Test Bank For Social Psychology 13th Edition Plus NEW MyPsychLab with eText — Access Card Package, 13/E by Robert A. Baron Nyla R. Branscombe

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Test Bank

Chapter 4: The Self: Answering the Question “Who Am I?”

Total Assessment Guide

Topic   Factual Conceptual Applied
Self-Presentation: Managing the Self in Different Social Contexts Multiple Choice 1, 3, 4-5, 8-13 2 6-7
Fill in the Blank 1    
Short Answer     1
Essay   1  
Self-Knowledge: Determining Who We Are Multiple Choice 14, 18-19 16-17 15, 20
Fill in the Blank 2    
Short Answer   2-3  
Essay   1  
Who Am I?: Personal versus Social Identity Multiple Choice 21-23, 27, 31-33, 37, 41, 44, 46 30, 45 24-26, 28-29, 34-36, 38-40, 42-43
Fill in the Blank 4-8 3  
Short Answer   5-6 4, 7
Essay   1  
Self-Esteem: Attitudes toward Ourselves Multiple Choice 47-49, 52-53, 57-58, 63 54-56, 60-62 50-51, 59
Fill in the Blank 9    
Short Answer   8  
Essay   1  
Social Comparison: How We Evaluate Ourselves Multiple Choice 64-65, 67-68, 70, 73, 76-77, 79-80 71, 78 66, 69, 72, 74-75
Fill in the Blank 10    
Short Answer   9  
Essay   1-3 4
The Self as Target of Prejudice Multiple Choice 81-82, 84-85, 90 87 83, 86, 88, 89, 91
Fill in the Blank      
Short Answer     10
Essay   1, 5  
My Psych Lab Multiple Choice      
Fill in the Blank      
Short Answer      
Essay 1    

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

1)  Whether we wish it or not, Shakespeare admonishes that we are ________ on a stage, and that we’re in the position of ________.

  1. A) merely players; presenting ourselves to an observing and potentially changing audience
  2. B) merely players; attempting to manipulate others in the service of our own ends
  3. C) mortal fools; avoiding the appearance of “cluelessness” on a daily basis
  4. D) insignificant specks; playing up our abilities to people less competent
  5. E) glorious headliners; adopting a posture of humility while attempting to get our needs met

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 105

Type: Factual

 

2)  Participants in one study wore digital audio recorders.  Research assistants coded the sounds and compared the coded behaviors to the participants’ self-reports of behavior.  Friends of the participants also made ratings of behavior frequencies.  The findings show that

 

  1. A) participants were most accurate at predicting their own behaviors.
  2. B) friends were most accurate at predicting participant behaviors.
  3. C) for some behaviors the participants were more accurate and for other behaviors friends were more accurate.
  4. D) there was not a relationship between the participants’ self-reports and their behaviors.
  5. E) there was not a relationship between the friends’ ratings and the participants’ behaviors.

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 106

Type: Conceptual

 

3)  Socially introverted individuals who use Facebook or other online social programs tend to

 

  1. A) not be able to transfer their online personas into the real world.
  2. B) create completely unattainable identities online.
  3. C) become more introverted because their social interaction is only occurring online.
  4. D) have lower offline self-esteem than introverts who do not use Facebook.
  5. E) benefit from receiving validation of a possible self and may improve social success offline.

 

Answer: E

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 108

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4)  Research has shown that people with ____ use Facebook to ____ their self-esteem.

  1. A) low self-esteem; maintain
  2. B) high self-esteem; decrease
  3. C) high self-esteem; maintain
  4. D) high self-esteem; increase
  5. E) low self-esteem; decrease

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 108

Type: Factual

 

5)  As players on a social “stage,” we may wish to emphasize some personal aspect to others, as well as to ourselves. This is called ________.

 

  1. A) ingratiation
  2. B) self-promotion
  3. C) self-aggrandizement
  4. D) self-delusion
  5. E) self-efficacy

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 109

Type: Factual

 

6)  In meeting a new roommate, David stresses his studious qualities, an aspect of himself he wishes others to agree with, while being willing to underplay other potentially important aspects of himself. David is practicing a ________ approach in presenting himself to others.

 

  1. A) self-verification
  2. B) ingratiation
  3. C) self-enhancement
  4. D) self-denial
  5. E) neurotic

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 109

Type: Applied

 

7)  In negotiating a new roommate’s perception of his (David’s) personal qualities, David may agree with his new roommate’s self-assessment as a(n) ________ because it aids David in “selling” David’s view of himself as a(n) ________. Additionally, David may downplay his own ________.

  1. A) gifted athlete; excellent student; athletic accomplishments
  2. B) gifted athlete; excellent student; accomplishments in other areas
  3. C) gifted “ladies’ man”; excellent student; same-sex orientation
  4. D) depressed ne’er-do-well; excellent student; unrealistic optimism
  5. E) son of a wealthy eastern industrialist; financial-aid student; future plan to ask his new roommate for a loan

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 109

Type: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

8)  ________ involves using praise of important others as a way to encourage them to like us and approve of us.

 

  1. A) Ingratiation
  2. B) In-group effect
  3. C) Self-promotion
  4. D) Self-monitoring
  5. E) Out-group removal

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 109

Type: Factual

 

9)  Implying that we are not as good as another person on some dimension may result in ________ and/or ________.

  1. A) an ingratiation effect; lower our audience’s expectations
  2. B) humiliating ourselves; significantly raise our audience’s expectations
  3. C) an appearance of insincerity; raise our audience’s expectations
  4. D) less self-efficacy; future poor performance on the dimension
  5. E) an appearance of incompetence; drive away competent others

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 109

Type: Factual

 

10)  Differences between shy and non-shy people appeared to be ________ online compared to offline because of the ________ of ________.

  1. A) reduced; absence; visual and auditory feedback
  2. B) increased; absence; encouragement offline
  3. C) reduced; presence; empathy toward shy males by females
  4. D) reduced; absence; physical threat cues from another person
  5. E) increased; absence; comforting contextual cues

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 108

Type: Factual

 

11)  Research indicates that people’s online identities often reflect ____________.

 

  1. A) the actual self
  2. B) the true self
  3. C) the ideal self
  4. D) the ought self
  5. E) the perfect self

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 110

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12)  College students report telling on average two lies per day.  The reasons for doing so are

  1. A) to advance their own interests.
  2. B) to help protect the other person.
  3. C) to deceive others maliciously.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 109

Type: Factual

 

13)  People who tell more lies tend to be ____.  This supports the idea that people lie in order to____.

  1. A) less popular; deceive others maliciously
  2. B) more popular; to help protect the other person
  3. C) incompetent; cover up their failures
  4. D) mentally unstable; cover up weaknesses of character
  5. E) more intelligent; deceive gullible and unsuspecting others

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 109

Type: Factual

 

14)  Nisbett and Wilson (1977) showed that, after an action, we examine our ________ and generate ________ reasons for why we acted a certain way.

 

  1. A) behavior; often inaccurate
  2. B) feelings; mostly accurate
  3. C) attitudes; highly insightful
  4. D) behavior; mostly complex
  5. E) feelings; family-of-origin-based

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 111

Type: Factual

 

15)  ________, Bobby Ray argues, would change his life forever. It is likely that Bobby Ray would be ________ a year later than he would now predict.

  1. A) Winning the lottery; not as happy
  2. B) Having a bad car accident; even less happy
  3. C) Winning the lottery but failing to turn in the ticket on time; angrier
  4. D) Having a bad car accident and having to get around in a wheelchair; less optimistic
  5. E) Having a bad car accident in which a friend was hurt; more guilty

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 111

Type: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16)  When thinking about a bad or happy event and predicting our future level of happiness, we tend to ________.

  1. A) neglect all the other factors that will contribute to our future state of mind over time
  2. B) assume the bad or happy event will change us in some meaningful way
  3. C) assume others will view us differently as the result of some bad or happy event
  4. D) underplay the fact that a bad or happy event will likely change us in meaningful ways
  5. E) forget that others may experience bad or happy events over time, leading us to not be able to make appropriate comparisons

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 111

Type: Conceptual

 

17)  Introspection is an effective means of understanding ourselves when the ________.

  1. A) individual is attempting to understand the reasons for his or her feelings about something important
  2. B) focus is on unconscious affective factors
  3. C) individual displays an introverted personality configuration
  4. D) individual is attempting to predict future feelings about something
  5. E) focus is on a conscious decision-making process

Answer: E

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 113

Type: Conceptual

 

18)  We tend to make ________ attributions for our own behaviors, but ________ attributions for others’ behaviors.

 

  1. A) situational; dispositional
  2. B) dispositional; situational
  3. C) positive; negative
  4. D) negative; positive
  5. E) realistic; unrealistic

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 112

Type: Factual

 

19)  When people described themselves as they were five years ago, or as they are today, they saw their past self as more _______, and their present self as more ________.

  1. A) dispositionally guided; situationally variable
  2. B) situationally variable; dispositionally guided
  3. C) socially-challenged; financially-challenged
  4. D) time-management-oriented; content-focus-oriented
  5. E) trait-simple; trait-complex

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 112 – 113

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

20)  Having been given “acting lessons” to either 1) “try to feel as if you are 14 years old at dinner with family,” or 2) “put on a performance so you will seem to others as if you’re 14 years old at dinner with family,” participants in acting condition ________ were more likely to see themselves as having ________.

 

  1. A) 2; more consistent traits
  2. B) 1; more consistent traits
  3. C) 2; few consistent traits
  4. D) 1; greater emotional range
  5. E) 2; emotionally stilted interactions

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 113

Type: Applied

 

21)  The personal-social identity continuum recognizes that we ________.

  1. A) see ourselves as being more consistent across situations than we really are
  2. B) can see ourselves differently, depending on circumstances
  3. C) are part of a number of different social groups
  4. D) see ourselves primarily as individuals
  5. E) present many different “selves,” depending on the social grouping

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 114

Type: Factual

 

22)  When we think of ourselves as members of specific social groups, we are thinking of our ________.

 

  1. A) sexual self-schema
  2. B) social-personal self
  3. C) personal self
  4. D) cultural self identity
  5. E) social identity

 

Answer: E

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 114

Type: Factual

 

23)  The personal identity ________.

  1. A) conceptualizes the self as a member of particular social groups
  2. B) allows us to attribute our successes to external causes
  3. C) conceptualizes the self as a unique individual
  4. D) prevents us from recognizing most discrepancies between our behavior and our attitudes
  5. E) allows us to attribute our failures to external causes

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 114

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24)  George was listening as a friend described him to someone else on the telephone. His friend’s description included “friendly, taller, active” and similar terms. As a result, George is now probably thinking of himself in terms of ________.

 

  1. A) collectivist relationships
  2. B) indeterminant relationships
  3. C) intergroup comparisons
  4. D) intragroup comparisons
  5. E) individualistic relationships

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 114

Type: Applied

 

25)  Chris describes himself as liberal when thinking of himself as an American, but conservative when compared to other college students. These are ________ comparisons.

 

  1. A) intragroup
  2. B) intergroup
  3. C) shifting standards
  4. D) individualistic
  5. E) political

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 114

Type: Applied

 

26)  When Jeremy was recently asked to describe himself to his classmates, he spoke about being a member of the football team and how this helped to make his experiences different from those of other students in the class. Jeremy was primarily making ________ comparisons.

 

  1. A) extragroup
  2. B) intergroup
  3. C) individual
  4. D) intragroup
  5. E) instrumental group

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 114

Type: Applied

 

27)  ________ comparisons are based around attributes we may ________ with ________, but which are ________ to (from) ________ group.

  1. A) Intergroup; share; other members of our group; contrasted; another
  2. B) Intragroup; share; other members of our group; contrasted; another
  3. C) Intergroup; differ on; members of another race; similar; another
  4. D) Intragroup; differ on; females, if we are male; shared; a male
  5. E) Intragroup; share; only individuals we relate to on another attribute; different; a similarly featured

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page Ref: 114

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28)  When Karen was recently asked to describe herself to her classmates, she spoke about being a student and a member of her class. She pointed out similarities and differences between herself and her fellow students. Karen was primarily making ________ comparisons.

 

  1. A) individual
  2. B) intragroup
  3. C) intergroup
  4. D) extragroup
  5. E) instrumental group

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 114

Type: Applied

 

29)  George was listening as a friend described him to someone else on the telephone. His friend’s description included “Tall man, a psychologist, bicyclist” and similar terms. As a result, George is now probably thinking of himself in terms of ________.

 

  1. A) indeterminant relationships
  2. B) intergroup comparisons
  3. C) intragroup comparisons
  4. D) individualistic relationships
  5. E) interpersonal relationships

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 114

Type: Applied

 

30)  People’s personal identities, and their various social identities, require them to be different people in different contexts. This results in________.

  1. A) people having false selves depending on the context
  2. B) people often having a distorted view of who they “really are”
  3. C) people often operating from a less-than-principled position
  4. D) others defining too much of who we are
  5. E) a potentially variable but coherent self-definition

Answer: E

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 115

Type: Conceptual

 

31)  Our self-concept varies periodically because ________.

  1. A) our subjective experience of in-groups and out-groups changes over time
  2. B) we do not experience all aspects of our self-concept simultaneously
  3. C) our experiences cause subtle changes in our personalities
  4. D) our intergroup comparisons change over time
  5. E) we do not consciously recognize negative aspects of our self-concept

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 114

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32)  People tend to describe themselves in different ways under different circumstances. According to Mendoza-Denton’s (2001) research, people who are given open-ended prompts tend to describe themselves using ________ terms.

 

  1. A) state-like and specific
  2. B) state specific
  3. C) situationally contingent
  4. D) relationship-based
  5. E) trait-like and global

 

Answer: E

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 115 – 116

Type: Factual

 

33)  People tend to describe themselves in different ways under different circumstances. According to Mendoza-Denton’s (2001) research, people who are given prompts that implied a particular social setting tend to describe themselves using ________ terms.

 

  1. A) relationship-based
  2. B) situationally contingent
  3. C) state-like and specific
  4. D) state specific
  5. E) trait-like and global

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 115 – 116

Type: Factual

 

34)  Kim is an American but spent much of her childhood in Japan. She is fluent in both English and Japanese. We might reasonably expect her response to the question “Who am I?” to differ depending on the language (Japanese or English) of the question because ________.

  1. A) Japan has become increasingly Westernized over the past 50 years
  2. B) her experiences may have led to identity confusion
  3. C) the English language places a strong emphasis on individual self-identification
  4. D) a particular language might activate different self-concepts for bilingual people
  5. E) Japanese has no pronoun for “I”

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page Ref: 116

Type: Applied

 

35)  In an interaction between two “Pats,” Pat, when reminded of ________ gender, is likely to show ________ responses toward a person in need than the other Pat will when reminded of ________ gender.

  1. A) his; less care-oriented; her
  2. B) her; more aggressive; her
  3. C) her; less care-oriented; his
  4. D) his; more macho; his
  5. E) her; about the same level of gender confusion; his

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 116

Type: Applied

 

 

 

 

 

36)  Juan is one of three Brazilian students currently attending a college in Indiana. His roommate, Eric, is one of several thousand Hoosiers attending the same college. As a result, Juan is ________ to be aware of his racial status than Eric is of his at any given time.

  1. A) more likely
  2. B) equally likely
  3. C) more likely when women are present; less likely when men are present
  4. D) less likely
  5. E) more likely when men are present; less likely when women are present

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 117

Type: Applied

 

37)  Recent research (Simon, 2004) has noted that linguistic cues can activate certain types of self-concepts. When other people describe us, nouns tend to activate ________ while adjectives and verbs tend to activate ________.

  1. A) social identities; personal identities
  2. B) self-centered identities; other-centered identities
  3. C) individualistic identities; collectivist identities
  4. D) gender-based identities; cultural-based identities
  5. E) personal identities; social identities

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 117

Type: Factual

 

38)  Suppose that we might expect to receive prejudice or disapproval for some aspect of ourselves. We may “play down” or subvert that aspect to the extent that ________.

  1. A) we can hide it, and we are willing to hide it
  2. B) we are willing to assert its importance to our identity
  3. C) acceptance from close others makes it unnecessary to hide it
  4. D) we cannot change that aspect
  5. E) over time, others around us adopt that aspect for themselves

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 118 – 119

Type: Applied

 

39)  Kayla has decided to get a body piercing. Her expectation is that she might well receive ________ by (from) her mom’s mainstream friends. This will likely cause her to ________ identify with ________.

  1. A) rejection; more closely; others who have a body piercing
  2. B) acceptance; more closely; others who have a body piercing
  3. C) rejection; less closely; other kids at school
  4. D) rejection; more closely; kids who were forced to give up their body piercing
  5. E) acceptance; more closely; others who reconsidered getting such a piercing

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 119

Type: Applied

 

 

40)  Judy has recently been reflecting about all of the positive personal and professional life changes she has experienced over the past decade. The MOST likely reason she is engaging in this reflection is because she ________.

  1. A) has little interest in considering her future self
  2. B) finds it useful in planning for her future self
  3. C) finds it gratifying to see improvement over time
  4. D) is actually searching for any mistakes she has made over the past decade
  5. E) currently is experiencing many negative life events

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 119

Type: Applied

 

41)  In Ross and Wilson’s interesting experiments, participants who perceived a past self as ________ were likely to be more critical of ________ than when they perceived their past self as ________.

  1. A) more recent; past mistakes; further in the past
  2. B) more recent; past successes; further in the past
  3. C) further in the past; past mistakes; more recent
  4. D) further in the past; past successes; more recent
  5. E) more recent; rosy expectations of the future; further in the past

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 119

Type: Factual

 

42)  Sofia admires and respects her psychology professor. She is considering becoming a psychologist herself. Should her professor become a role model for her, Sofia may become a psychologist herself if she ________.

  1. A) overcomes her fear of failure
  2. B) sees this as an unachievable potential self
  3. C) distracts herself from this state of self-awareness
  4. D) sees this as an undesirable potential self
  5. E) sees this as a desirable and achievable potential self

Answer: E

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 120

Type: Applied

 

43)  James, Wendy, Evan, Ethan, and Janet are all college seniors who are planning their senior thesis – a requirement for graduation at their school. Given the following situations, who is most likely to complete the thesis first?

  1. A) Janet, who sees herself as a “rebel” because she doesn’t always complete work her professors expect of her, but does always learn the materials needed for exams.
  2. B) James, who is the first person in his family to have attended college.
  3. C) Evan, who is unrealistically optimistic about the outcomes he expects and his own abilities.
  4. D) Ethan, who has a relatively low sense of self-efficacy where writing papers is concerned.
  5. E) Wendy, whose older brother finished college last year and serves as a role model for her.

Answer: E

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 120

Type: Applied

44)  Research indicates that if we think about our future possible selves we can be inspired to

  1. A) be nicer to those around us.
  2. B) find our immediate rewards more enjoyable and live in the moment.
  3. C) forego current activities that do not help us to achieve an improved future self.
  4. D) forget about our past mistakes.
  5. E) inflate our future aspirations until they become unachievable.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 120

Type: Factual

 

45)  Research on self-control has demonstrated that engaging in self-regulation _____.

  1. A) depletes our energy and provides us with limited ability to maintain self-control at a later time.
  2. B) is like a muscle so that the more we practice self-control the easier it becomes to self-regulate.
  3. C) increases our ability to accomplish future goals that require self-regulation.
  4. D) allows us to conserve energy for use on more important tasks.
  5. E) with regard to one task makes us more able to engage in self-control on an additional task.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 121

Type: Conceptual

 

46)  A study of chronic dieters found that making an initial tempting food item available caused them to ________ a second appealing dish.

 

  1. A) eat more of
  2. B) eat less of
  3. C) eat the initial item but ignore
  4. D) combine (and then eat) the first item with
  5. E) angrily reject the initial item but sadly reject

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 121

Type: Factual

 

47)  Self-esteem refers to the ________.

  1. A) positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself
  2. B) amount of positive emotion that one is experiencing at the moment
  3. C) positive or negative evaluation of one’s self by others
  4. D) evaluations of others about the self
  5. E) desire to be liked by others

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 122

Type: Factual

 

48)  A person’s overall attitude towards him- or herself is known as ________.

 

  1. A) self-efficacy
  2. B) self-monitoring
  3. C) self-reference effect
  4. D) self-esteem
  5. E) self-adjudication

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 122

Type: Factual

49)  When people with low self-esteem receive negative feedback their self-esteem ____.

  1. A) remains stable
  2. B) improves
  3. C) drops even lower
  4. D) becomes implicit
  5. E) increases but only slightly

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 122

Type: Factual

 

50)  Whenever Mike enters his family’s den where the sports trophies that he has won are on the mantle, his self-esteem is temporarily boosted. This is best described as caused by the fact that ________.

  1. A) self-esteem is responsive to life events
  2. B) self-esteem is the result of family members’ opinions
  3. C) athletic skill is highly prized by males
  4. D) people generally feel better about themselves in their own homes
  5. E) while self-esteem is temporarily boosted, it is very short-lived

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 122

Type: Applied

 

51)  Henry feels helpless at his job, feels that he cannot control his workday, and feels that he is useless, worthless, and inept. These characteristics would probably mean that Henry has ________.

 

  1. A) low self-esteem
  2. B) high locus of control
  3. C) high self-insight
  4. D) low locus of control
  5. E) negative possible selves

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 122

Type: Applied

 

52)  Researchers most commonly measure implicit self-esteem by _____.

  1. A) using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale
  2. B) measuring heart rate and brain waves
  3. C) asking people a series of self-report questions about how they feel about themselves
  4. D) using the Implicit Associations Test
  5. E) watching for micro-expressions while participants discuss their successes and failures

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 122

Type: Factual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53)  Research indicates that self-esteem can be altered by ________. For these procedures to work, the individual ________ of the procedures.

  1. A) respondent conditioning; must remain unaware
  2. B) observational learning; must remain unaware
  3. C) classical conditioning; may be either aware or unaware
  4. D) operant conditioning; may be aware
  5. E) observational learning; must remain aware

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 123

Type: Factual

 

54)  Recent research (Dijksterhuis, 2004) has shown that subliminal presentations of “I” or “me” with positive trait terms such as “nice” or “smart” will ________ implicit self-esteem and prevent ________ when negative false feedback is given later.

  1. A) reduce; increases to self-esteem
  2. B) reduce; reductions to self-esteem
  3. C) increase; increases to self-esteem
  4. D) increase; reductions to self-esteem
  5. E) first increase, then reduce; all changes to self-esteem

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 123

Type: Conceptual

 

55)  Recent research has shown that, in young adults, 1) consistent early nurturing by parents ________ implicit self-esteem; 2) overprotective early parental behaviors ________ implicit self-esteem.

  1. A) increases; reduce
  2. B) increases; also, unexpectedly, increase
  3. C) unexpectedly reduces; may reduce
  4. D) increases; increase explicit, rather than
  5. E) increases explicit, rather than; reduce both explicit and

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 123

Type: Conceptual

 

56)  Positive self-talk such as “I am a lovable person” tends to ___.

  1. A) improve self-esteem overall.
  2. B) improve self-esteem for individuals with low self-esteem.
  3. C) sometimes decrease happiness for people with low self-esteem.
  4. D) sometimes decrease happiness for people with high self-esteem.
  5. E) not have any real effect on people.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 124

Type: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

57)  An individual’s view of the self may ________ to the extent that a reported high self-esteem level implies superiority to others.

 

  1. A) be associated with lower rates of bullying
  2. B) lead to exhibitionism
  3. C) need to be frequently defended
  4. D) cause an increase in introspection
  5. E) need to be increased

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 125

Type: Factual

 

58)  According to research, high self-esteem is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) narcissism.
  2. B) aggression.
  3. C) bullying.
  4. D) generosity.
  5. E) exhibitionism.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 125

Type: Factual

 

59)  George believes he is the best basketball player at his school, maybe even in the city.  He believes he’s also smarter than almost everybody.  His self-esteem score is high on both explicit and implicit measures.  Nick is new to the school and challenges George to a game of one on one.  Nick wins the game by a landslide and taunts George by saying, “I thought you said you could play.”  Based on research by Baumeister and colleagues, what is George likely to do?

  1. A) Ask Nick for some pointers about how to improve his game.
  2. B) Punch Nick in the face.
  3. C) Sulk and pout at first, but eventually get over it and practice harder.
  4. D) Shake hands with Nick and say, “Good game.”
  5. E) Encourage the coach to make Nick a starter on the team.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 125

Type: Applied

 

60)  Individuals who have high self-esteem and could be described as showing instability may exhibit

  1. A) hostility and defensive responding when their self-esteem is threatened.
  2. B) the most humility when someone challenges their self-esteem.
  3. C) major depression when their self-esteem is threatened.
  4. D) passive responding, as though they are above it all.
  5. E) lower levels of self-awareness as they attempt to distance themselves from the threat.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 125

Type: Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

61)  Self-esteem is likely to be LOWEST in ________.

 

  1. A) home-makers in India
  2. B) career women in England
  3. C) career men in the United States of America
  4. D) politicians in any country
  5. E) unemployed men in Finland

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page Ref: 126

Type: Conceptual

 

62)  In the United States, gender differences in self-esteem are most pronounced among ________.

 

  1. A) White lower class people
  2. B) White upper class people
  3. C) non-White middle class people
  4. D) prison populations of all races
  5. E) non-White lower class people

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 126

Type: Conceptual

 

63)  Gender differences in self-esteem begin to emerge during ________.

 

  1. A) toddlerhood
  2. B) puberty
  3. C) late adulthood
  4. D) middle childhood
  5. E) early adulthood

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 126

Type: Factual

 

64)  When we compare ourselves to others who are less capable, we are engaged in a(n) ________.

 

  1. A) downward attribution
  2. B) upward attribution
  3. C) downward social comparison
  4. D) upward social comparison
  5. E) lateral social attribution

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 127

Type: Factual

 

65)  When we compare ourselves to others who are more capable, we are engaged in a(n) ________.

 

  1. A) downward social comparison
  2. B) lateral social attribution
  3. C) downward attribution
  4. D) upward social comparison
  5. E) upward attribution

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page Ref: 127

Type: Factual

 

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