
  2. B) human resource management.
  3. C) psychology.
  4. D) history.

 

2) ________ helps us understand people through storytelling, character exploration, development of setting, and use of imagery.

  1. A) History
  2. B) Anthropology
  3. C) Literature
  4. D) Psychology

 

3) ________ helps us understand people through description and analysis of past events and artifacts.

  1. A) Literature
  2. B) History
  3. C) Sociology
  4. D) Anthropology

 

4) ________ can be best defined as the study of human culture and origins.

  1. A) Anthropology
  2. B) Psychology
  3. C) Literature
  4. D) Archaeology

 

5) ________ seeks to understand people in terms of large-scale social forces and with a focus on groups rather than individuals.

  1. A) Archaeology
  2. B) Sociology
  3. C) Literature
  4. D) Psychology

 

6) ________ is the science of understanding individuals—animals as well as people.

  1. A) Archaeology
  2. B) Sociology
  3. C) Anthropology
  4. D) Psychology

 

 

7) Psychology is most accurately defined as the

  1. A) study of people through description and analysis of past events and artifacts.
  2. B) study of people in terms of large-scale social forces and with a focus on groups rather than individuals.
  3. C) scientific study of thought and behavior.
  4. D) scientific study of human culture and origins.

 

8) Psyche, the root word of “psychology,” comes from the Greek for

  1. A) heart.
  2. B) soul.
  3. C) mind.
  4. D) personality.

 

9) Which of the following statements is true of psychology?

  1. A) Modern psychology is more likely to study the brain and behavior than the mind.
  2. B) It does not have any other disciplines organized around it.
  3. C) It is a core science, along with medicine, physics, and math.
  4. D) It is not a science, but a clinical practice.

 

10) Core sciences are those that

  1. A) have many other disciplines organized around them.
  2. B) are a combination of several different sciences.
  3. C) are always drawn from common sense.
  4. D) are the simplest to understand.

 

11) In the context of the subdisciplines of psychology, which of the following is the study of how people perceive information, how they learn and remember, how they acquire and use language, and how they solve problems?

  1. A) Developmental psychology
  2. B) Cognitive psychology
  3. C) Behavioral neuroscience
  4. D) Personality psychology

 

12) Dr. Hughes conducts laboratory studies of the thought processes involved in problem solving. Which of the following types of psychologists is she most likely to be?

  1. A) A cognitive psychologist
  2. B) An evolutionary psychologist
  3. C) An educational psychologist
  4. D) A social psychologist

 

13) In which of the following subdisciplines of psychology are researchers often referred to as experimental psychologists?

  1. A) Social psychology
  2. B) Cognitive psychology
  3. C) Clinical psychology
  4. D) Educational psychology

 

14) Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a cognitive psychologist?

  1. A) How do people visualize objects in their minds?
  2. B) How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feelings, or perceptions?
  3. C) Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
  4. D) How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?

 

15) In the context of the subdisciplines of psychology, a researcher who is studying how people visualize objects in their minds is most likely studying

  1. A) behavioral neuroscience.
  2. B) cognitive psychology.
  3. C) clinical psychology.
  4. D) personality psychology.

 

16) Developmental psychology can be best described as the study of

  1. A) how we perceive information, how we learn and remember, how we acquire and use language, and how we solve problems.
  2. B) the links among brain, mind, and behavior.
  3. C) the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.
  4. D) how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.

 

17) Mohit conducts research on how thought and behavior change and remain stable across the life span. This indicates that Mohit is most likely a

  1. A) behavioral neuroscientist.
  2. B) biological psychologist.
  3. C) developmental psychologist.
  4. D) cognitive psychologist.

 

18) Benjamin studies the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and how they influence behavior and thought. This implies that Benjamin is most likely a(n):

  1. A) clinical psychologist.
  2. B) biological psychologist.
  3. C) developmental psychologist.
  4. D) educational psychologist.

 

19) Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct a research on how reasoning skills or emotional skills change with age?

  1. A) Clinical psychologists
  2. B) Behavioral psychologists
  3. C) Developmental psychologists
  4. D) Educational psychologists

 

 

20) ________ can be best defined as the study of the links among brain, mind, and behavior.

  1. A) Social psychology
  2. B) Industrial psychology
  3. C) Behavioral neuroscience
  4. D) Developmental psychology

 

21) Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a developmental psychologist?

  1. A) How do people visualize objects in their minds?
  2. B) How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feelings, or perceptions?
  3. C) Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
  4. D) How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?

 

22) ________ can be best defined as the study of the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.

  1. A) Clinical psychology
  2. B) Biological psychology
  3. C) Social psychology
  4. D) Educational psychology

 

23) Which of the following studies is most likely to be conducted by Cathy, who is majoring in biological psychology, for her honors thesis?

  1. A) The social origins of major depressive disorders
  2. B) The extent to which childhood peer experiences influence adult behavior
  3. C) The relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and happiness
  4. D) A computer model of humans’ deductive reasoning processes

 

24) Using noninvasive advanced imaging techniques and electrical recordings, ________ study the structure and functions of the living brain.

  1. A) behavioral neuroscientists
  2. B) developmental psychologists
  3. C) positive psychologists
  4. D) personality psychologists

 

25) There is a great deal of overlap between neuroscience and ________. The latter is an older term that is being replaced by behavioral neuroscience in contemporary psychology.

  1. A) biological psychology
  2. B) social psychology
  3. C) clinical psychology
  4. D) educational psychology

 

 

26) Personality psychology can be best defined as the study of

  1. A) how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.
  2. B) the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.
  3. C) the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  4. D) what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.

 

27) Benedict conducts research on whether the tendency to be friendly, anxious, or hostile affects people’s health, career choice, or interpersonal relationships. This implies that Benedict is most likely a student of

  1. A) behavioral neuroscience.
  2. B) biological psychology.
  3. C) cognitive psychology.
  4. D) personality psychology.

 

28) ________ can be best defined as the study of how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.

  1. A) Clinical psychology
  2. B) Social psychology
  3. C) Educational psychology
  4. D) Industrial psychology

 

29) Giovanni conducts research on prejudice and racism to understand how people of one group perceive and treat people in other groups. This indicates that Giovanni is most likely a student of

  1. A) clinical psychology.
  2. B) social psychology.
  3. C) cognitive psychology.
  4. D) personality psychology.

 

30) Dr. Hansen is conducting a study to understand whether or not one’s level of extraversion stays the same from infancy to adulthood. She is most likely a

  1. A) geneticist.
  2. B) cognitive psychologist.
  3. C) personality psychologist.
  4. D) doctor of osteopathy.

 

31) Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a social psychologist?

  1. A) Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
  2. B) How do our reasoning skills change as we age?
  3. C) How do people visualize objects in their minds?
  4. D) How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?

 

 

32) Clinical psychology can be best defined as the study of

  1. A) how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.
  2. B) how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.
  3. C) the diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and ways to promote psychological health.
  4. D) what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.

 

33) ________ is the single largest subdiscipline in psychology.

  1. A) Social
  2. B) Clinical
  3. C) Educational
  4. D) Cognitive

 

34) Prejudice and racism are topics most likely to be studied by

  1. A) geneticists.
  2. B) cognitive psychologists.
  3. C) neurologists.
  4. D) social psychologists.

 

35) ________ treat and assess relatively healthy people and assist them with career and vocational interests.

  1. A) Cognitive psychologists
  2. B) Health psychologists
  3. C) Counseling psychologists
  4. D) Clinical psychologists

 

36) James has received training in medicine and has an MD degree. In addition to offering therapy, he can prescribe drugs. Based on this information, it can be concluded that James is a

  1. A) clinical psychologist.
  2. B) counseling psychologist.
  3. C) psychiatrist.
  4. D) psychologist with his own clinic.

 

37) Topics in ________ range from studies of how stress is linked to illness and immune function to research on the role of social factors in how people interact with health care professionals.

  1. A) cognitive psychology
  2. B) health psychology
  3. C) forensic psychology
  4. D) educational psychology

 

 

38) Which of the following subdisciplines of psychology attempts to understand special populations of students, such as the academically gifted and those with special needs?

  1. A) Cognitive psychology
  2. B) Health psychology
  3. C) Counseling psychology
  4. D) Educational psychology

 

39) Which of the following is most likely to be the focus of educational psychology?

  1. A) The relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought
  2. B) The role of psychological factors in the physical health and illness of students
  3. C) The changes in our emotional skills that take place as we age
  4. D) The effectiveness of particular teaching techniques

 

40) The industrial side of industrial/organizational psychology

  1. A) involves matching employees to their jobs and uses psychological principles and methods to select employees and evaluate job performance.
  2. B) aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
  3. C) develops treatments for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  4. D) explores how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.

 

41) The organizational side of industrial/organizational psychology

  1. A) involves matching employees to their job and uses psychological methods to select and evaluate employees.
  2. B) focuses on the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and ways to promote psychological health.
  3. C) aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
  4. D) considers what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.

 

42) Philippe primarily focuses on improving the athletic performance of his patients through techniques such as relaxation and visualization. This implies that Philippe is most likely a(n)

  1. A) cognitive psychologist.
  2. B) sports psychologist.
  3. C) counseling psychologist.
  4. D) educational psychologist.

 

43) Mira is evaluating a case where a mother was charged with being incompetent and unfit to have custody of her children. This implies that Mira is most likely a

  1. A) forensic psychologist.
  2. B) cognitive psychologist.
  3. C) counseling psychologist.
  4. D) behavioral neuroscientist.

 

44) Norman is asked to evaluate and provide evidence against allegations of child abuse. This indicates that Norman is most likely a

  1. A) behavioral neuroscientist.
  2. B) cognitive psychologist.
  3. C) counseling psychologist.
  4. D) forensic psychologist.

 

45) ________ is a blend of psychology, law, and criminal justice.

  1. A) Social psychology
  2. B) Forensic psychology
  3. C) Developmental psychology
  4. D) Cognitive psychology

 

46) Which of the following tasks is most likely to be performed by a forensic psychologist?

  1. A) Applying principles of psychology to the selection and training of employees
  2. B) Evaluating the effectiveness of a particular teaching technique
  3. C) Providing career counseling to students of criminal justice
  4. D) Evaluating the state of mind of a defendant at the time of a crime

 

47) Which of the following is true concerning the science and practice of psychology?

  1. A) The practice of psychology originated first, followed by the science of psychology.
  2. B) The science of psychology originated first, followed by the practice of psychology.
  3. C) The science and practice of psychology originated at roughly the same time.
  4. D) The practice and science of psychology originated at the same time but in different places.

 

48) For which of the following reasons is ancient Greece significant in the history of psychology?

  1. A) The foundations for psychology as a science can be traced to ancient Greece.
  2. B) Wilhelm Wundt, one of the first known psychologists, established his laboratory in ancient Greece.
  3. C) The first doctorate in psychology was awarded in ancient Greece.
  4. D) The ancient Greeks compiled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM).

 

49) ________ can be best defined as medicine men or women who treated the possessed by driving out demons with elaborate rituals, such as exorcisms, incantations, and prayers.

  1. A) Hunters
  2. B) Chiefs
  3. C) Shamans
  4. D) Laggards

 

 

50) Which of the following statements is true of the practice of trephination?

  1. A) It involved tying a woman’s hands and feet and throwing her into a lake or river to determine whether she was a witch.
  2. B) It was a technique used by the Church to distinguish good witchcraft from bad.
  3. C) It was used to make connections between a person’s bodily organs and emotions.
  4. D) It involved drilling a small hole in a person’s skull to release spirits or demons responsible for psychological disturbances.

 

51) The Greek physician ________ was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.

  1. A) Galen
  2. B) Hippocrates
  3. C) Socrates
  4. D) Aristotle

 

52) Which of the following statements is true regarding the ancient views on psychology?

  1. A) The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions.
  2. B) The earliest cultures to seek natural explanations for disorders were the ancient Americans.
  3. C) The ancient Chinese (2600 BCE) believed in supernatural explanations of psychological disorders.
  4. D) Frenchman Philip Pinel was the first to write about a man suffering from a phobia of heights—what we now call acrophobia.

 

53) The ancient Chinese made connections between a person’s bodily organs and their emotions. According to these connections, the ________ housed ideas and intelligence.

  1. A) heart
  2. B) liver
  3. C) spleen
  4. D) kidneys

 

54) In medieval Europe from approximately 400 to 1400 CE (Common Era), psychological disorders were attributed to

  1. A) biological issues.
  2. B) deeds in past life.
  3. C) social status.
  4. D) supernatural causes.

 

55) In the context of the history of psychology, which of the following is true of the Frenchman Philippe Pinel?

  1. A) He popularized the term dementia praecox (premature dementia).
  2. B) He was the first major proponent of humane therapies.
  3. C) He established the view that knowledge and thoughts come from observations.
  4. D) He said that childhood experiences are responsible for adult personality development.

 

 

56) In the United States, the pioneer of moral treatment of the mentally ill was

  1. A) René Descartes.
  2. B) Sigmund Freud.
  3. C) Dorothea Dix.
  4. D) John Locke.

 

57) What modern view of psychological disorders developed at the end of the 1800s?

  1. A) Psychological disorders are a form of illness that should be diagnosed and treated.
  2. B) Psychological disorders are actually thought disorders rather than instances of spirit possession caused by witchcraft.
  3. C) Psychological disorders are mood disorders and should be treated by psychoanalysis.
  4. D) Psychological disorders have medical causes and should be treated by trephination.

 

58) Which of the following is true of the clinically based approach of psychoanalysis?

  1. A) It assumes that the conscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior.
  2. B) It assumes that dreams lack meaning and are the most indirect route to the conscious mind.
  3. C) It assumes that the conscious blocking, or repression, of disturbing thoughts and impulses is at the heart of all maladaptive childhood behavior.
  4. D) It assumes that people use psychological defenses to protect themselves against threatening impulses, thoughts, feelings, and fantasies.

 

59) Which of the following is true of the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin?

  1. A) He was the first to distinguish thought disorders from the mood disorders of melancholia.
  2. B) He was the first major proponent of humane therapies.
  3. C) He established the view that knowledge and thoughts come from observations.
  4. D) He coined the term psychophysics for the study of the psychological and physical worlds.

 

60) ________ was the first to distinguish thought disorders (schizophrenia) from the mood disorders of melancholia (depression) and manic depression (bipolar disorder). His views were a major influence on diagnostic categories formulated during the 20th century.

  1. A) Dorothea Dix
  2. B) Sigmund Freud
  3. C) John Locke
  4. D) Emil Kraepelin

 

61) Around the turn of the 20th century in Austria, Sigmund Freud developed a form of therapy known as

  1. A) cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  2. B) aversion therapy.
  3. C) psychoanalysis.
  4. D) behavior modification.

 

 

62) Psychoanalysis assumes that

  1. A) underlying biological events such as hormonal changes mediate all human behavior.
  2. B) the unconscious mind is the most powerful motivator of behavior.
  3. C) social forces are the most powerful motivators of adult behavior.
  4. D) dreams have no meaning to or relationship with the unconscious mind.

 

63) The assumption that dreams have meaning and are the most direct route to the unconscious mind was put forth by

  1. A) Sigmund Freud.
  2. B) Wilhelm Wundt.
  3. C) William James.
  4. D) G. Stanley Hall.

 

64) Psychoanalysis assumes that the unconscious blocking, or repression, of disturbing thoughts and impulses—especially ________—is at the heart of all maladaptive adult behavior.

  1. A) depressive and unethical impulses
  2. B) aggressive and unethical impulses
  3. C) illogical and depressive impulses
  4. D) sexual and aggressive impulses

 

65) The ________ focuses on changing a person’s maladaptive thought and behavior patterns by discussing and rewarding more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving.

  1. A) sublimation therapy
  2. B) cognitive-behavioral therapy
  3. C) thought stimulation therapy
  4. D) reaction formation therapy

 

66) Psychologists use a standardized reference when diagnosing psychological disorders called

  1. A) the Interpretation of Dreams.
  2. B) the American Psychological Association Guide to Mental Disorders (APAGMD).
  3. C) Dr. Freud’s Guide to Mental Illnesses.
  4. D) the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5.

 

67) Which of the following behavior patterns was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973?

  1. A) Dissociative identity disorder
  2. B) Homosexuality
  3. C) Conversion disorder
  4. D) Anxiety disorder

 

68) Which of the following fields is considered a “parent” of the discipline of scientific psychology?

  1. A) Literature
  2. B) Physics
  3. C) Philosophy
  4. D) Chemistry

 

69) In the context of scientific psychology, the view that knowledge and thoughts come from experience and observations is known as

  1. A) introspectionism.
  2. B) humanism.
  3. C) empiricism.
  4. D) cognitivism.

 

70) In the context of scientific psychology, who among the following established the view that knowledge and thoughts come from experience and observations?

  1. A) Wilhelm Wundt
  2. B) John Locke
  3. C) Mary Whiton Calkins
  4. D) Hermann von Helmholtz

 

71) Psychology gained its independence from philosophy when researchers started to examine and test human sensations and perception using

  1. A) abstract methods.
  2. B) behavioral methods.
  3. C) scientific methods.
  4. D) reflection methods.

 

72) In the context of psychology, which of the following is a major difference between scientists and philosophers?

  1. A) Philosophers do not collect data to test their ideas.
  2. B) According to scientists, the mind simply receives what our sensory organs—eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue—take in from the outside world.
  3. C) Philosophers believe that human beings create knowledge from experience.
  4. D) According to scientists, human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.

 

73) Psychology as a modern empirical science

  1. A) originates from medicine.
  2. B) is based on the laws of nature.
  3. C) tests predictions about behavior with systematic observations and by gathered data.
  4. D) believes that human beings create knowledge from reflection and thinking.

 

74) In the 1870s, the first laboratories in psychology were opened in

  1. A) Germany.
  2. B) China.
  3. C) the United States.
  4. D) Austria.

 

 

75) In the context of psychology, ________ is the study of how people experience physical stimuli such as light, sound waves, and touch.

  1. A) behavioral neuroscience
  2. B) behavioral genetics
  3. C) psychoacoustics
  4. D) psychophysics

 

76) To compare psychophysics and physics, if physicists study the physical properties of light and sound, psychophysicists study

  1. A) sources of light and sound.
  2. B) human perception of light and sound.
  3. C) commercial uses of light and sound.
  4. D) effects of light and sound on the environment.

 

77) ________ conducted some of the earliest research in perception and laid the groundwork for what later became known as psychophysics.

  1. A) William James
  2. B) Johns Hopkins
  3. C) Rosalie Raynor
  4. D) Ernst Weber

 

78) Who among the following coined the term “psychophysics”?

  1. A) Ernst Weber
  2. B) Wilhelm Wundt
  3. C) Gustav Fechner
  4. D) Charles Darwin

 

79) In which year did Wundt set up a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, now considered the birthplace of experimental psychology?

  1. A) 1729
  2. B) 1652
  3. C) 1965
  4. D) 1879

 

80) In the context of the field of psychology, which of the following statements is true of the contribution of Wilhelm Wundt?

  1. A) He gave psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.
  2. B) He proved that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior.
  3. C) He evaluated the effects of social forces on one’s behavior.
  4. D) He conducted some of the earliest research in perception and laid the groundwork for psychophysics.

 

 

81) Who is considered the founder of American psychology?

  1. A) Elizabeth Loftus
  2. B) Carl Jung
  3. C) Sigmund Freud
  4. D) William James

 

82) In the context of the discipline of psychology, which of the following statements is true of the contribution of G. Stanley Hall?

  1. A) He gave psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.
  2. B) He founded the American Psychological Association (APA).
  3. C) He is credited with coining the term “psychophysics.”
  4. D) He proved that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior.

 

83) Which of the following is one of G. Stanley Hall’s achievements in the field of psychology?

  1. A) He opened the first laboratory in experimental psychology in Leipzig, Germany.
  2. B) He established behaviorism to study observable behavior.
  3. C) He opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
  4. D) He laid the foundation for cognitive science with his book Remembering.

 

84) Which of the following statements is true of Mary Whiton Calkins?

  1. A) She was the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA).
  2. B) She was the founder of the American Psychological Association (APA).
  3. C) She opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
  4. D) She proposed that the mind is a blank slate to be written on by experience.

 

85) In the context of the discipline of psychology, identify a true statement about structuralism.

  1. A) It proposed that perception occurs in unified wholes, where the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
  2. B) It asserted that psychology could be a true science only if it examined observable behavior.
  3. C) It believed that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.
  4. D) It promoted personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential.

 

86) ________ believed that a detailed analysis of experience as it happened provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.

  1. A) Socialists
  2. B) Structuralists
  3. C) Behaviorists
  4. D) Functionalists

 

 

87) In which of the following approaches to psychology was introspection the primary research method used to understand thoughts and behavior?

  1. A) Psychophysics
  2. B) Structuralism
  3. C) Empiricism
  4. D) Behaviorism

 

88) Which of the following early approaches to psychology focused on why and how people think and feel?

  1. A) Socialism
  2. B) Behaviorism
  3. C) Structuralism
  4. D) Functionalism

 

89) Max, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in thought and behavior. He attempted to break experiences down into their component parts in order to study them. Max was most likely a

  1. A) structuralist.
  2. B) functionalist.
  3. C) behaviorist.
  4. D) psychoanalyst.

 

90) Jim, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the mind works. He focused on his own experience of pain in an effort to understand how and why people feel pain. Jim was most likely a

  1. A) structuralist.
  2. B) functionalist.
  3. C) behaviorist.
  4. D) psychoanalyst.

 

91) Which of the following psychologists asserted that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives?

  1. A) William James
  2. B) Abraham Maslow
  3. C) John Watson
  4. D) Carl Rogers

 

92) ________ asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.

  1. A) Structuralism
  2. B) Behaviorism
  3. C) Socialism
  4. D) Functionalism

 

 

93) Ed, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the environment impacts tendencies to act. He believed that focusing on the mind through introspection was not scientific. Ed was most likely a

  1. A) structuralist.
  2. B) functionalist.
  3. C) behaviorist.
  4. D) psychoanalyst.

 

94) Dr. Hennessy believes that psychologists should analyze only human conduct that can be observed, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives. He is most likely a strict

  1. A) humanistic psychologist.
  2. B) functionalist psychologist.
  3. C) behaviorist psychologist.
  4. D) social psychologist.

 

95) Behaviorism is an extreme form of

  1. A) functionalism.
  2. B) environmentalism.
  3. C) structuralism.
  4. D) empiricism.

 

96) Which of the following is defined as a theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential?

  1. A) Humanistic psychology
  2. B) Gestalt psychology
  3. C) Cognitive psychology
  4. D) Evolutionary psychology

 

97) ________ shares with humanism a belief that psychology should focus on studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.

  1. A) Health psychology
  2. B) Developmental psychology
  3. C) Gestalt psychology
  4. D) Positive psychology

 

98) ________ can be defined as a scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.

  1. A) Health psychology
  2. B) Developmental psychology
  3. C) Positive psychology
  4. D) Clinical psychology

 

 

99) ________ is defined as a theory of psychology that maintains that people perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts.

  1. A) Humanistic psychology
  2. B) Positive psychology
  3. C) Evolutionary psychology
  4. D) Gestalt psychology

 

100) In the context of the history of psychology, which of the following is true of Gestalt psychology?

  1. A) It promoted the view that all behavior comes from experience interacting with the world.
  2. B) It proposed that a detailed analysis of experience provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.
  3. C) It asserted that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior.
  4. D) It maintained that people perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts.

 

101) Samantha sees a sign on a club’s marquee that says “CLUB _ EN FRO_ 8PM TO 4AM.” Although some letters are missing from the sign, she knows it is listing the hours when the club is open. Samantha’s perception would be of greatest interest to

  1. A) positive psychologists.
  2. B) Gestalt psychologists.
  3. C) industrial/organizational psychologists.
  4. D) social psychologists.

 

102) Which of the following was used as a new metaphor for the human mind in cognitive psychology?

  1. A) Light switch
  2. B) Camera
  3. C) Computer
  4. D) Transmitter

 

103) Cognitive science focuses on the scientific study of

  1. A) thought.
  2. B) asylums.
  3. C) computers.
  4. D) school psychology.

 

104) If we compare the human mind with a computer, sensation would be analogous to

  1. A) central processing unit (CPU).
  2. B) output.
  3. C) storage device.
  4. D) input.

 

 

105) If we compare the human mind with a computer, behavior and thoughts would be analogous to

  1. A) central processing unit (CPU).
  2. B) output.
  3. C) storage device.
  4. D) input.

 

106) By the 1980s, cognitive science combined many disciplines in addition to psychology. Which of the following is one of these disciplines?

  1. A) Etymology
  2. B) Genealogy
  3. C) Chemistry
  4. D) Anthropology

 

107) Some of the thinking in the new cognitive movement was based on a book by the British psychologist Frederick Bartlett (1886–1969). Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the views of Frederick Bartlett?

  1. A) Memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one’s own beliefs, ideas, and point of view.
  2. B) Psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives.
  3. C) A detailed analysis of experience as it happens provides the most accurate glimpse into the workings of the human mind.
  4. D) Our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of our adult personality.

 

108) By the 1980s, more and more psychologists had become receptive to the ideas that who we are and what we do and think are very much influenced by genetic factors and brain activity, with a long ________ past.

  1. A) Gestalt
  2. B) cognitive
  3. C) educational
  4. D) evolutionary

 

109) In the context of psychological perspectives, which of the following was the focus of the psychoanalytic-psychodynamic perspective?

  1. A) Human thought, behavior, and personality being shaped by forces of evolution
  2. B) Cultural differences that influence the thought and behavior of individuals within each culture
  3. C) The importance of early childhood experience and relationships with parents as guiding forces that shape personality development
  4. D) Understanding and then establishing the conditions that bring about desired behaviors

 

 

110) In the context of psychological perspectives, identify a statement that is true according to the behaviorism-learning perspective.

  1. A) The unconscious mind and motives are much more powerful than the conscious awareness.
  2. B) All behaviors are learned through association and/or their consequences, whether they are reinforced or punished.
  3. C) In order to understand behavior, focus must be on hypothetical and unobservable internal states such as thoughts, feelings, drives, and motives.
  4. D) Cultural differences influence the thought and behavior of individuals within each culture.

 

111) In the context of psychological perspectives, which of the following is an assumption made by the humanistic-positive perspective?

  1. A) Behavior, thought, feelings, and personality are influenced by differences in basic genetic, epigenetic, and neurological systems between individuals.
  2. B) To shape desired behavior, we have to understand and then establish the conditions that bring about those particular behaviors.
  3. C) Early childhood experience and relationships with parents are guiding forces that shape personality development.
  4. D) People strive toward meaning, growth, well-being, happiness, and psychological health.

 

112) Which of the following psychological perspectives makes the assumption that the reason some people have different traits, dispositions, and ways of thinking stems from the differences in their genotype and central nervous system?

  1. A) The psychoanalytic-psychodynamic perspective
  2. B) The neuropsychological-behavioral genetic perspective
  3. C) The cross-cultural perspective
  4. D) The behaviorism-learning perspective

 

113) In the context of psychological perspectives, which of the following statements is most likely true of the cognitive perspective?

  1. A) Early childhood experience and relationships with parents are guiding forces that shape personality development.
  2. B) Behavior, thought, feelings, and personality are influenced by differences in basic genetic, epigenetic, and neurological systems between individuals.
  3. C) The immediate and larger environments impact and mold a person’s personality from birth on.
  4. D) The particular language people learn and use shapes their way of thinking and perceiving.

 

114) Which of the following psychological perspectives makes the assumption that in order to understand people one needs to understand the place and context in which they grew up?

  1. A) The sociocultural perspective
  2. B) The cognitive perspective
  3. C) The behaviorism-learning perspective
  4. D) The humanistic-positive perspective

 

 

115) For millennia, thinkers have argued over what determines our personality and behavior—innate biology or life experience—a conflict known as the ________ debate.

  1. A) nature-nurture
  2. B) mind-body
  3. C) internal-external
  4. D) evolutionary-environmental

 

116) In the context of the key issues in psychology, which of the following is true according to the nature-only view?

  1. A) People are the product of their environmental cues and experiences.
  2. B) There is no predisposition toward particular personality traits and styles of thinking and behaving at birth.
  3. C) Who people are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits.
  4. D) People are all essentially the same at birth.

 

117) Mirza states that people are all essentially the same at birth and that they are the product of their experiences. Mirza’s statement reveals that he believes in the ________ of psychology.

  1. A) nature-only view
  2. B) nurture-only view
  3. C) cognitive perspective
  4. D) humanistic perspective

 

118) Alisha believes that human behavior is solely the result of genetic coding. Her point of view is referred to as the ________ view.

  1. A) nature-only
  2. B) nurture-only
  3. C) environment-only
  4. D) evolution-only

 

119) According to the nurture-only view, we are all essentially the same at birth and we are the product of our

  1. A) inherited traits.
  2. B) experiences.
  3. C) genetic makeup.
  4. D) innate biology.

 

120) The point of view that human behavior is solely the result of ________ and that one can be anything she wants to be appears to be a very Western, very North American idea.

  1. A) genetics
  2. B) nature
  3. C) nurture
  4. D) inborn tendencies

 

 

121) Which of the following is true according to Kandel with respect to certain genes in the human brain?

  1. A) Genes cannot facilitate new connections between neurons in an adult brain.
  2. B) Genes are all present and functional at birth.
  3. C) Genes do not differ between organisms despite variations in experience.
  4. D) Genes can be turned on or off by our experiences.

 

122) The brains of people and animals reared in richly stimulating environments differ from the brains of people reared in understimulating, neglectful, or abusive environments. This happens because

  1. A) genetic forces have a role to play a minimal role in shaping who we are.
  2. B) environmental forces work along with genetic forces to shape who we are.
  3. C) who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically-based traits.
  4. D) who we are essentially comes from our innate biology.

 

123) Which of the following terms is defined as the position that the environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who people are and what they do?

  1. A) Natural selection
  2. B) Nature through nurture
  3. C) The behaviorism-learning perspective of psychology
  4. D) The psychoanalytic-psychodynamic perspective of psychology

 

124) With respect to biological species, evolution is

  1. A) the tabula rasa concept.
  2. B) the product of our experiences.
  3. C) proper parenting skills.
  4. D) the change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species.

 

125) ________ is defined as the change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species.

  1. A) Nature through nurture
  2. B) Adaptation
  3. C) Evolution
  4. D) Exaptation

 

126) In the context of psychological perspectives, which of the following is true according to the evolutionary perspective?

  1. A) Behavior and personality are mostly products of social and cultural conditions.
  2. B) Changes in human behavior take place by natural and sexual selection.
  3. C) People are motivated by growth and psychological health.
  4. D) Learning occurs through the association and consequences of a particular behavior.

 

 

127) Who among the following first described the feedback process of natural selection?

  1. A) Edward Titchener
  2. B) Charles Darwin
  3. C) Sigmund Freud
  4. D) Philippe Pinel

 

128) Which of the following is defined as a feedback process whereby nature favors one design over another because it has an impact on reproduction?

  1. A) Natural selection
  2. B) Sexual selection
  3. C) Exaptation
  4. D) Adaptation

 

129) Spontaneous changes in genes that can alter the design of a structure or a set of behaviors are called

  1. A) differential selections.
  2. B) softwirings.
  3. C) chance mutations.
  4. D) external adaptations.

 

130) Without chance mutations, which of the following would occur?

  1. A) The human species would become a superspecies.
  2. B) Our thoughts and behavior would depend entirely on our genetic makeup.
  3. C) There would be no evolution.
  4. D) Our thoughts and behavior would depend entirely on our upbringing and experiences.

 

131) In the context of psychological perspectives, which of the following is the key in natural selection?

  1. A) Social and cultural conditions have to shape personality and behavior.
  2. B) Environment and biology must interact continuously to shape behavior.
  3. C) Opposite sexes must find certain traits attractive.
  4. D) Behaviors have to increase reproductive success.

 

132) ________ creates structures, behaviors, and traits that solve adaptive problems.

  1. A) Softwiring
  2. B) Natural selection
  3. C) Reciprocal logrolling
  4. D) Collective efficacy

 

133) ________ are inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been naturally and sexually selected because they directly contribute in some way to reproductive success.

  1. A) Adaptations
  2. B) By-products
  3. C) Mutations
  4. D) Exaptations

 

134) Early humans, as hunter-gatherers, did not know when they would find food. If they found fat, they ate it, because fat could be stored in the body and used later when food might be scarce. For this reason, humans evolved to like fat. Human cravings have not changed much, even though our environments have. So our preference for fatty foods can be attributed to

  1. A) softwiring.
  2. B) differential selection.
  3. C) collective efficacy.
  4. D) adaptation.

 

135) Which of the following is defined as the branch of psychology that studies human behavior by asking what adaptive problems it may have solved for the early ancestors of human beings?

  1. A) Social psychology
  2. B) Personality psychology
  3. C) Evolutionary psychology
  4. D) Developmental psychology

 

136) Jack is a psychologist. Rather than just describing what the mind does, he is more interested in the functions of the human mind. Jack is most likely a practitioner of

  1. A) Gestalt psychology.
  2. B) evolutionary psychology.
  3. C) positive psychology.
  4. D) clinical psychology.

 

137) ________ are examples of behavioral adaptations.

  1. A) Chance mutations
  2. B) Softwirings
  3. C) Emotions
  4. D) Habits

 

138) ________ are quick and ready response patterns that tell us whether something is good or bad for our well-being.

  1. A) Habits
  2. B) Chance mutations
  3. C) Softwirings
  4. D) Emotions

 

139) Structures or features that perform a function that did not arise through natural selection are often called

  1. A) exaptations.
  2. B) adaptations.
  3. C) chance mutations.
  4. D) habits.

 

 

140) Exaptations are also called

  1. A) adaptations.
  2. B) chance mutations.
  3. C) habits.
  4. D) by-products.

 

141) Feathers probably evolved for insulation in flightless dinosaurs, but they turned out to be useful for flight in birds, the dinosaurs’ descendants. Feathers are considered ________ because feathers did not evolve for that purpose.

  1. A) adaptation
  2. B) exaptations
  3. C) natural selection
  4. D) chance mutations

 

142) Helen Mayberg stumbled on a surprising and counterintuitive discovery; she found that

  1. A) schizophrenia is a result of imbalance of neurotransmitters.
  2. B) some unknown substance in childhood vaccines causes autism.
  3. C) psychological disorders are mood disorders.
  4. D) a particular part of brain is overactive in depressed people.

 

143) Julie is a psychologist and she is conducting research on the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving. Based on this information we can say that Julie is a(n)

  1. A) cognitive psychologist.
  2. B) developmental psychologist.
  3. C) evolutionary psychologist.
  4. D) educational psychologist.

 

144) Which of the following topics is most likely to be studied by a developmental psychologist?

  1. A) How much of people’s personality is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
  2. B) Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
  3. C) What is the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving?
  4. D) What is the effect of gender on interest and participation in social networking sites?

 

145) Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct research on the age at which the usage of Internet social networks peaks?

  1. A) Evolutionary psychologist
  2. B) Developmental psychologist
  3. C) Clinical psychologist
  4. D) Educational psychologist

 

 

146) Carl conducts a research and concludes that older teenage girls and young women are more likely to participate in social networking sites than are boys and young men. This shows that Carl is most likely a

  1. A) cognitive psychologist.
  2. B) developmental psychologist.
  3. C) personality psychologist.
  4. D) social psychologist.

 

147) Steve is conducting a research on how cell phones and other electronic methods of communication have changed the way teenagers interact with others. This information indicates that Steve is a(n)

  1. A) educational psychologist.
  2. B) clinical psychologist.
  3. C) developmental psychologist.
  4. D) evolutionary psychologist.

 

148) More than just about any other area of psychology, ________ lends itself to a rich set of research questions regarding electronic interactions.

  1. A) clinical psychology
  2. B) positive psychology
  3. C) cognitive psychology
  4. D) social psychology

 

149) Which of the following statements is true regarding electronic interactions?

  1. A) Electronic interactions can be easily used to hide one’s real personality.
  2. B) Electronic interaction is a preferred method of contact for extroverts.
  3. C) People use the Internet to arrange real face-to-face meetings.
  4. D) Electronic interactions have strengthened boundaries between public and private means of connecting.

 

150) In the context of electronic interactions, being privately public means

  1. A) connecting with many other people while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
  2. B) avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
  3. C) you ensure that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
  4. D) you disclose a lot of details of your private life and may or may not limit access to your site.

 

151) In the context of electronic interactions, being publicly private means

  1. A) connecting with many other people while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
  2. B) avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
  3. C) ensuring that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
  4. D) disclosing a lot of details about your private life.

 

 

152) Which of the following questions is most likely to be answered by a personality psychologist?

  1. A) How much of people’s characters is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
  2. B) At what age does usage of Internet social networks peak?
  3. C) Will people above the age of sixty use the Internet?
  4. D) Does gender affect interest and participation in social networking sites?

 

153) Anna is conducting research to find out if people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook are more or less outgoing than those who do not. Anna is most likely a

  1. A) health psychologist.
  2. B) personality psychologist.
  3. C) social psychologist.
  4. D) clinical psychologist.

 

154) Scientific literature consistently finds that people who are extraverted are more likely than introverts to use Facebook and have a wider network of social relationships. These studies are most likely to be conducted by a

  1. A) developmental psychologist.
  2. B) personality psychologist.
  3. C) clinical psychologist.
  4. D) cognitive psychologist.

 

155) ________ can diagnose disorders of technology use but also use the same technologies to help treat people with various kinds of disorders.

  1. A) Personality psychologists
  2. B) Cognitive psychologists
  3. C) Developmental psychologists
  4. D) Clinical psychologists

 

156) Which of the following questions is most likely to be answered by a clinical psychologist?

  1. A) When do social networking sites and other electronic interactions become a problem?
  2. B) Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
  3. C) At what age is a person too young to form electronic social networks?
  4. D) Will people above the age of sixty use the Internet?

 

157) Jason is a psychologist. He is actively researching the interactions of people on social networking sites. Jason is most interested in finding out whether a person can get addicted to social networking sites and if such interactions can become dangerous to those involved. Jason is most likely to be a ________ psychologist.

  1. A) personality
  2. B) cognitive
  3. C) developmental
  4. D) clinical
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