Test Bank for Sociology The Essentials 8th Edition By Andersen

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Test Bank for Sociology The Essentials 8th Edition By Andersen

 

Sample:

 

Chapter 6

 

  1. Why is it important for sociologists to have a shared definition of groups?
  2. a. Having a definition enables sociologists to understand the behavior of people in society and how to predict

people’s behavior in groups.

  1. If all sociologists cannot agree on a definition of groups, then groups cannot exist.
  2. c. Groups are a very simple aspect of sociology; the definition makes them seem more academic
  3. A shared definition allows sociologists from around the world to collaborate.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     124

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. If a sociologist is studying groups he or she is using . a. micro level analysis
  2. macro level analysis
  3. c. universal level analysis individual level analysis

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     124-125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. By definition, groups must be at least people.
  2. a. 1 2 c. 5 d. 7

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     124

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Applied

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. Georg Simmel is known for his work with:
  2. a. social b. social institutions. c. groupthink.
  3. group size effects.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a dyad?
  2. a. your parents and you
  3. a married couple
  4. c. your sociology class
  5. all 18-year-olds

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. In a triad, when two of the people are interacting and form a dyad, the sociological term for the third person is

          .

  1. a. an outcast
  2. an isolate
  3. c. a third party
  4. a co-participant

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Triadic segregation refers to:
  2. a. the tendency for triads to develop into a pair and an
  3. the likelihood of dyads to be stable.
  4. c. the emergence of
  5. the predisposition for primary groups to be small.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. In his study of the effect of size on group dynamics, Simmel found that
  2. a. a dyad is basically an unstable social
  3. a triad is an unstable social grouping, whereas dyads are relatively stable. c. adding a third person to a dyad has no effect on the stability of the group. d. the size of the group has no effect on interaction.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. The sociologist who introduced the concept of primary groups is .
  2. a. Charles Horton Cooley George Herbert Mead c. Georg Simmel
  3. Charles Page

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 10. Which of the following is an example of a primary group?
  2. a. classmates neighbors c. family
  3. teachers

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 11. Cooley originally used the term primary for some groups because
  2. a. they are the only groups that matter to
  3. they are the occupational groups without which we would not make a living.
  4. c. they are the first groups we are part of as
  5. they are the easiest groups for sociologists to recognize.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 12. Cooley’s concept of primary groups
  2. a. refers only to the intimate groups of one’s formative
  3. has been elaborated to include a variety of intimate relationships in groups.
  4. c. no longer has relevance within
  5. has been replaced with the concept of secondary groups.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 13. Which of these statements about primary groups is true?
  2. a. Primary groups have a powerful influence on a person’s self­identity.
  3. Primary groups are not as influential for the individual as secondary groups. c. The concept of the primary group refers only to groups in one’s childhood. d. Your sociology class is an example of a primary group.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 14. are small and intimate;          are larger and short-lived.
  2. a. Primary groups; secondary groups Secondary groups; primary groups. c. Triads; dyads
  3. Categories; secondary groups

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 15. Secondary groups are most likely to take on characteristics of primary groups
  2. a. in situations where there is a clear authority and purpose to the
  3. when family members are living at a distance.
  4. c. in times of high stress or crisis such as natural
  5. when they are extremely small.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 16. In their study of groups of different sizes, sociologists have found that
  2. a. primary groups are a major influence and an important source of social
  3. primary groups often take on the characteristics of secondary groups.
  4. c. primary groups are less important today as our society has become more secondary group-oriented.
  5. secondary groups tend to be most significant in the emotional lives of people.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125-126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 17. Sociologists have found that primary groups
  2. a. fulfill a person’s expressive
  3. generally only meet a person’s instrumental needs.
  4. c. tend to be larger than secondary
  5. are less significant than secondary groups

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 18. If Bobby joins a gang, he is joining a . a. primary group
  2. secondary group c. dyad
  3. triad

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 19. Which of the following statements is true about the differences between primary and secondary groups?
  2. a. Secondary groups are less intimate than primary
  3. Primary groups are larger in membership than secondary groups.
  4. c. Primary groups are less long-lasting than secondary
  5. Secondary groups include only family members.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125-126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 20. Primary groups provide for an individual’s needs; secondary groups provide for an individual’s                      

needs.

  1. a. expressive; instrumental
  2. instrumental; psychological
  3. c. instrumental; expressive
  4. socioemotional; expressive

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    125-126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 21. According to the research presented in the text, in a study of the role of small voluntary groups in society Robert

Wuthnow and his associates found that

  1. a. voluntary groups are not able to fill the void left by the breakdown of community and
  2. voluntary interest groups have lost their importance within U.S. society
  3. c. people seek small voluntary groups for a sense of community and a spiritual
  4. voluntary group membership has been declining in the U.S.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    126

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 22. Sociologists use the term instrumental needs to refer to the of a
  2. a. emotional and intimate needs
  3. socio-biological needs
  4. c. task-oriented needs
  5. formative needs

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 23. Which of the following situations is most likely to result in a secondary group becoming a primary group?
  2. a. standing in line at an amusement park waiting to get on a popular ride
  3. picking over items at a large rummage sale
  4. c. a neighborhood digging out after a blizzard has hit
  5. sharing an admiration for a rock star

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    127-128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 24. Which of the following is true of reference groups?
  2. a. Reference groups are not “groups” in the sense that they involve
  3. A well-adjusted person only has one reference group at a time.
  4. c. The influence of a given reference group can be positive or negative, but not
  5. Reference groups only influence our behavior during childhood.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 25. Research on race and reference groups indicates that
  2. a. school desegregation is most important in raising the self-esteem of Black
  3. positive representations of ethnic and racial groups raises the self-esteem of children of those groups.
  4. c. reference groups have little or no affect on self-esteem.
  5. how groups are presented has no impact on their effectiveness as reference groups for children.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 26. Which of these statements about reference groups is false?
  2. a. reference groups always provide good role models
  3. one does not belong to a reference group
  4. c. the influence of a reference group may be positive or negative
  5. Identification with a social group can strongly influence self-esteem.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 27. promote a sense of “us;”         promote a sense of “them.”
  2. a. Dyads; triads
  3. Primary groups; secondary groups
  4. c. In-groups; out-groups
  5. Reference groups; attribution groups

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 28. Considering oneself as part of “people like us” is an example of being part of    .
  2. a. an out-group
  3. an instrumental group
  4. c. a reference group
  5. an in-group

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 29. An out-group is all of these except:
  2. a. created by the existence of an in-group.
  3. the opposite of an in-group.
  4. c. is an attribute of society
  5. is always a secondary group.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 30. According to attribution theory, when an out­group member’s behavior is unclear
  2. a. it will be interpreted in a neutral way by in-group
  3. it will be interpreted in a negative manner by in-group members.
  4. c. it will be interpreted as positive by in-group
  5. in-group members will not pay attention to it.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 31. Thomas Pettigrew’s summary of research on attribution theory found that
  2. a. individuals are accurate in their perception of the motives of other people’s acts, regardless of their in­

group or out-group membership.

  1. attribution error is much less common than people think.
  2. c. individuals commonly distort the motives and acts of people whom they see as out-group
  3. when provided with information about out-groups that disproves negative perceptions of them, people quickly alter their perceptions.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 32. Attribution error refers to a situation in which one
  2. a. fails to see that group membership is the cause of a person’s
  3. falsely attributes a person’s behavior to membership in a particular group. c. blames something on one person that is really the fault of another person. d. completely misunderstands the action in a particular situation.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Applied

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 33. When a student joins an organization it will provide which of the following?
  2. a. primary needs
  3. instrumental needs c. secondary needs
  4. basic needs

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. 34. If a students uses musicians as a model for behavior then musicians are their . a. primary group
  2. secondary group c. reference group d. attribute

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                MODIFIED

 

  1. 35. Which of the following does not illustrate a common type of attribution error?
  2. a. a girl who does well in science is perceived as being unusually smart
  3. a white person observes a white student taking a wallet out of someone’s purse and assumes the student

was asked to do so by the owner

  1. c. a Hispanic student is carrying a baseball bat and it is assumed he intends to vandalize something
  2. All of these are illustrations of attribution error.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 36. A person reads in the newspaper that a Black youth has been shot by a White police officer. If no other information is available, attribution theory suggests that
  2. a. a White person will view the shooting as an unnecessary act of
  3. both Black and White people will assume that youth gang activity was a problem.
  4. c. a Black person will likely believe the shooting was unnecessary, while a White person will assume the officer acted
  5. neither a Black nor a White person will make any assumptions about the situation until they have learned more information.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 37. The sociological term for a set of links between individuals or between other social groups is .
  2. a. consortium
  3. social network
  4. c. organizational complex
  5. interactive web

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 38. Which of the following is false about the formation of social networks? a. Networks are must often formed in very conscious and formal b. The formation of networks can be very spontaneous.
  2. c. Social networks may form at home, work, church, or many other
  3. Family networks can lead to jobs and upward mobility.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 39. According to research, which of the following is most likely to lead to getting a job?
  2. a. using a personal network
  3. applying through a job listing online
  4. c. answering a help wanted ad
  5. using a placement agencies

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 40. The statement that there is “strength in weak ties” refers to the fact that
  2. a. members of a secondary group can still be emotionally
  3. even a dysfunctional family may be useful at times.
  4. c. one doesn’t have to know a lot of people in a network in order for it to be
  5. sometimes the friend you are the least close to is the most helpful.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 41. When women are meticulous and aggressive they often are seen as . a. pushy and bitchy
  2. as powerful as men c. good leaders
  3. thorough

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 42. Networks based on are especially important in job
  2. a. age
  3. skill set
  4. c. experience and union membership
  5. race, class, and gender

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    129-130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 43. Which of these statements about occupations and networks is false?
  2. a. Compared with Whites, Latinos and Black are more likely to be harmed by a lack of social contacts
  3. The “old boy network” has virtually disappeared.
  4. c. The person who leads you to a job is likely to have a background similar to yours
  5. Black leaders have formed a network closer than that of White leaders.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 44. Sometimes people will comment that it is a “small world” when they coincidentally meet the friend of a

Research into the “small world problem” demonstrates that

  1. a. networks do not reach as far as was believed in the
  2. employment agencies are more effective than networks at directing people toward jobs.
  3. c. social networking is a thing of the past; it is now out-of-date.
  4. networks make the world seem a lot smaller than many might think.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 45. Which of the following is a criticism of Travers and Milgram’s research?
  2. a. They had a small sample
  3. Only one-third of the documents ever reached the targets.
  4. c. They did not include any Black or Hispanic senders or
  5. The senders were highly incentivized for their work.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 46. The reality of the expression “it’s a small world” is that
  2. a. there is no interconnection throughout the
  3. people are interconnected in close social networks regardless of their sex, race, and social class.
  4. c. the world is a small place for most people in
  5. the world is only a small place for those in one’s immediate network (those who share the same race,

class, and sex).

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 47. The idea of strength in weak ties refers to:
  2. a. knowing one person in a network
  3. knowing many people in a network c. people with different backgrounds d. networks connected together

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 48. A recent study by Taylor and associates, of networks among Black leaders within the S., found that Black leaders
  2. a. do not depend on networks as much as
  3. feel isolated and do not know others who share their situation and background.
  4. c. form closer networks with greater density than do
  5. do not attach any importance to networks, preferring to work only through friends.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 49. According to social psychologist Philip Zimbardo, how do most people respond to hearing about the overly conforming behavior of others in groups?
  2. a. They empathize because they know they would behave the same
  3. They understand that for most people conformity is the norm.
  4. c. They believe that they themselves would not succumb to group
  5. They think that the conformity is the result of group members being tricked in some way.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    131

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 50. In his classic study of perception and group pressure, Asch found that
  2. a. even rather gentle pressure was sufficient to cause an astonishing rise in the number of wrong
  3. most people would not bend to the opinions of others without a great deal of anger and argument.
  4. c. the majority of people make up their minds for themselves and stick to those
  5. there is no real pressure to conform in most situations.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    131

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 51. The results of Solomon Asch’s classic study of conformity were that
  2. a. test subjects required a great deal of harassment before they would succumb to group pressure and give an incorrect
  3. individuals are likely to conform to group pressure, even if the group is objectively incorrect.
  4. c. the size of the group of confederates do not make any difference in the likelihood of the subject to give an incorrect
  5. male subjects were more likely to conform than female subjects.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    131-132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 52. In the now famous Milgram Obedience Studies, the results demonstrated that
  2. a. people will not conform when they believe their behavior will harm another
  3. women are less likely to engage in behavior that is potentially harmful for others than men are.
  4. c. there is a significant difference between what people believe they will do and how they actually
  5. people only conform up to a certain point, but will not violate moral or ethical standards.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 53. When asked to administer potentially harmful shocks to other people in a research setting, most people will
  2. a. only administer very weak shocks; they refuse to give stronger
  3. refuse to administer any type of shocks; they will quit the research project.
  4. c. give whatever strength of electric shock they are asked to, regardless of the risk to another
  5. call the authorities and report the person telling them to shock another person.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 54. The implications of Milgram’s experiments on obedience to authority are that
  2. a. it may be possible for any ordinary person to commit atrocities under the right
  3. getting most people to follow orders requires a great deal of coercion.
  4. c. only some personality types are capable of committing atrocities against other human
  5. we cannot hold people accountable for their actions.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 55. Applying Milgram’s research on conformity to the torture of prisoners by American soldiers that took place at

Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq demonstrates that

  1. a. the torture of prisoners by American soldiers must have been the act of a few cruel and deranged
  2. the reasons that prisoners were tortured by soldiers lay within the social structure and the group pressure of the situation.
  3. c. the American soldiers are in no way responsible for their
  4. only new recruits with little experience would conform to authority if told to intentionally harm another person.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 56. Applied to a situation like the torture of Iraqi prisoners in American prison Abu Ghraib, Milgram’s and Asch’s

findings would indicate that

  1. a. there was a serious breakdown in respect for authority that caused soldiers to violate the international standards for treatment of
  2. the cause of the American soldiers’ inhumane treatment of prisoners is partly the structure of the situation

and group pressure.

  1. c. American soldiers would only commit torture if following a direct order with fear of punishment for not carrying it
  2. soldiers are more sadistic than the average college student or American citizen.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    133

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 57. What was the outcome of the classic prison simulation done by Zimbardo and his associates?
  2. a. Without being told to do so, students playing the role of guards behaved sadistically toward the students in the role of
  3. When upper-class students were put in the role of prisoner, they were not abused as much as the working-class students in the same role.
  4. c. The students acting in the roles of both prisoners and the prisoners did not take the experiment seriously and so it was discontinued
  5. The findings were not significant in terms of how people adapt to roles of authority.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    133-134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 58. According to Janis, which of the following decisions was the result of groupthink?
  2. a. Bush’s decision to engage in the first Gulf
  3. Kennedy’s decision to launch the “Bay of Pigs” invasion in Cuba
  4. c. Johnson’s decision in 1967 to start the War on
  5. Obama’s decision to reform health care.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 59. Which of the following is not a characteristic common to most cases of groupthink?
  2. a. an illusion of unanimity
  3. treating dissent as disloyalty
  4. c. an understanding of one’s weaknesses
  5. underestimating the antagonists to one’s plans

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 60. Sociological research on group decision making finds that
  2. a. groupthink is inevitable any time a team comes together to make a
  3. people in positions of power are not affected by groupthink in the same way that those below them are.
  4. c. if members of a group feel invulnerable this increases the potential for groupthink to
  5. younger people are more affected by groupthink than older people.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 61. As , trends in risk-taking are
  2. a. groups become
  3. groups become smaller.
  4. c. groups become less
  5. groups become more intimate.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 62. From a sociological standpoint, the most convincing explanation for the occurrence of risky shifts is .
  2. a. deindividuation
  3. anomie
  4. c. panic
  5. social disorganization

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 63. Deindividuation refers to
  2. a. the inability of a person to think for
  3. the willingness of a person to take the blame for the entire group.
  4. c. the sense of merging with the group so that blame will be shared, not directed toward any
  5. a sense of normlessness.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 64. Sociological analysis of the process of deindividuation finds that
  2. a. a person in this situation thinks any blame that results will be shared by the entire
  3. the size of the group has no impact on the tendency for deindividuation.
  4. c. the larger the group the better chance there is of people talking each other out of risky
  5. mixed-sex groups are more likely to take risks than single-sex groups.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 65. Formal organizations
  2. a. are secondary groups that are organized to accomplish complex tasks
  3. may be very small or very large.
  4. c. are not relevant to most people’s
  5. are generally organized around kinship or friendship.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 66. Which of the following is not characteristic of formal organizations?
  2. a. They develop their own cultures and routine
  3. They are independent of any other organization.
  4. c. They change over time, but also tend to remain in
  5. They may be tools for creating social change.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 67. The study of formal organizations represents an example of .
  2. a. macroanalysis
  3. microanalysis
  4. c. content analysis
  5. survey analysis.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 68. AARP and the NAACP are examples of
  2. a. affiliative normative c. coercive d. utilitarian

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 69. The primary reason that people join normative organizations is
  2. a. to pursue goals they believe are
  3. to increase their financial status.
  4. c. because of coercive
  5. to increase the size of their social networks.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 70. Voluntary organizations
  2. a. lack organization because they are informal and
  3. are always political.
  4. c. have been organized to address a wide variety of
  5. are equally accessed by people from diverse backgrounds.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 71. Which of the following is not an example of a coercive organization?
  2. a. prison
  3. mental hospital
  4. c. church
  5. juvenile detention center

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 72. Total institutions were described by Goffman as
  2. a. coercive
  3. well-integrated throughout society.
  4. c. having very differentiated
  5. responsive to the needs of the individual.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 73. Large organizations that individuals join for specific purposes are referred to as
  2. a. normative utilitarian c. coercive d. voluntary

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 74. Individuals often join organizations for monetary
  2. a. coercive volunteer c. normative d. utilitarian

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 75. Sociologists have found that
  2. a. all utilitarian organizations are for-profit.
  3. all formal organizations are bureaucracies.
  4. c. all total institutions are coercive
  5. all normative organizations are charitable organizations.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 76. Weber analyzed the class characteristics of bureaucracy, which he referred to as the
  2. a. primary principle c. ideal type d. model

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 77. Which of the following is not characteristic of Weber’s “ideal type” bureaucracy?
  2. a. cooperative structures for accomplishing tasks
  3. impersonal relationships
  4. c. formal rules and regulations
  5. high levels of efficiency

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 78. According to Weber, bureaucracies are organized in such a way as to
  2. a. create totalitarian government of
  3. ensure that all workers are treated the same. c. create an organization that is easy to change. d. promote democracy within the work place.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 79. The overall purpose of the bureaucratic organization is
  2. a. to maximize
  3. promote democracy.
  4. c. alleviate suffering for the
  5. be open to social change.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 80. The informal structure of a bureaucracy
  2. a. follows the same rules and regulations as the formal
  3. develops among those at the top of the organizational structure.
  4. c. increases the feelings of solidarity among all
  5. uses alternate channels to get some things done faster.

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 81. Sociologists have found that the informal structure of an organization
  2. a. includes all members at the lower levels of the
  3. may increase productivity, but doesn’t seem to decrease productivity.
  4. c. develops largely among those most taken for granted in an
  5. is stronger at the top than at the bottom of the organization.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 82. Which of the following statements about bureaucracy is false?
  2. a. Subcultures develop even in the largest
  3. Secretaries and other assistants often have more power than their job description or salary indicates. c. The informal culture of bureaucracy works to make all employees feel more connected and included. d. Informal norms within a bureaucracy may increase or decrease worker productivity.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 83. Studies done in the 1930s at the Hawthorne, Illinois, Western Electric telephone plant found all of the following,

except

  1. a. workers developed their own norms for how much work should be accomplished each
  2. workers may be punished by their fellow workers for being too productive.
  3. c. informal structures within an organization may increase or decrease
  4. women were more likely to be “rate busters” than men.

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 84. Organization ritualism refers to
  2. a. the norms and practices that an organization uses to socialize new
  3. the fact that formal organizations have written rules.
  4. c. the way that rules in an organization are followed even if they do not serve the purpose they were originally meant
  5. the way in which the informal structure of a formal organization is able to subvert the organizations goals.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 85. Which of these is not considered a problem within bureaucracies?
  2. a. the informal structure
  3. risky shift c. groupthink d. ritualism

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 86. Despite being warned of danger, NASA scientists proceeded with the launch of the space shuttle Challenger that exploded during launch. Sociological analysis of this situation finds it was caused by
  2. a. a lack of
  3. a combination of risky shift and organizational ritualism.
  4. c. organizational
  5. groupthink.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 87. The tragic cases of the Challenger and the Colombia are used to illustrate the point that
  2. a. people need to be more responsible in their
  3. the informal network does not always have a positive effect.
  4. c. rigid conformity within an organization can be very
  5. failure to follow the chain of command may end in tragedy.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 88. Alienation refers to the .
  2. a. psychological separation of a person from an organization
  3. rigid adherence to rules and regulations
  4. c. shift away from intimate relationships with others
  5. physical movement away from a negative interaction

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 89. Alienation is least common in organizations in which
  2. a. workers have little control over what they
  3. the same repetitive task is done over the entire shift.
  4. c. employees feel they have little chance of
  5. leaders use democratic methods in decision making.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 90. The concept of “McDonaldization” refers to
  2. a. the increasing number of franchises among S. businesses.
  3. Americans’ desire for fast food is resulting in a tendency toward obesity.
  4. c. the way that the principles of fast food restaurants are dominating other aspects of
  5. the frequent turnover in employees that occurs due to alienation.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.11 – 11

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 91. Regardless of the city one is in, a hamburger purchased at McDonalds is always very much the same. This is due to what Ritzer called .
  2. a. efficiency
  3. calculability c. predictability d. control

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.11 – 11

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 92. Which of the following would not be a slogan for Ritzer’s McDonaldization?
  2. a. “the same way, everyday”
  3. “count on it”
  4. c. “have it your way”
  5. “over and over again”

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.11 – 11

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 93. Overall, the primary organizational principle that motivates McDonaldization is .
  2. a. an emphasis on efficiency
  3. calculability c. predictability d. control

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    140

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.11 – 11

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 94. Which of the following is false in regard to patterns of discrimination within organizations?
  2. a. The most powerful positions in any organization are typically held by White men of upper class
  3. Discrimination persists even when formal barriers have been removed.
  4. c. Minority employees increasingly have the same amounts of education as White
  5. In situations where minority employees have the same amount of education as Whites, promotions are given out equally.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    140

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 95. Studies of people being discharge from employment, or fired, have found that
  2. a. Black federal employees are twice as likely to be fired as their White
  3. when Whites and Blacks have the same education and hold upper-level federal positions, they are equally likely to be fired.
  4. c. racial patterns in being discharged from employment may be attributed to lack of seniority for Black
  5. White employees were more likely to be fired, but only when they worked less than 40 hours per week.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    141

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 96. Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s classic study of organizational structure indicated that
  2. a. there is no indication that the hierarchical structure of the bureaucracy negatively impacts on minorities or
  3. while race and gender play a major role determining people’s place within the organization, social class

does not.

  1. c. the stressful effects of tokenism on women and minorities can have very negative
  2. in modern organizations, token minorities and/or women hires no longer exist; persons are hired and fired strictly on their own merit.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     140

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 97. What are the effects of social class and race on people’s roles within an organization?
  2. a. Race and social class do not have any consistent effect on people’s roles within an
  3. People of upper and middle class backgrounds are more likely to be promoted than someone with a lower-class background, even if they are of the same race.
  4. c. When members of minority groups have the same level of education as their White peers, there is no difference in the rates of
  5. When people with a lower social class background have the same level of education as their peers they are just as likely to be promoted.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     141

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 98. According to Weber bureaucracies have positive functions that contribute to their overall unity. Weber termed these .
  2. a. positive functions manifest functions c. eufunctions
  3. non-dysfunctions

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 99. The central focus of is: positive functions contribute to unity and stability of the
  2. a. functionalist theory
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. social exchange theory

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    141

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 100. “Hierarchy can result in ” This is a criticism of:
  2. a. functionalist theory
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. social exchange theory

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 101. The theory of organization that sees participation in an organization as a means of self-actualization is a type of

          .

  1. a. functionalist theory
  2. conflict theory
  3. c. symbolic interaction theory
  4. social exchange theory

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 102. The fact that women and minorities, as well as members of lower social classes, are not treated equally within bureaucracies is focus of .
  2. a. functionalism
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. social exchange theory

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 103. Which perspective is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and alienation as a result of being subordinated within a formal organization?
  2. a. functionalist theory
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. feminist theory

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 104. The focus on how the individual looses their sense of self and is overwhelmed by bureaucracy reflects which perspective?
  2. a. functionalist theory
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. feminist theory

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 105. The behavior of groups is predictable for
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    124

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 106. According to sociologists, any set of people who occupy the same space at the same time is considered a
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    124

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 107. Social categories and audiences are examples of social gatherings that are not groups in the strict
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    124

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 108. As group size increases, stability
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 109. Secondary groups sometimes take on characteristics of primary
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 110. Reference groups, by definition, are groups to which one
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 111. Instrumental groups become intimate over a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 112. Identification with a reference group really has little impact on one’s self­esteem.
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 113. When John links a behavior of a person from the Middle East to their skin color he is disproving the idea of an attribution
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 114. People tend to judge members of in-groups and out-groups by the same
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 115. Job networks are most often made up of similar a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 116. Social media has increased the number of face to face interactions people a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 117. Networks of White political and religious leaders tend to be more closely bonded than those of Black political and religious
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    129

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 118. Most people vote with the same political party and have the same religious beliefs as do their
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 119. The results of Asch’s experiments on the effects of group pressure on perception have been replicated with the

same results, with diverse populations.

  1. a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    131

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 120. In Milgram’s studies of obedience to authority, more than half of the volunteer subjects went “all the ”
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 121. There is a great deal of difference between what people say they would do and what they actually
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 122. Asch’s experiments are examples of
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    132

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 123. The most important idea in the studies on groupthink and risk is that individuals will act without identifying with a
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 124. People with a great deal of power or money are much less vulnerable to groupthink than
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 125. The greater the number of people in a group, the greater the tendency toward
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 126. When people are from a culture that stresses caution over taking chances, being a member of a group overcomes cultural background and the group will take much greater
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 127. Utilitarian organizations are always for-profit
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 128. The theory of McDonaldization is only useful for understanding the fast food and other service a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

 

  1. 129. Alienation is only a problem in occupations involving manual labor and factory
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 130. The structure of bureaucracy is designed to reduce the influence of socio-emotional relations and interactions and maximize instrumental
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 131. All aspects of bureaucratic organizations are impersonal and
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 132. Most disparities between Whites and members of minority groups in terms of promotion rates and leadership positions have largely
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    140

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 133. When people from significantly different social class backgrounds have the same levels of education, the chances of them being promoted are
  2. a. True
  3. False

 

ANSWER:                            False

REFERENCES:                    140

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.12 – 12

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 134. When applied to social organizations symbolic interaction theory focuses on the influence the organization has on

one’s self­identity.

  1. a. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:                            True

REFERENCES:                    142

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 135. Explain the difference between microanalysis and macroanalysis when applied to the study of groups and

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    124-125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 136. Define and explain the differences between Charles Horton Cooley’s concepts of primary and secondary

groups.

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 137. Define instrumental needs and expressive needs; explain which types of groups are most likely to meet these different types of

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    127

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 138. Explain how networks have contributed to making it a “small world,” and the findings of small­world

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 139. Define social network and describe how they develop. Describe a benefit of social networks for the

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    130

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 140. Explain how the treatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib matches the conclusions of Milgram’s

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    133

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13. – 2-2

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 141. Explain what a formal organization is. Describe two types and give an example of

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.8 – 8

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 142. Explain Charles Page’s concept of “bureaucracy’s other face” and the functions that it

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    137

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 143. Define organizational ritualism; give an example of an event that resulted as a consequence of organizational

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    136

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.10 – 10

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 144. Briefly describe how symbolic interaction theory applies to social

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    138

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.13 – 13

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 145. Explain how group size affects group

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    125

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 146. Define in-groups and out-groups; explain attribution theory as it applies to in-groups and out-groups. List and describe at least two of the dimensions of attribution error presented in the

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 147. Explain the phenomenon of groupthink and the conditions that make it most likely to occur. Name at least two historical events that took place as a result of

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    134

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.7 – 13. 2-2

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 148. Explain why a formal organization is an example of

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    135

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 149. Explain how your college or university fits the definition of a

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    137-139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.9 – 9

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 150. Discuss how McDonaldization has come to dominate American

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 151. Identify an example of McDonaldization (other than a fast food restaurant) and explain how it fits the definition of

McDonaldization.

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    139

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.11 – 11

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 152. Explain and give an example of attribution

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    128

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

 

  1. 153. Compare functionalist and conflict approaches to formal organization. Give examples of

 

ANSWER:                            NOT GIVEN

REFERENCES:                    141

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

 

Chapter 7

  1. In order for something to be considered deviant,
  2. a. it must be against the
  3. everyone in society must regard it as deviant.
  4. c. it must violate socially created rules and
  5. it must have negative consequences.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. – 7. 3-3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. The sociological definition of social deviance
  2. a. stresses social context, not individual
  3. focuses on individual nonconformity.
  4. c. recognizes deviance as being the same for all groups and
  5. argues that definitions of deviance remain the same over time.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. – 7. 3-3

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. From a sociological perspective
  2. a. a specific behavior is either always deviant or always
  3. a behavior may be judged as deviant in one situation but not another.
  4. c. all members of society must agree on which acts are deviant and which are
  5. deviant behaviors affect large groups of people.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. – 7. 3-3

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. Sociologists would consider crime to be a form of deviance.
  2. a. informal
  3. formal
  4. c. situational
  5. inherent

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. – 7. 3-3

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. If a sociologist considered tattoos a form of deviance, they would categorize it as a type of deviance.
  2. a. formal
  3. situational
  4. c. anomic
  5. informal

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?
  2. a. a traffic ticket
  3. underage drinking
  4. c. body piercing
  5. polygamy

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. When a student violates customary norms, s/he is engaging in .
  2. a. informal deviance
  3. formal deviance
  4. c. labeling
  5. mental illness

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. Which of the following statements about deviance is false?
  2. a. Even the most aberrant or odd behavior may be understood if we understand the situation in which it
  3. Most deviant actions are deviant no matter what the circumstances.
  4. c. Definitions of what is considered deviant behavior may change over
  5. Some actions are only considered deviant when certain people commit them.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. A soldier who kills in battle is not considered deviant, but a murderer is. This illustrates the point that
  2. a. killing is not morally
  3. whether or not behavior is considered deviant depends on the context.
  4. c. soldiers are not judged as harshly as others in the general population when it comes to how they
  5. military law supersedes civil law.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 10. The study of date rape has found that
  2. a. attitudes toward date or acquaintance rape have been stable over many
  3. most students agree that date rape is the perpetrator’s fault no matter how the victim dresses or behaves.
  4. c. people with the most traditional attitudes toward gender roles are more likely to excuse a man’s behavior

if he is accused of date rape.

  1. nearly all victims of rape come file charges against their assailant.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 11. According to Durkheim deviance is functional because it
  2. a. threatens the social
  3. helps members of society know what is considered normal behavior.
  4. c. points up the flaws in how society is
  5. creates employment for a large number of people.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 12. From a functionalist perspective, when punishment of deviant behavior is public it serves to
  2. a. reaffirm the collective beliefs and values of the
  3. protect the punishers from any appearance of being unethical.
  4. c. reinforce that crime brings one publicity and
  5. encourage future deviant behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 13. According to Durkheim, why do societies actually need deviance?
  2. a. in order to recognize normal behavior
  3. to make most people feel morally superior
  4. c. to support the existence of a prison system of employment
  5. in order to shake up society so it can be reorganized in a better fashion

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 14. In the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, many Americans publicly

demonstrated their patriotism. This is an illustration of Durkheim’s belief that

  1. a. people only mobilize when they feel
  2. the definition of deviance is relative to the situation.
  3. c. deviance produces social
  4. some societies will not tolerate deviance.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 15. According to the text, the example of attitudes toward smoking in the S. demonstrates the concept that
  2. a. perceptions of deviance are influenced by social
  3. smoking should not have been considered acceptable.
  4. c. laws are needed in order to best define deviant
  5. evidence of risk is enough to change behavior.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 16. From a sociological standpoint, the situation of the rugby team stranded for months in the Andes demonstrates that eating human flesh
  2. a. is immoral and
  3. stems from a psychological disordered behavior. c. may be a rational response to a difficult situation. d. is normal.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 17. The sociological studies of gangs in the S. has found that
  2. a. gang behavior is always extremely
  3. joining a gang may be an adaptation to conditions of poverty, racism, and sexism.
  4. c. girls who are given too much freedom to make choices about their lives are more likely to commit acts of deviance, including joining
  5. family dynamics are unrelated to the decision to join a gang.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 18. Which of the following questions would a sociologist not be likely to ask about deviance?
  2. a. Why are some behaviors defined as deviant while others are not?
  3. Why is deviance more common in some social groups than others?
  4. c. Why do some types of people act more deviant than other types of people?
  5. How does the criminal justice system reflect social inequality?

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     148

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 19. How do sociologists define deviance?
  2. a. as any behavior that is extreme and unsettling
  3. as behavior that violates social norms c. as behavior that matches social values d. they look at what the media focuses on

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     146

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 20. Psychological explanations of deviance emphasize as the underlying cause of deviant behavior, unlike sociological
  2. a. individual factors
  3. the context within which the deviance occurred
  4. c. the effects of labeling
  5. patterns of inequality in society

 

ANSWER:                              a

REFERENCES:                     148

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                MODIFIED

 

  1. 21. Which of the following questions about deviance is more psychological than sociological?
  2. a. How is deviance related to patterns of social inequality?
  3. Was this type of behavior always considered deviant?
  4. c. Does pressure from one’s peer group encourage this type of deviance?
  5. What is it about this person that causes them to be deviant?

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     148-149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 22. The recommended solution for alcoholism usually includes some type of treatment and possibly hospitalization. In contrast, the use of crack cocaine is legally punished. The difference may be explained by the fact that alcoholism has been and crack cocaine use has
  2. a. medicalized
  3. social constructed
  4. c. contextualized
  5. normalized

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    148-149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 23. Explanations that emphasize the physical or genetic roots of deviant behavior are referred to as by
  2. a. the medicalization of deviance
  3. social disorganization theory
  4. c. the social construction of deviance
  5. social conflict theory

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 24. Which of the following is an example of the medicalization of deviance?
  2. a. gang violence
  3. use of crack cocaine
  4. c. alcoholism
  5. gender inequality

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    148

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 25. Smoking as deviant emerged due to what social reality?
  2. a. informal deviance social movements c. labeling
  3. fashion

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     147

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                                NEW

 

  1. 26. The primary sociological criticism of the medicalization of deviance is that it
  2. a. makes deviance too expensive to
  3. makes it too easy for members of society to behave in deviant ways.
  4. c. ignores the impact of the social structure in the creation of deviant
  5. Assumes a trained medical profession.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     148

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 27. Which of these statements about deviant behavior would be considered true from a sociological perspective?
  2. a. Some people are just born rebels and
  3. Deviance may be an adaptation to the social structures in which people live. c. In most cases there is a medical approach to solving problems of deviance. d. Evolutionarily, humans are predestined to push the limits.

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.1 – 1

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 28. Functionalist theories of deviance
  2. a. fear that deviance creates the breakdown of
  3. view deviance as necessary in order to clarify what the norms of society are.
  4. c. believe that punishment of deviance is dysfunctional because it prevents the deviance that is so necessary for
  5. assume that norms are largely meaningless.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 29. Durkheim’s research on           formed some of the framework for the functionalist understanding of
  2. a. suicide
  3. homosexuality
  4. c. altruism
  5. labels

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 30. A policy maker wants to address drug use with therapy. Which of the following is he or she advocating?
  2. a. Mass incarceration
  3. Medicalization of deviance
  4. c. Deviance as functional for society
  5. The idea that street criminals are an exploited class

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    148

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 31. Durkheim believed that the causes of suicide were
  2. a. best explained by the problems a person was
  3. found in the social environment.
  4. c. the result of individual
  5. the direct result of emotional stress.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 32. According to Durkheim, what factors were responsible for producing suicides?
  2. a. a person losing their job
  3. the degree of integration one has into the structure of society
  4. c. psychological stress created from depression
  5. marital status.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    149

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 33. Anomie, as defined by Durkheim, is frequently referred to as a state of
  2. a. euphoria or extreme
  3. excessive social integration.
  4. c. total detachment from society and social
  5. relative normlessness caused by the breakdown of social influences.

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    149-150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 34. suicide occurs when the disintegrating forces in the society make individuals feel lost or
  2. a. Anomic Altruistic c. Egoistic
  3. Situational

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    149-150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 35. Durkheim referred to suicide associated with excessive regulation of individuals by social forces as .
  2. a. anomic suicide altruistic suicide c. egoistic suicide
  3. situational suicide

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 36. According to many, the actions of the hijackers involved in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks are an example of .
  2. a. anomic suicide altruistic suicide c. egoistic suicide
  3. situational suicide

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.5 – 13. 4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 37. Which of the following is an example of egotistic suicide?
  2. a. teen suicide
  3. suicide bombers
  4. c. elder suicide
  5. suicide for religious reasons

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 38. How do sociologists explain the fact that women have lower rates of suicide than men?
  2. a. Women are more fearful in
  3. Women are very hesitant to do harm, even to themselves.
  4. c. Women are more embedded in relations of care and
  5. Women have less access to the means for committing suicide.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 39. Durkheim used the term to refer to the condition existing when social regulation in a society breaks
  2. a. dysfunction
  3. culture conflict
  4. c. anomie
  5. egoism

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 40. When teens perceive themselves as deviant because of who they are, they are using which sociological perspective?
  2. a. conflict
  3. symbolic interactionist c. functionalist
  4. psychology

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    150-151

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 41. The shooting of students and faculty at Virginia Tech in the spring of 2007 fits the pattern of Durkheim’s

suicide.

  1. a. anomic altruistic c. egoistic d. fatalistic

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    150

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 42. Merton’s structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to
  2. a. anomie in an
  3. emotional stress caused by job loss, divorce, and the like.
  4. c. the tension between desired cultural goals and the means of achieving them
  5. the lack of any commitment to cultural goals

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    152

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 43. When the goals are accepted and the means of attaining the goals are made available to the individual via the social structure, Merton called this .
  2. a. innovation conformity c. ritualism
  3. retreatism

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    152

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 44. Sociologists theorize that rampage shootings are best understood as .
  2. a. caused by socialization
  3. caused by psychological predispositions
  4. c. the combinations of personality and social structural variables
  5. reactions to gun control

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    152

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 45. According to Merton, members of the are most likely to experience the structural strain that produces
  2. a. lower-class
  3. working-class c. middle-income d. upper-income

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    152-153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 46. The Ku Klux Klan and Neo-Nazis are both examples of which type of structural strain?
  2. a. retreatism
  3. ritualism
  4. c. innovation
  5. rebellion

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 47. Social control theory suggests that deviance occurs when:
  2. a. a person is labeled as
  3. a person’s attachment to social bonds is weakened.
  4. c. a person does not have access to legitimate means of reaching their
  5. social regulations in a society break down.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 48. According to the social control theory, what is the primary reason that people internalize social norms?
  2. a. they fear punishment
  3. they care what others think of them
  4. c. they hope for economic gain
  5. internalizing norms is biologically determined

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 49. Social control theory is based on the assumptions that
  2. a. there is a common value system and most people feel some impulse toward
  3. those with the most power in society define what is considered deviant or not.
  4. c. deviance is a process of
  5. deviants agree with the goals of society, but are blocked from achieving them through legitimate means.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 50. According to social control theory, deviant behavior occurs
  2. a. when the means for achieving culturally approved goals is
  3. when people have given up and no longer accept the goals considered desirable by society.
  4. c. when attachment to society breaks
  5. as a result of emotional stress.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 51. Which of these statements about functionalist theory is false?
  2. a. it focuses on the social structure, not individual action
  3. it argues that some things that are seen as dysfunctional are actually functional for society
  4. c. it explains how social norms first become established in society
  5. it sees deviance as having a stabilizing influence on society

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    150-153

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 52. A criticism of the functional perspective of deviance is that it
  2. a. places too much emphasis on the
  3. does not explain why some people are able to impose their ideas judgments on others.
  4. c. overemphasizes injustice and inequality in
  5. fails to see the good that deviance accomplishes.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    153-154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 53. Conflict and functionalist theories of deviance share
  2. a. an emphasis on individual
  3. a focus on how a shared definition of the situation affects deviance.
  4. c. an emphasis on the social structure in creating
  5. a common understanding of the role of crime and the legal system in defining deviance.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    153-154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.. – 1.4-4

SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 54. From a conflict perspective, all of the following at true, except,
  2. a. deviance results from inequality in
  3. powerless groups may be labeled deviant for small infractions
  4. c. deviance reaffirms social
  5. racial minorities are punished more harshly than others.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 55. A significant difference between functionalist and conflict theory is that
  2. a. functionalism assumes the system works for the good of the whole, and conflict theory does
  3. functionalists focus more on the social structure than conflict theorists do.
  4. c. functionalism pays more attention to the individual than conflict theory
  5. functionalism ignores the role of deviance in society, while this is a focus for conflict.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    153-154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 56. When a wealthy and powerful executive engages in deviance representing his or her organization it is referred to as .
  2. a. Corporate
  3. White-collar
  4. c. Elite
  5. Class

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 57. According to the conflict perspective, when the elite in society violate norms or laws they are not considered deviant because
  2. a. their deviant behavior is not as damaging to society as that of the lower
  3. they don’t violate norms that affect other people.
  4. c. they have the resources to hide or mask their
  5. they are punished for slight infractions.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 58. The historical persecution of witches is presented in the text as an example of
  2. a. the system works for the good of the whole
  3. how dominant groups can exert control by marking some populations as deviant. c. how deviance, in this case persecution of witches, may be functional for society. d. the importance of shared values and beliefs within a society.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 59. Conflict theorists argue that
  2. a. the power to define deviance is an important form of social
  3. how much power a group possesses has no effect on whether its members will be labeled deviant.
  4. c. all groups in a society are equally subject to social
  5. labels of deviance have nothing to do with social control.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 60. When labeling theory and conflict theory are linked they explain
  2. a. why youth cultures create their own types of styles, such as tattoos and
  3. how deviance actually contributes to stability within society.
  4. c. why members of oppressed groups are more likely to be incarcerated or
  5. how deviance is defined.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 61. Sociologists using a symbolic interaction perspective argue that a physical disability can become . In this case society devalues the
  2. a. formal deviance
  3. informal deviance
  4. c. a stigma
  5. a crime

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 62. When a population sees itself as a victim of the criminal justice system, it is drawing on which perspective?
  2. a. functionalism
  3. conflict
  4. c. postmodern
  5. feminism

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 63. A weakness of conflict theory is its failure to recognize
  2. a. the significance of power in group
  3. how the injustices of society produce crime.
  4. c. that laws protect most people, not just the
  5. the origins of crime

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    154

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 64. A strength of conflict theory in terms of understanding deviance is
  2. a. its insight into the significance of power
  3. its ability to see how the entire social system works for the benefit of all.
  4. c. its recognition of the importance of shared values and
  5. its benefits in explaining new forms of deviance.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 65. A weakness of conflict theory in terms of understanding deviance is that it
  2. a. does not address inequity and
  3. ignores the importance of the social structure.
  4. c. is less effective explaining forms of deviance other than
  5. does not explain the slow pace at which the legal system changes.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.3 – 13.1-1

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               MODIFIED

 

  1. 66. According to people behave as they do because of the meanings that they give to different
  2. a. functionalism
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interaction theory
  5. social control theory

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 67. W. I. Thomas explained deviance as:
  2. a. a normal response to social
  3. behavior one learns from others.
  4. c. behavior frequently associated with
  5. varied behavior dependent on one’s social bonds.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 68. Which of these is not one of the factors that symbolic interactionism uses to explain deviant behavior?
  2. a. the meanings people attribute to the situation
  3. how people respond to the meanings of a situation
  4. c. the interaction between different groups
  5. the strength of people’s attachment to social norms

 

ANSWER:                            d

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 69. What is the original source of symbolic interactionist theories of deviance?
  2. a. the Industrial Revolution
  3. the perspective of the Chicago School
  4. c. the work of Karl Marx
  5. the ideas of Emile Durkheim

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 70. The University of Chicago sociologist who defined deviance as a normal response to the social conditions in which people find themselves is .
  2. a. W. I. Thomas Michael Dyson c. Talcott Parsons d. Robert Merton

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 71. According to Sutherland’s differential association theory, people become criminals when they
  2. a. are more strongly socialized to break the law than to obey
  3. are genetically predisposed to deviate.
  4. c. lack the socially approved means to realize socially established
  5. lack the proper attachment to others.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 72. According to differential association theory, people become deviant
  2. a. when other means of achievement are
  3. by learning from members of their primary groups.
  4. c. when they lack attachment to other
  5. in protest over unjust circumstances.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 73. Differential association theory explains deviance by
  2. a. emphasizing how deviance is culturally
  3. focusing on who has the power to label behavior deviant.
  4. c. reference to societal goals and the means of achieving
  5. noting that some people have more power than others to define what is considered deviant.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 74. Youths raised with parents who are deviant are more likely to be deviant themselves. This is an illustration of:
  2. a. labeling theory
  3. functionalism
  4. c. differential association
  5. social control theory

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 75. A problem with differential association theory is that it
  2. a. does not explain how people who are not members of deviant cultures become
  3. fails to account for socialization.
  4. c. ignores the influence of friends and
  5. does not explain how deviance is learned.

 

ANSWER:                            a

REFERENCES:                    155-156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 76. The perspective that uses a micro approach to deviance includes .
  2. a. functionalism
  3. conflict
  4. c. symbolic interactionism
  5. criminology

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    155

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                               NEW

 

  1. 77. Social labeling theory focuses on who in society can determine that others are deviant and are able to apply sanctions. This aspect of social labeling theory makes it most associated with .
  2. a. functionalism
  3. conflict theory
  4. c. symbolic interactionism
  5. feminist theory

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 78. A high school student acts bored in class and the teacher decides she is a bad student. This teacher discusses the student with other teachers who then treat that student as if she were a bad student. This describes the process

of          .

  1. a. differential association
  2. cultural transmission
  3. c. labeling
  4. weakening social bonds

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Applied

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 79. Labeling theorists argue that once a person is labeled deviant
  2. a. they will only associate with others who are considered
  3. the will no longer share an interest in socially desirable goals. c. it will be difficult for them to reestablish a nondeviant identity. d. they will turn to a life of crime.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 80. Labeling theorists would explain recidivism among those released from prison as
  2. a. caused by the company they keep upon their
  3. resulting from the anger they have at having been incarcerated.
  4. c. very rare, but overemphasized in the
  5. caused by the difficulty in changing one’s classification as a deviant.

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Applied

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 81. occurs when a person in a position of authority processes an individual without questioning the
  2. a. consensus
  3. labeling
  4. c. exploitation
  5. social control

 

ANSWER:                              b

REFERENCES:                     156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE. 5 – 4-4

OTHER:                                New

 

  1. 82. In their research on the American prison system, Bruce Western and Jeffrey Reiman argue that the prison system is designed to
  2. a. train and socialize prisoners into a career of secondary
  3. help prisoners repay their debt to society.
  4. c. give prisoners marketable skills that will keep them from returning to
  5. make prisoners more respectable.

 

ANSWER:                              c

REFERENCES:                     156-157

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Factual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 83. Which of these statements about deviant identity from a labeling perspective is false?
  2. a. A deviant identity usually emerges over
  3. A deviant identity is developed through a process of interaction with others. c. Deviant identity involves how other people view the person labeled deviant. d. A deviance identity is nearly impossible to change.

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     156-157

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 84. Which of the following is false of deviant communities?
  2. a. Joining a deviant community closes one off from conventional society and tends to solidify deviant
  3. Subcultural norms and values reinforce the deviant label both inside and outside the deviant group, thus reinforcing deviant behavior.
  4. c. Disapproval of an individual member from the out­group may only enhance one’s status within the in­

group.

  1. Deviant communities are often indistinguishable from normative society to outsiders.

 

ANSWER:                              d

REFERENCES:                     158

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                                Conceptual

OTHER:                                PICKUP

 

  1. 85. Sociologists have found that deviant communities
  2. a. generally share most of the same values and norms as the dominant
  3. are a source of support for previously labeled people who want to try and return to a non-deviant identity.
  4. c. often develop their own emblems, language, and
  5. exist mostly in large urban areas.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    158

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Factual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 86. The strength of labeling theory is that it
  2. a. recognizes the nature of a shared value system in
  3. acknowledges that the judgments people make about deviance have powerful effects.
  4. c. emphasizes economic inequality as the primary source of
  5. explains why deviant behavior occurs.

 

ANSWER:                            b

REFERENCES:                    158

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP

 

  1. 87. The primary weakness of labeling theory is
  2. a. that if overemphasizes social
  3. its disregard for the role of those with power in creating deviance.
  4. c. it does not explain the reasons for the behavior that comes to be labeled as
  5. it overstates the subjective nature of identifying deviance.

 

ANSWER:                            c

REFERENCES:                    159

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  SESE.ANDE.13.4 – 4

TOPICS:                              Conceptual

OTHER:                               PICKUP