Test Bank for Sociology Matters 6th edition by Richard Schaefer

$20.00

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

Test Bank for Sociology Matters 6th edition by Richard Schaefer

 

 

Sample:

 

Chapter 06

Inequality by Race and Ethnicity

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which feminist scholar wrote about the privileges of being White?
    A.Erving Goffman
    B. William Graham Sumner
    C. Peggy McIntosh
    D. William I. Thomas

 

Type: S

  1. Which of the following aspects of discrimination is the focus of feminist scholar Peggy McIntosh’s research?
    A.glass ceilings
    B. White privilege
    C. Asian minorities
    D. African American dominance

 

Type: I

  1. The one-drop rule was a vivid example of
    A.definition of the situation.
    B. discrimination.
    C. contact theory.
    D. the social construction of race.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. The process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part, on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors, is called
    A.definition of the situation.
    B. discrimination.
    C. scapegoating.
    D. the social construction of race.

 

Type: D

  1. In the 2010 Census, the number of people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races was about
    A.1 million.
    B. 9 million.
    C. 15 million.
    D. 25 million.

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following statements about racial groups in the United States is true?
    A.Throughout United States history, many southern states defined a person as black, regardless of how s/he looked, even if s/he had only a single drop of “black blood”.
    B. Nearly 7 million people in the U.S. are multiracial.
    C. The largest group of multiracial residents identify themselves as coming from white and Native American ancestry.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. In the 2010 Census, among the people who claimed multiracial ancestry in two or more races, the largest group was
    A.Blacks and Whites.
    B. Whites and Native Americans.
    C. Whites and Asian Americans.
    D. Blacks and Native Americans.

 

Type: I

  1. With respect to a mixed racial identity, which of the following statements is not correct?
    A.Figures estimate that the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population will change as much in the next 50 years as it has in the last 100.
    B. Social construction is exclusive to industrialized societies.
    C. White and American Indians comprise the largest multiracial group in the U.S.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?
    A.William I. Thomas
    B. William Graham Sumner
    C. Karl Marx
    D. Robert Merton

 

Type: S

  1. The term describing the sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed is
    A.racial profiling.
    B. ethic cleansing.
    C. ethnography.
    D. racial formation.

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant or majority group to
    A.define a society’s images of a group—”the definition of the situation”—which leads to stereotyping.
    B. limit the access of the minority group to quality housing and jobs.
    C. limit the access of the minority group to quality educational facilities.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. W. I. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them. This observation reflects which sociological perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. A stereotype is a(an)
    A.hi-fi system.
    B. unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group.
    C. person or group that one blames irrationally for one’s own problems or difficulties.
    D. belief that one race is superior and that all others are innately inferior.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group is referred to as a(an)
    A.differential association.
    B. exploitation.
    C. stereotype.
    D. institutional discrimination.

 

Type: D

  1. A television show that portrays women as being subservient to men and that generally talks down the role of women would be considered to be bolstering
    A.pluralism.
    B. racial profiles.
    C. stereotypes.
    D. all of these

 

Type: C

  1. A person loudly proclaiming that “all black people are lazy, shiftless, and collect welfare” is promoting
    A.discrimination.
    B. a stereotype.
    C. pluralism.
    D. exploitation theory.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that stereotypes contribute to prejudice and thereby assist the subordination of disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. dramaturgical perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences?
    A.ethnic group
    B. racial group
    C. social group
    D. reference group

 

Type: D

  1. A racial group is a group that is set apart from others because of
    A.obvious physical differences.
    B. its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
    C. its language differences.
    D. its religious differences.

 

Type: D

  1. Asian Americans are an example of a
    A.countercultural group.
    B. racial group.
    C. reference group.
    D. status group.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. African Americans are an example of a
    A.countercultural group.
    B. racial group.
    C. reference group.
    D. status group.

 

Type: C

  1. An ethnic group is a group
    A.that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences.
    B. that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
    C. whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a dominant group.
    D. that has reached very moral decisions about a way of life.

 

Type: D

  1. Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart
    A.minority groups.
    B. ethnic groups.
    C. racial groups.
    D. polarization groups.

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following are considered an ethnic group?
    A.African Americans
    B. Native Americans
    C. Lithuanian Americans
    D. None of these

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Italian Americans, Jewish Americans, and Norwegian Americans are all examples of
    A.racial groups.
    B. ethnic groups.
    C. stereotypes.
    D. none of these

 

Type: C

  1. Which statement regarding ethnicity is correct?
    A.The distinction between ethnic and racial minorities is not always clear-cut.
    B. Ethnic minorities, such as Latinos, may have obvious physical differences that set them apart from other residents of the U.S.
    C. Despite categorization problems, sociologists continue to feel that the distinction between race and ethnicity is socially significant.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following would be an example of symbolic ethnicity?
    A.a trip to an ethnic bakery
    B. a Black person trying to act White
    C. a Latino intentionally misrepresenting his heritage
    D. all of these

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. During World War II
    A.the United States opened its doors to European Jews who were fleeing the oppression of Nazism.
    B. the United States refused to lift or loosen restrictive immigration quotas in order to allow Jewish refugees to escape the terror of the Nazi regime.
    C. the S.S. St. Louis, with more than 900 Jewish refugees on board, was denied permission to dock in the United States in 1939 because of restrictive immigration quotas.
    D. two of these statements are correct

 

Type: I

  1. The 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
    A.outlawed the hiring of illegal aliens in the United States.
    B. subjected employers to fines and imprisonment for hiring illegal aliens.
    C. extended amnesty and legal status to many illegal immigrants already living in the United States.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Since the ______________, immigration laws in the United States have undergone a major revision that has lead to an increase in the proportion of immigrants from Asia and Latin America.
    A.1940s
    B. 1950s
    C. 1960s
    D. 1970s

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Which of the following amounts represent the number of illegal immigrants present within the United States at any given time?
    A.1-2 million
    B. 5-6 million
    C. 11 million
    D. 19 million

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociological perspective would likely suggest that immigration relieves labor shortages in the receiving nation and it relieves economies unable to support large numbers of people in the sending nations?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which sociological perspective notes that much of the debate over immigration is phrased in economic terms, and that this debate is intensified when the arrivals are of different racial and ethnic backgrounds than the host population?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Which sociological perspective sees the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which social scientist has identified three functions in which racially prejudiced beliefs serve the dominant group (e.g., they provide a moral justification for maintaining an unequal society that routinely deprives a minority of its rights and privileges)?
    A.Arnold Rose
    B. Harry Edwards
    C. Thomas Pettigrew
    D. Manning Nash

 

Type: S

  1. The functionalist perspective would most likely
    A.view the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups.
    B. suggest that racist beliefs discourage the subordinate minority from attempting to question its lowly status, and thus question the very foundations of society.
    C. focus on the relationship between two members of different ethnic groups who work together in an office.
    D. all of these

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Which sociologist(s) has (have) used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States?
    A.Oliver Cox
    B. Robert Blauner
    C. Harry Edwards
    D. Both Oliver Cox and Robert Blauner

 

Type: S

  1. Exploitation theory is a
    A.Weberian theory that views racial subordination as beneficial for society since it creates a supply of cheap labor.
    B. Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination as a means of regulating social interactions between dominant and subordinate groups.
    C. Spencerian theory that views ethnic subordination as a valuable means of social control.
    D. Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.

 

Type: D

  1. Oliver Cox, Robert Blauner, and Herbert M. Hunter
    A.used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the United States.
    B. used the contact hypothesis to explain how to diminish the degree of racial prejudice in the United States.
    C. examined the persistence of the glass ceiling in the corporate United States.
    D. none of these

 

Type: S

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism?
    A.contact theory
    B. self-fulfilling theory
    C. authoritarian personality theory
    D. exploitation theory

 

Type: D

  1. Karl Marx’s theory provides a theoretical basis for which of the following views of minority and majority group relations?
    A.the contact hypothesis
    B. the position that racism is often a financial burden for the majority group, which must pay for police to control crime and delinquency
    C. the position that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and thereby provides the ruling class with a cheap pool of desperate labor
    D. none of these

 

Type: S

  1. An approach to racism, which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of which classical theorist?
    A.Émile Durkheim
    B. Talcott Parsons
    C. Karl Marx
    D. Auguste Comte

 

Type: S

 

 

  1. A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a pool of cheap labor. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon
    A.the contact hypothesis.
    B. the anomie theory of deviance.
    C. exploitation theory.
    D. labeling theory.

 

Type: C

  1. Recent Chinese immigrants to the United States often find jobs working in “sweatshops” in Chinatown in New York City, where they work 16 or more hours per day in the textile industry, and earn below minimum wage. The big businesses that hire these illegal and often uninformed immigrants are an illustration of which idea?
    A.contact hypothesis
    B. exploitation theory
    C. labeling theory
    D. self-fulfilling prophecy

 

Type: C

  1. Japanese Americans were the object of little prejudice until they began to enter jobs that brought them into competition with Whites. This example supports the
    A.contact hypothesis.
    B. self-fulfilling prophecy.
    C. conflict view of race relations.
    D. anomie theory of deviance.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Exploitation theory is useful for discussing the experiences of which minority group in the United States?
    A.Japanese Americans
    B. Chinese Americans
    C. Mormons
    D. Both Japanese Americans and Chinese Americans

 

Type: I

  1. Law enforcement officers, customs officials, and airport security personnel who develop a practice of stopping and checking people they assume are likely to be engaged in illegal activities—simply based on the notion they “fit” certain descriptions—is considered
    A.the contact hypothesis.
    B. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
    C. racial profiling.
    D. anomie deviance.

 

Type: C

  1. The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as
    A.explanative prejudice.
    B. racial profiling.
    C. institutionalized stereotyping.
    D. contact hypothesis.

 

Type: S

  1. Acts of racial profiling are always
    A.illegal.
    B. initiated by authorities.
    C. opposed by the American public.
    D. opposed by law enforcement officials.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. The contact hypothesis
    A.is a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.
    B. states that interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previous stereotypes.
    C. was a theory that gave moral support to the continued existence of apartheid in South Africa.
    D. is a Parsonian theory that views ethnic subordination as a means of regulating social interactions between dominant and subordinate groups.

 

Type: D

  1. The phrase or term __________ supports the idea that interracial dealings among people with equal statuses, in cooperative circumstances, cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previously held stereotypes.
    A.self-fulfilling prophecy
    B. contact hypothesis
    C. exploitation theory
    D. pluralism

 

Type: D

  1. The “contact hypothesis” occurs only if which one of the following conditions is met:
    A.interracial people who work together must have equal job status.
    B. members of different racial groups who work together must have infrequent contact with one another.
    C. different racial groups who work together must work at competitive jobs.
    D. members of different racial groups who work together must live near one another.

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. A farmer is called to help sandbag a levy, which is about to flood a local town. The farmer is stationed between two correctional center inmates who are required to assist in the flood efforts. As a result of the experience, the farmer has a newfound respect for inmates. This example most likely would be consistent with which perspective?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. A white male lawyer mentors a young Latino female lawyer. According to the contact hypothesis, this situation would be unlikely to reduce prejudice because
    A.the Latino lawyer is too young to appreciate the mentoring.
    B. the two people do not have equal status.
    C. people with that much education are rarely prejudiced.
    D. sexism is operating as well as racism.

 

Type: C

  1. A Colombian woman and an Italian man, working together as members of a construction crew, overcome their initial prejudices and come to appreciate each other’s talents and strengths. This is an example of
    A.the self-fulfilling prophecy.
    B. the contact hypothesis.
    C. exploitation theory.
    D. amalgamation.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Which sociologist suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice?
    A.Karl Marx
    B. William Julius Wilson
    C. Robert Blauner
    D. Roscoe Cox

 

Type: S

  1. Which term is used to refer to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people?
    A.exploitation
    B. prejudice
    C. discrimination
    D. pluralism

 

Type: D

  1. Which one of the following is an example of prejudice?
    A.John, who lives in Texas, believes that the United States is the best country in the world.
    B. Mary believes that all men are “pigs”.
    C. Arnold refuses to hire Catholics to work in his office.
    D. Dawn likes to ice skate.

 

Type: C

  1. During the summer before your freshman year of college, you receive a letter from the school telling you that your new roommate is from a small town in Arkansas. You respond by telling a high school friend, “I can’t believe it. I’m stuck in a room with a hillbilly”! This is an example of
    A.prejudice.
    B. discrimination.
    C. exploitation.
    D. pluralism.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Ethnocentrism refers to
    A.a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.
    B. the process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice.
    C. the process by which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.
    D. the tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all others.

 

Type: D

  1. Joe, who grew up in an Italian household in an Italian community in New Jersey, believes that the traditional Italian celebration of Easter, which includes many family members and mountains of food consumed during a long dinner, is the only legitimate way to celebrate this holiday. Joe is illustrating
    A.prejudice.
    B. ethnocentrism.
    C. discrimination.
    D. pluralism.

 

Type: C

  1. Racism is
    A.a belief that one race is supreme and that all others are innately inferior.
    B. the tendency of people to respond to and act on the basis of stereotypes.
    C. the systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
    D. the process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. A belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior is called
    A.discrimination.
    B. racism.
    C. sexism.
    D. Issei.

 

Type: D

  1. The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons is known as
    A.stereotyping.
    B. ethnocentrism.
    C. discrimination.
    D. prejudice.

 

Type: D

  1. Which of the following would not be considered discrimination?
    A.Sue believes poor people are criminals.
    B. Sue refuses to give Jane a ride to work because Jane is poor.
    C. Jane, who is poor, vandalizes the cars of rich people who she believes are snobs.
    D. Sue refuses to hire Jane because she is poor.

 

Type: I

  1. When racism prevails in a society, members of subordinate groups generally experience:
    A.ethnocentrism.
    B. prejudice.
    C. discrimination.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Prejudice is to discrimination as
    A.norm is to value.
    B. attitude is to behavior.
    C. behavior is to attitude.
    D. good is to bad.

 

Type: I

  1. An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity is known as
    A.pluralism.
    B. a glass ceiling.
    C. institutional discrimination.
    D. exploitation theory.

 

Type: D

  1. In 1995, the federal Glass Ceiling Commission found that glass ceilings
    A.leak.
    B. continue to block women and minority men from top management positions in the nation’s industries.
    C. continue to block white men from top management positions in the nation’s industries.
    D. none of these

 

Type: I

  1. Institutional discrimination is the
    A.denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society.
    B. belief that individuals or groups should be denied equal rights and opportunities.
    C. stereotyping of people who work in public or private institutions.
    D. establishment of laws that intentionally deny opportunities and equal rights to members of minority groups.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society is called
    A.institutional prejudice.
    B. institutional discrimination.
    C. institutional racism.
    D. institutional ethnicity.

 

Type: D

  1. Which of the following would be a form of institutional discrimination?
    A.rules requiring that only English be spoken at a place of work, even though it is not a business necessity
    B. rules requiring that a college professor has a graduate degree from an accredited university
    C. rules requiring that a bus driver has a valid driver’s license
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirement. This was an example of
    A.prejudice.
    B. scapegoating.
    C. institutional discrimination.
    D. a self-fulfilling prophecy.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. Which of the following would illustrate institutional discrimination?
    A.A country club has a rule specifying that no Italians or Jews may be members.
    B. A mental institution in New York will not allow residents of Connecticut to receive services in the facility.
    C. To save money, a city fires all employees hired during the last three years. During the last three years, the city has had an aggressive minority-hiring program, and the majority of those fired are therefore, members of various minority groups.
    D. A prejudiced personnel officer refuses to hire women.

 

Type: C

  1. Which of the following is considered a form of institutional discrimination?
    A.a firm’s rule that only English be spoken at work
    B. a law school’s policy of giving preference in admissions to children of influential alumni
    C. a firm’s prohibition against the use of part-time workers
    D. all of these

 

Type: C

  1. Which of the following represents a new area of institutionalized discrimination in the United States?
    A.electronic pager ownership
    B. cell phone registration
    C. states requiring voters to show a photo ID.
    D. digital media sales

 

Type: I

  1. State laws requiring voters to show photo IDs before they can vote is a form of
    A.prejudice.
    B. White privilege.
    C. institutionalized discrimination.
    D. affirmative action.

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. The landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in public accommodations and publicly owned facilities on the basis of
    A.race.
    B. gender.
    C. national origin.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following terms refers to positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities?
    A.segregation
    B. institutional prejudice
    C. affirmative action
    D. institutional expulsion

 

Type: C

  1. Research suggesting that White ex-convicts are more employable than Blacks without criminal records was done by sociologist
    A.Ann Grossman.
    B. Christopher Hurn.
    C. Devah Pager.
    D. Claude Fischer.

 

Type: I

  1. Patterns of income across race and gender groups suggest that __________ bear an especially heavy burden of discrimination.
    A.Black men
    B. Black women
    C. White women
    D. White men

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Which of the following contributes to income differences across racial and ethnic groups?
    A.employment discrimination
    B. gender differences
    C. educational disparities
    D. both employment discrimination and educational disparities

 

Type: I

 

True / False Questions

  1. Color-blind racism is the use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo.
    TRUE

 

  1. The “one-drop rule” stipulated that if a person had even a single drop of “Indian blood”, that person was viewed as an Indian.
    FALSE

 

  1. The most recent census figures suggest that almost 20 percent of the American population claims to be biracial.
    FALSE

 

  1. In 2012, Latinos represented 66% of the U.S. population while Whites (non-Hispanic) represented only 14%.
    FALSE

 

  1. The term “racial group” is used to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious cultural distinctions.
    FALSE

 

 

 

  1. Proponents of color-blind racist policies often favor affirmative action and programs offering public assistance.
    FALSE

 

  1. Sociologists continue to feel that the distinction between racial and ethnic groups is socially significant.
    TRUE

 

  1. Symbolic ethnicity refers to a person’s tie to ethnicity through concerns such as ethnic food, rather than deeper ties to one’s ethnic heritage.
    TRUE

 

  1. Racial profiling is illegal in the United States.
    FALSE

 

  1. African Americans are still more likely than Whites to be frisked and handled with force when they are stopped by police.
    TRUE

 

  1. The contact hypothesis suggests that if an African American boss and her Italian employee work together for several years in the same office, they will become less prejudiced toward one another.
    FALSE

 

  1. Discrimination is defined as the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups.
    TRUE

 

 

 

  1. The “glass ceiling” is a term used to describe a discriminatory practice applicable to women only.
    FALSE

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Explain the concept of White privilege.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Describe what sociologists mean by the social construction of race and ethnicity.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Define the differences and similarities between racial groups and ethnic groups. Give some examples to illustrate your answer.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Briefly differentiate the views on racial discrimination from the functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Define the terms prejudice and discrimination and give examples to illustrate your definitions.

Answers will vary

 

Chapter 07

Inequality by Gender

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. According to the text, we are likely to assume either consciously or unconsciously that parental duties are
    A.babysitter duties.
    B. paternal duties.
    C. maternal duties.
    D. family responsibilities.

 

Type: D

  1. Which term refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?
    A.expressiveness
    B. gender roles
    C. gender schema
    D. instrumentality

 

Type: D

  1. A gender role is
    A.the set of expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
    B. the ability to recognize the gender of acquaintances.
    C. a person’s self-concept as being male or female.
    D. none of these

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. A young boy in a child care facility already realizes that some people are females and some people are males, and he plays only with other little boys. In addition, he likes to wear the same kinds of clothes that they wear. He is responding to the cultural construction of
    A.gender roles.
    B. gender differentiation.
    C. gender understanding.
    D. instrumental roles.

 

Type: C

  1. Which one of the following is an example of conforming to a traditional gender role in the United States?
    A.Mary is a physician.
    B. Betty, a 6-year old, plays with trucks and action figures.
    C. Sally feeds her doll a bottle.
    D. All of these

 

Type: C

  1. Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called
    A.homophobia.
    B. gay fright.
    C. ebonics.
    D. heterophobia.

 

Type: D

  1. Homophobia is the fear of
    A.similar-sounding words.
    B. and prejudice against, homosexuality.
    C. and prejudice against, homosexuals, bisexuals, and transvestites.
    D. high places.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. In most cases, the primary agents of gender-role socialization are
    A.older siblings.
    B. teachers.
    C. parents.
    D. the mass media.

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following play an important role in gender-role socialization in the United States?
    A.mass media
    B. religious institutions
    C. educational institutions
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that gender roles are learned by identifying with adult role models of the same sex?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. anomie perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Research of children’s books published in the United States in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s indicated that
    A.females were significantly overrepresented in central roles.
    B. female characters were portrayed as passive and in need of strong males.
    C. women were portrayed as competent and generally equal to males.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. For every one stay-at-home father, there are _________ stay-at-home mothers
    A.12
    B. 38
    C. 69
    D. 113

 

Type: S

  1. Recent studies show which of the following regarding gender roles.
    A.They are biologically determined rather than socially constructed
    B. They are socially constructed very differently from women’s gender roles.
    C. There has been little change in the traditional male gender role.
    D. All of these

 

Type: S

  1. A recent survey shows that attitudes about gender roles and stay-at-home parenting have changed in recent years as evidenced by the fact that _________ respondents said that if one parent stays home with the children, it makes no difference whether that parent is the mother or the father
    A.14
    B. 28
    C. 48
    D. 69

 

Type: I

  1. Males who do not conform to the socially constructed gender role.
    A.face constant criticism and humiliation.
    B. become closed and expressive.
    C. will likely be both passive and expressive.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. The work of Margaret Mead
    A.claimed that gender roles are biologically determined.
    B. illustrated that gender roles are the products of culture and socialization.
    C. studied the inequality between adults and children in three groups of people in Pakistan.
    D. illustrated instrumental and expressive roles in a cross-cultural setting.

 

Type: S

  1. Australian sociologist R.W. Connell is known for which of the following terms?
    A.multiple masculinities
    B. glass ceiling
    C. second shift
    D. instrumentality

 

Type: S

  1. Which sociologist(s) argued that to function most effectively, the family requires adults who will specialize in particular roles.
    A.Marx and Engels
    B. Parsons and Bales
    C. Margaret Mead
    D. Patricia Hill Collins

 

Type: S

  1. Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales
    A.distinguished between instrumental and expressive roles.
    B. conducted a functionalist analysis of gender roles in the United States.
    C. noted that families benefit from the traditional division of labor between men and women, which ensures that all of society’s jobs are completed.
    D. all of these

 

Type: S

 

 

  1. Which term is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one’s family and other social institutions?
    A.identification
    B. instrumentality
    C. expressiveness
    D. gender identity

 

Type: D

  1. The concept of instrumentality, as used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, refers to
    A.the behavior of men and women in small work groups.
    B. an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one’s family and other social institutions.
    C. the symbolic interactionist approach to male and female behavior.
    D. an emphasis on maintaining harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.

 

Type: D

  1. Which of the following would best illustrate instrumentality as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales?
    A.A woman who has been married for 23 years devotes most of her time to cooking, cleaning, washing, and childcare.
    B. On dates, Steve is very talkative and shares his innermost feelings with his date.
    C. Tom spends all week at the office.
    D. Tabitha works as a lawyer, but she is also responsible for childcare, cooking, cleaning, and washing.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the instrumental role is performed by
    A.men.
    B. women.
    C. children.
    D. whichever adult has a career.

 

Type: I

  1. According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, which role do men take within the family?
    A.androgynous
    B. expressive
    C. instrumental
    D. submissive

 

Type: I

  1. Which term is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family?
    A.expressiveness
    B. identification
    C. instrumentality
    D. gender Roles

 

Type: D

  1. The concept of expressiveness, as used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, refers to:
    A.the behavior of men and women in small work groups.
    B. an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship. between one’s family and other social institutions
    C. the symbolic interactionist approach to male and female behavior.
    D. an emphasis on maintaining harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. Which of the following would best illustrate the expressive role in U.S. society, as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales?
    A.Tim is a sensitive man who often cries during sad movies.
    B. Marsha, a new employee at a day care center, is praised by her boss for being warm and nurturing to the young children.
    C. On dates, Al is very talkative and shares his innermost feelings with his date.
    D. Kevin, a construction worker, firmly makes most of the decisions at home, and he has the final say in disciplinary matters.

 

Type: C

  1. Which of the following would be the best illustration of the expressive role in U.S. society, as developed by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales?
    A.A newly married woman keeps a spotless apartment and cooks beautiful gourmet meals.
    B. On Saturday, Bill does not need to go into the office, and he uses this time to mow the lawn and tune the engine of his wife’s car.
    C. On dates, Al is very talkative and shares his innermost feelings with his date.
    D. Lucy works as a nurse, but she makes sure that she keeps the apartment clean and has a nice meal on the table for her husband.

 

Type: C

  1. According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by
    A.men.
    B. women.
    C. children.
    D. whichever adult has a career.

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Although it does not endorse traditional gender roles, which sociological perspective implies that dividing tasks between spouses is beneficial for the family unit?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which perspective is criticized because it does not convincingly explain why men should be categorically assigned to the instrumental role and women to the expressive role?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. feminist perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which sociological perspective would most likely argue that Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales’s analysis of gender roles masks underlying power relations between men and women?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. dramaturgical perspective
    D. interactionist perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which roles in the United States receive higher amounts of rewards in terms of prestige and money?
    A.expressive roles
    B. instrumental roles
    C. identification roles
    D. each receives the same amount

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that the relationship between women and men has been one of unequal power, with men in a dominant position over women?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which perspective suggests that men may have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Conflict theorists view gender differences as
    A.a reflection of the subjugation of one group (women) by another group (men).
    B. necessary for the effective accomplishment of family and societal tasks.
    C. unrelated to the overall exploitation and injustice found in capitalist societies.
    D. all of these

 

Type: P

  1. Using an analogy to Marx’s analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists argue that women are in a position comparable to that of the
    A.bourgeoisie.
    B. proletariat.
    C. middle class.
    D. upper class.

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Using an analogy to Marx’s analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists argue that men are in a position comparable to that of the
    A.industrial worker.
    B. middle class.
    C. bourgeoisie.
    D. proletariat.

 

Type: P

  1. Which of the following statements about the feminist movement is true?
    A.There was no feminist movement in the United States until the 1980s.
    B. One of the earliest feminist documents was A Vindication of the Rights of Women by Mary Wollstonecraft.
    C. Modern feminist theory is based on the interactionist perspective.
    D. Friedrich Engels argued the rise of industrialization benefited women.

 

Type: I

  1. A Vindication of the Rights of Women was published in 1792, and was written by
    A.Friedrich Engels.
    B. Karl Marx.
    C. Mary Wollstonecraft.
    D. John Stuart Mill.

 

Type: S

  1. The Subjection of Women was published in 1869, and was written by
    A.Friedrich Engels.
    B. Karl Marx.
    C. Mary Wollstonecraft.
    D. John Stuart Mill.

 

Type: S

 

 

  1. The Origin of Private Property, the Family, and the State was published in 1884 and was written by
    A.Friedrich Engels.
    B. Karl Marx.
    C. Mary Wollstonecraft.
    D. John Stuart Mill.

 

Type: S

  1. Who argued that women’s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization?
    A.Friedrich Engels
    B. Ralf Dahrendorf
    C. Talcott Parsons
    D. Robert Bales

 

Type: S

  1. Friedrich Engels, a close associate of Karl Marx, argued that women’s subjugation by men
    A.started in the caves inhabited by the first ancestors of modern people.
    B. coincided with the development of modern agriculture.
    C. coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization.
    D. started in China nearly 3,000 years ago.

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Friedrich Engels
    A.argued that women’s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization.
    B. advocated that the division of labor be based on instrumental and expressive roles for males and females.
    C. suggested that equal status contacts between males and females in the corporate world would eliminate the last vestiges of sexism in the United States.
    D. urged women to rise up in a revolution, overthrow male rulers, and establish a new society administered by women.

 

Type: S

  1. Feminist sociologists
    A.would find little to disagree with in the functionalist perspective.
    B. would argue that the very discussion of women and society, however well meaning, has been distorted by the exclusion of women from academic thought, including sociology.
    C. argue that sociologists have exploited women by using them as the subject for more than half the studies conducted during the last 50 years.
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Some radical feminist theorists view the oppression of women as __________, regardless of whether it is a capitalist, socialist, or communist society.
    A.retribution
    B. inevitable
    C. hyperreactive
    D. merely a falsity

 

Type: I

  1. The early work of Jane Addams and Ida Wells-Barnett was excluded from most academic thought because
    A.their work focused more on applied social work and sociology.
    B. their work was regarded as unrelated to the research conducted in academic circles during their time.
    C. their work was found to be unethical.
    D. two of these reasons are correct

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following sociologists has spoken of the term multiple masculinities when discussing gender roles?
    A.Emile Durkheim
    B. Robert Bales
    C. Mary Wollstonecraft
    D. R.W. Connell

 

Type: I

  1. According to Connell, which of the following roles do men play?
    A.a nurturing-caring role
    B. an effeminate-gay role
    C. dominator of women
    D. all of the above

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Simple day-to-day verbal exchanges between males and females are a battleground in the struggle for sexual equality, as women and girls try to “get a word in edgewise” in the midst of interruptions and verbal dominance by males. Which perspective would focus on this issue?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. dramaturgical perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which sociological perspective would focus on the macro-level forces that influence male and female conversations?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. both functionalist and conflict perspectives

 

Type: P

  1. Educators are concerned about the ways girls and young women are affected by the verbal dominance of males in classroom settings. Which sociological perspective is most likely to address this issue?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

 

 

  1. Which sociological perspective would look at patterns of male dominance in cross-sex conversations as a battleground in the struggle for sexual equality?
    A.functionalist perspective
    B. conflict perspective
    C. interactionist perspective
    D. global perspective

 

Type: P

  1. Which of the following statements reflects the macro-level social phenomena referred to as “doing gender” in your text?
    A.A man “does masculinity” by holding the car door for his girlfriend.
    B. A woman “does femininity” by consenting to help with her heavy suitcase.
    C. A small boy plays with trucks given to him by his uncle.
    D. All of the above

 

Type: I

  1. Which sociologist is noted for the term “matrix of domination”?
    A.Makiko Fuwa
    B. Patricia Hill Collins
    C. Talcott Parsons
    D. Robert Bales

 

Type: I

  1. The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as
    A.sexual harassment.
    B. sexism.
    C. sex stratification.
    D. gender identity.

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. Sexism is defined as
    A.the excessive concern of some individuals to have sexual relationships with their dates.
    B. the ideology that one sex is superior to the other.
    C. the inferiority complex that men and women frequently have as a result of having been born into the “wrong” sex.
    D. none of these

 

Type: D

  1. The foreman of a construction crew will not hire women because “they are weak, moody, and a distraction”. The foreman’s attitudes are
    A.instrumental.
    B. expressive.
    C. gender grounded.
    D. sexist.

 

Type: C

  1. Institutional discrimination refers to the
    A.denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operation of a society.
    B. denial of opportunities and equal rights resulting from rules and regulations in organizations that were designed to discriminate against women and other minority group members.
    C. failure of major institutions in the United States to serve the needs of female clients.
    D. all of these

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. Which term is used to refer to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that result from the normal operations of a society?
    A.institutional discrimination
    B. innovation
    C. indoctrination
    D. instrumentality

 

Type: I

  1. Institutional discrimination is present in which United States institutions?
    A.the armed forces and universities
    B. large corporations and the medical establishment
    C. the media
    D. all of these

 

Type: I

  1. A gym buys uniforms for employees. All of the uniforms are in a men’s large size, and the gym only hires people who will comfortably fit into the uniforms. As a result of this policy, the gym does not hire any women. This is an example of
    A.instrumentality.
    B. expressiveness.
    C. institutional discrimination.
    D. pluralism.

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. A hospital has a policy of not hiring men as nurses, even if the applicants have earned high grades in their courses and on their board exams, because the hospital administration thinks that “patients will be uncomfortable with a male nurse”. This is an example of
    A.instrumentality.
    B. institutional discrimination.
    C. expressiveness.
    D. segregation.

 

Type: C

  1. According to a detailed overview of the status of the world’s women issued by the World Bank in 2012, the lives of girls and women have
    A.remained the largely same over the past 50 years.
    B. have changed dramatically over the past 25 years.
    C. have significantly worsened over the past 50 years.
    D. none of these

 

Type: D

  1. Which of the following is true as of 2012?
    A.Women uniformly earn the same amount of money as men for doing the same job.
    B. Women uniformly earn more than men for doing the same job.
    C. In many parts of the world, women still lag far behind men in their earnings and in their ability to speak out politically.
    D. In most parts of the world, women have achieved parity with men in their ability to speak out politically.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. Sociologist Jan Paul Heisig has shown that
    A.poor men do more housework than rich men.
    B. poor men and rich men do comparable amounts of housework
    C. poor men do the same amount of housework as women.
    D. rich men do the same amount of housework as women

 

Type: I

  1. Unemployed women do
    A.half as much extra housework than unemployed men.
    B. twice as much extra housework as men.
    C. the same amount of extra housework as men.
    D. none of these

 

Type: I

  1. Which of the following statements about the status of women throughout the world is true?
    A.Women grow half the world’s food, but they rarely own land.
    B. Women constitute one-third of the world’s paid labor force, but are generally found in the lowest paying jobs.
    C. Single-parent households headed by women are typically found in the poorest sections of the population.
    D. All of these

 

Type: I

  1. What term is used to refer to the convergence of social forces that contributes to the subordinate status of low-status women?
    A.instrumentality
    B. glass ceiling
    C. second shift
    D. matrix of domination

 

Type: I

 

 

  1. By 2006, __________ of adult American women held jobs outside the home.
    A.10 percent
    B. 23 percent
    C. 59 percent
    D. 66 percent

 

Type: I

  1. As of 2010, what percentage of the paid work force are women?
    A.85 percent
    B. 47 percent
    C. 30 percent
    D. 13 percent

 

Type: I

  1. An invisible barrier, which blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity, is called
    A.expressiveness.
    B. gender roles.
    C. a glass ceiling.
    D. instrumentality.

 

Type: D

  1. A glass ceiling is
    A.the set of expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
    B. an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s race, gender, or ethnicity.
    C. a person’s self-concept as being male or female.
    D. an ideology that one sex is superior to another.

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. Tina and several men are hired by a large corporation at entry-level positions. Over the course of several years, these employees are given several promotions until they reach middle management positions. However, over the next several years the men are all promoted to senior management positions, while Tina, who receives the same evaluations as the men, receives no additional promotions. This is an example of
    A.expressiveness.
    B. the glass ceiling.
    C. Shirley Weitz’s concept of differential treatment.
    D. instrumentality.

 

Type: C

  1. Nora is hired along with three men by a recording company. Over time, the men are all promoted to managerial positions. Nora, who appears to be an equally productive worker, is still in her entry-level position. This could be an example of
    A.”double jeopardy”.
    B. the glass ceiling.
    C. the iron law of oligarchy.
    D. all of these

 

Type: C

  1. Which phrase has been used by sociologist Arlie Hochschild to describe the double-burden of working outside the home, followed by childcare and housework, which many women face and few men share equitably?
    A.“second shift”
    B. “comparable worth”
    C. “second wave”
    D. “double header”

 

Type: D

 

 

  1. The “second shift”, which refers to the double-burden put upon women who work outside the home and then come home to childcare and housework, was the subject of analysis by
    A.Letty Cottin Pogrebin.
    B. Heidi Hartmann.
    C. Susan Shaw.
    D. Arlie Hochschild.

 

Type: S

  1. Arlie Hochschild’s research indicated that
    A.women spend 15 fewer hours each week engaged in leisure activities than their husbands do.
    B. during the “second shift”, most women go shopping.
    C. the gender gap in housework is widest among married couples as opposed to men and women in other living arrangements.
    D. women are 50 percent less likely than men to report being under stress.

 

Type: S

  1. Which of the following illustrates Arlie Hochschild’s concept of the “second shift”?
    A.A woman works from 9 to 5 as a nurse and then has a second job as a waitress at a local diner.
    B. A man has a career as an accountant, and when he gets home, he cleans the apartment and makes dinner for his wife, himself, and their children.
    C. A woman has a career as a stockbroker, and she is also responsible for maintaining the apartment, doing the shopping, and cooking for herself and her husband.
    D. all of these

 

Type: C

 

 

  1. The ______ of men in a 2005 survey reported to have voluntarily left work for months or years is less than women’s average of 40%. This difference suggests that women are more likely than men to leave work for family reasons.
    A.4%
    B. 24%
    C. 32%
    D. 10%

 

Type: I

  1. In which occupation are women overrepresented with a 98% rate out of all workers in the occupation?
    A.high school teachers
    B. firefighters
    C. pilots
    D. dental hygienists

 

Type: I

 

True / False Questions

  1. A gender role is the self-realization an individual has about being male or female.
    FALSE

 

  1. We socially construct our behavior so that male-female differences are either created or exaggerated.
    TRUE

 

  1. The continuing stigma attached to homosexuality in our culture places pressure on all males to exhibit only narrow “masculine” behavior and on all females to exhibit only narrow “feminine” behavior.
    TRUE

 

 

 

  1. Studies of children’s books published between the 1970s and 1990s found males still dominated the central roles.
    TRUE

 

  1. Brannon and Doyle have suggested that the following are aspects of the male gender role: communicate openly and expressively, prove one’s masculinity at work and sports, use force in dealing with others, initiate and control all sexual relations, and keep cool and unflappable
    FALSE

 

  1. Margaret Mead’s work from 1935 proved that gender-roles do not vary greatly from environment, economy, or political system.
    FALSE

 

  1. Historically, Native Americans stand out as an exception to the patriarchal tradition in North America.
    TRUE

 

  1. Margaret Mead’s work showed that women in industrialized nations have broken the glass ceiling.
    FALSE

 

  1. Single-parent households headed by women are typically found in the wealthier sections of the population.
    FALSE

 

  1. The functionalist approach to gender stratification focuses on biology as the primary determinant of gender differences.
    FALSE

 

 

 

  1. A conflict theorist is likely to argue that men’s work is uniformly valued, while women’s work (whether unpaid labor in the home or wage labor) is devalued.
    TRUE

 

  1. Functionalists, conflict, and feminist theorists acknowledge it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without dramatic revisions in a culture’s social structure.
    TRUE

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Describe the process for social construction of gender roles in a society. Give some examples to support your answer.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Identify various actions or behaviors that could be considered as gender norm violations when committed by women, and conversely when committed by men.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Discuss Connell’s term multiple masculinities within the context of class and status within contemporary U.S. society.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Identify which of the three major sociological perspectives is closely aligned with the feminist perspective and discuss their views toward gender stratification.

Answers will vary

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the special issues faced by minority women in the labor market.

Answers will vary