Test Bank Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition by Marieb, Hoehn

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Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue. 1)
A) reticular B) dense regular C) areolar D) embryonic
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2) The simple columnar epithelium that form absorptive cells of the digestive tract have which
characteristic?
2)
A) dense microvilli B) fibroblasts
C) a rich vascular supply D) cilia
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3) Which of the following would be of most importance to goblet cells and other glandular
epithelium?
3)
A) multiple nuclei B) microvilli C) Golgi bodies D) lysosomes
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
4) Which cells are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells? 4)
A) macrophages B) goblet cells C) cilia D) mast cells
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
5) Which of the following is a single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous
membranes?
5)
A) simple cuboidal B) pseudostratified columnar
C) simple columnar D) simple squamous
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
1
6) Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair. 6)
A) The clot is formed from dried blood and transposed collagen fibers.
B) Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.
C) Granulation tissue is another name for a blood clot.
D) Granulation tissue is highly susceptible to infection.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
7) Heart muscle cells would tend to separate without ________ 7)
A) stroma B) flana
C) myofilaments D) intercalated discs
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8) The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength, which allows them to
absorb shock, is because they possess ________.
8)
A) collagen fibers B) elastic fibers
C) hydroxyapatite crystals D) reticular fibers
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9) Which statement best describes connective tissue? 9)
A) primarily concerned with secretion
B) usually lines a body cavity
C) typically arranged in a single layer of cells
D) usually contains a large amount of matrix
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10) A many-layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified
as ________.
10)
A) transitional B) simple cuboidal
C) stratified squamous D) simple squamous
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2
11) Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through
ducts are classified as ________.
11)
A) exocrine B) ceruminous C) sebaceous D) endocrine
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
12) Which of the following is not a step in tissue repair? 12)
A) Restoration of blood supply B) Formation of new stem cells
C) Inflammation D) Regeneration and fibrosis.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
13) The blast cell for blood production is the ________. 13)
A) fibroblast B) hemocytoblast C) chondroblast D) osteoblast
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
14) Which of the following is true about epithelia? 14)
A) Pseudostratified epithelia are commonly keratinized.
B) Stratified epithelia are associated with filtration.
C) Simple epithelia are commonly found in areas of high abrasion.
D) Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
15) Which tissue type arises from all three embryonic germ layers? 15)
A) nervous tissue B) muscle tissue
C) connective tissue D) epithelial tissue
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3
16) Connective tissue matrix is composed of ________. 16)
A) fibers and ground substance B) all organic compounds
C) ground substance and cells D) cells and fibers
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
17) Select the correct statement regarding the stem cells of connective tissue. 17)
A) Connective tissue does not contain cells.
B) Connective tissue cells are nondividing.
C) “Blast” cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.
D) Chondroblasts are the main cell type of connective tissue proper.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
18) Arteries, veins, and lymphatics keep clots from sticking as long as their ________ is intact and
healthy.
18)
A) mesothelium B) endothelium
C) simple cuboidal epithelium D) transitional epithelium
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
19) Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function form a(n)
________.
19)
A) organ B) organ system C) tissue D) organism
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
20) Cell type not found in areolar connective tissue. 20)
A) macrophages B) fibroblasts C) chondrocytes D) mast cells
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
4
21) The first step in tissue repair involves ________. 21)
A) replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
B) inflammation
C) proliferation of fibrous connective tissue
D) formation of scar tissue
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
22) What tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels? 22)
A) areolar tissue B) cartilage tissue
C) fibrocartilaginous tissue D) osseous tissue
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
23) ________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with
the basement membrane.
23)
A) Stratified cuboidal B) Transitional
C) Pseudostratified columnar D) Stratified columnar
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
24) Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is found in bone? 24)
A) lacunae B) blood vessels C) living cells D) organic fibers
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
25) The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________. 25)
A) muscle B) elastic C) collagen D) reticular
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
5
26) Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue? 26)
A) simple columnar B) transitional
C) stratified squamous D) simple squamous
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
27) Chondroblasts ________. 27)
A) never lose their ability to divide
B) are mature cartilage cells located in spaces called lacunae
C) within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
D) remain in compact bone even after the epiphyseal plate closes
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
28) Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue. 28)
A) Most of the cell volume is occupied by the nucleus.
B) Its primary function is nutrient storage.
C) It is composed mostly of extracellular matrix.
D) Mature adipose cells are highly mitotic.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
29) What are the three main components of connective tissue? 29)
A) fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts
B) collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
C) ground substance, fibers, and cells
D) alveoli, fibrous capsule, and secretory cells
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
30) The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________. 30)
A) hyaline cartilage B) adipose tissue
C) fibrocartilage D) elastic cartilage
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
6
31) Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue? 31)
A) When connective tissue is stretched, collagen gives it the ability to snap back.
B) Collagen fibers provides high tensile strength.
C) Reticular fibers form thick, ropelike structures.
D) Elastin fibers are sometimes called white fibers.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
32) Select the correct statement regarding epithelia. 32)
A) Simple epithelia form impermeable barriers.
B) Stratified epithelia are tall, narrow cells.
C) Pseudostratified epithelia consist of at least two layers of cells stacked on top of one another.
D) Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
33) Edema occurs when 33)
A) collagen fibers enlarge as they change from dehydrated to hydrated shape
B) reticular connective tissue invades the area
C) adipose cells enlarge by pinocytosis
D) areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
34) How is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage? 34)
A) Fibers are not normally visible. B) It forms most of the embryonic skeleton..
C) It is more vascularized. D) It contains more nuclei.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
7
35) Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands? 35)
A) Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.
B) Holocrine cells are slightly damaged by the secretory process, but repair themselves.
C) These glands are ductless.
D) Apocrine cells are destroyed, then replaced, after secretion.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
36) Which is true concerning muscle tissue? 36)
A) is a single-celled tissue
B) cuboidal shape enhances function
C) contains contractile units made of collagen
D) highly cellular and well vascularized
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
37) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium ciliated variety ________. 37)
A) aids in digestion B) possesses no goblet cells
C) is not an epithelial classification D) lines most of the respiratory tract
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Figure 4.1
Using Figure 4.1, match the following:
38) Composed of cells in a fluid matrix. 38)
Answer: E
Explanation:
9
Figure 4.2
Using Figure 4.2, match the following:
39) Simple squamous epithelium. 39)
Answer: A
Explanation:
40) Cardiac muscle. 40)
Answer: C
Explanation:
41) Since mature adipocytes rarely divide, how can adults gain weight? 41)
Answer: Adipocytes contain a fat-filled vacuole that can fill or empty, causing the cell to gain
or lose volume.
Explanation:
10
Figure 4.1
Using Figure 4.1, match the following:
42) Forms tendons and ligaments. 42)
Answer: B
Explanation:
43) Three to six rows of cells covering a tissue in which the cells may be the same shape from
the basement membrane to the surfaces would be ________ epithelia.
43)
Answer: transitional
Explanation:
11
Figure 4.2
Using Figure 4.2, match the following:
44) Skeletal muscle. 44)
Answer: E
Explanation:
45) How can one tell the difference between stratified squamous epithelium and transitional
epithelium?
45)
Answer: The most reliable distinctions are two. Compared to stratified squamous epithelium,
transitional epithelium has fewer layers (6 or less) and has more rounded surface
cells when it is bunched up with more apparent layers and more likely to be
mistaken for stratified squamous..
Explanation:
46) The uppermost layer of skin is composed of ________. 46)
Answer: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Explanation:
47) Kidney tubules are composed of ________ epithelium. 47)
Answer: simple cuboidal
Explanation:
12
Figure 4.2
Using Figure 4.2, match the following:
48) Simple cuboidal epithelium. 48)
Answer: B
Explanation:
13
Figure 4.1
Using Figure 4.1, match the following:
49) Provides tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock. 49)
Answer: C
Explanation:
50) Supports and protects; stores calcium. 50)
Answer: D
Explanation:
51) What are the primary germ layers during embryonic development and what do they
ultimately produce?
51)
Answer: The ectoderm produces the skin and nervous system. The mesoderm produces
muscles and connective tissue. The endoderm produces the inner epithelial surface
of all internal organ tubes opening to the outside and many endocrine glands.
Explanation:
52) All epithelial tissue rests upon a(n) ________ composed of connective tissue. 52)
Answer: basement membrane
Explanation:
14
53) How is epithelial tissue the opposite of connective tissue? 53)
Answer: Epithelial versus connective distinctions include: tight cell packing versus wide cell
spacing, avascular versus vascular (except cartilage), polar versus nonpolar
orientation, no matrix versus matrix (with important fibers), limited versus
numerous cell types, and surface versus subsurface purposes.
Explanation:
54) The salivary glands are a good example of a(n) ________ exocrine gland. 54)
Answer: compound tubuloalveolar
Explanation:
55) Explain what is meant by epithelial tissue being avascular but innervated. 55)
Answer: Epithelial tissue contains no blood vessels but is supplied by nerve fibers.
Explanation:
Figure 4.2
Using Figure 4.2, match the following:
56) Stratified squamous epithelium. 56)
Answer: D
Explanation:
15
57) The tissue that forms the framework for the lamina propria of mucous membranes is
________ connective tissue.
57)
Answer: Areolar
Explanation:
58) How is blood unique among connective tissues? 58)
Answer: Blood does not give mechanical support, its matrix is fluid, the cells are loose, the
fibers are soluble, it carries nutrients, waste products, and other substances, and it
attaches to several gases.
Explanation:
Figure 4.1
Using Figure 4.1, match the following:
59) Supports and protects; insulates against heat loss; reserve source of fuel. 59)
Answer: A
Explanation:
16
60) All of the following statements refer to events of tissue repair. Put the events in proper
numbered order according to the sequence of occurrence. The initial event, the injury, is
already indicated as number one.
1. The skin receives a cut that penetrates into the dermis and bleeding begins.
2. Epithelial regeneration is nearly complete.
3. Granulation tissue is formed.
4. Blood clotting occurs and stops the blood flow.
5. The wound retracts.
6. Macrophages engulf and clean away cellular debris.
7. Fibroblasts elaborate connective tissue fibers to span the break.
60)
Answer: 1, 4, 3, 7, 6, 5, 2
Explanation:
61) Macrophage-like cells are found in many different tissues, and may have specific names
that reflect their location or specializations. What is the one functional characteristic
common to all macrophage-like cells?
61)
Answer: phagocytosis
Explanation:
62) Tendon tears or breaks are difficult to repair both physiologically and surgically. Why? 62)
Answer: Tendons are composed of dense regular connective tissue, which consists of densely
packed, parallel connective tissue fibers. This type of tissue has relatively few cells
and vascular supply is poor; consequently, repair is slow. Because of the structure of
the tissue, surgical repair can be compared to attempting to suture two bristle
brushes together. The broken ends of existing collage fibers will not reunite and can
still slip past each other. Furthermore, any scar that forms has an irregular pattern
with less one-way strength than parallel fibers.
Explanation:
63) Cardiac muscle tissue is uninucleated, has intercalated discs, and is ________. 63)
Answer: branched
Explanation:
64) What distinguishes cancer cells from the cells of benign neoplasms? 64)
Answer: metastasis and invasiveness
Explanation:
65) The ________ muscle cells are multinucleated due to the fusion of myoblasts. 65)
Answer: Skeletal
Explanation:
TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
66) Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue. 66)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
67) Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally until the cell
ruptures.
67)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
17
68) Functions of connective tissues include binding, support, insulation, and protection. 68)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
69) Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands. 69)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
70) Connective tissues that possess a large quantity of collagen fibers often provide the framework for
organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes.
70)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
71) The shock-absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of fibrocartilage. 71)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
72) Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers. 72)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
73) The basic difference between dense irregular and dense regular connective tissues is in the amount
of elastic fibers and adipose cells present.
73)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
74) A major characteristic of fibrocartilage is its unique amount of flexibility and elasticity. 74)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
75) Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature. 75)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
76) Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually found in areas where secretion and absorption occur. 76)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
77) Epithelial tissues always exhibit polarity; that is, they have a free surface and a basal surface. 77)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
78) Cartilage has good regenerative capacity, while most epithelial tissues do not. 78)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
79) Tendons and ligaments are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue. 79)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
18
80) Elastic cartilage tissue is found in the walls of the large arteries that leave the heart. 80)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
81) The role of brown fat is to warm the body; whereas, the role of white fat is to store nutrients. 81)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
82) Intercalated discs and striations are found in skeletal muscle. 82)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
83) Healing of a surgical incision through the body wall will tend to increase the amount of areolar
tissue.
83)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
84) Blood is considered a type of connective tissue. 84)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
85) Salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement. 85)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
86) Aging tends to increase bony spread within the body as chondrocytes die. 86)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
87) Smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations. 87)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
88) Goblet cells are found within pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. 88)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
89) Depending on the functional state of the bladder, transitional epithelium may resemble stratified
squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium.
89)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
90) Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues. 90)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
19
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match the regeneration capacity of the following tissues:
91) Tendons and ligaments.
Answer: A
A) Moderate regenerative ability 91)
Match the following:
92) Moves blood through the body
Answer: A
93) Has a surface to which nothing is
attached
Answer: B
A) Cardiac muscle
B) Skin epidermis
92)
93)
Match the following:
94) The epithelial membrane that lines the
closed ventral cavities of the body.
Answer: A
A) Serous membrane 94)
Match the regeneration capacity of the following tissues:
95) Areolar connective tissue.
Answer: A
96) Cardiac muscle.
Answer: B
97) Smooth muscle.
Answer: C
A) Regenerates extremely well
B) Virtually no functional regenerative ability
C) Moderate regenerative ability
95)
96)
97)
Match the following:
98) Makes up the pleura and pericardium.
Answer: A
A) Serous membrane 98)
Match the following:
99) Derived from mesenchyme
Answer: A
A) Tendon 99)
Match the following:
100) Found lining the digestive and
respiratory tracts.
Answer: A
A) Mucous membrane 100)
20
101) Lines blood vessels and the heart.
Answer: A
A) Endothelium 101)
Match the following:
102) Moves food through the GI tract
Answer: A
A) Smooth muscle 102)
Match the following:
103) Consists of keratinized stratified
squamous epithelium.
Answer: B
104) The epithelial membrane that lines
body cavities open to the exterior
membrane
Answer: A
A) Mucous membrane
B) Cutaneous
103)
104)
Match the regeneration capacity of the following tissues:
105) Skeletal muscle.
Answer: A
A) Weak regenerative ability 105)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
106) Explain why an open wound would need a bed of granulation tissue for wound healing to occur.
Answer: Epithelium cannot grow across a defect without a blood supply from underlying connective tissue.
Granulation tissue contains capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and first lay down the needed
capillary bed.
107) Without macrophages, wound healing is delayed. Why?
Answer: Macrophages are large, irregularly shaped cells that act as key defenders that avidly phagocytize a broad
variety of foreign materials, ranging from foreign molecules to entire bacteria to dust particles. This “big
eater” also disposes of dead tissue cells, which helps to clean out the wound, allowing for granulation
tissue to form.
108) A 6-year-old child fell off his bike and scraped his knee. Describe the first stage of wound healing.
Answer: The first stage is the inflammatory stage, characterized by injured cells releasing inflammatory chemicals,
which causes increased permeability and allows white blood cells and clotting proteins to seep into the
injured area. This protects the body from bacteria and loss of blood.
109) John, a 72-year-old grandfather, had been smoking heavily for 24 years and had a persistent cough. A biopsy of
his lung tissue revealed considerable amounts of carbon particles. How could this happen considering the
natural cleaning mechanism of the respiratory system?
Answer: The sweeping action of the ciliated epithelium is essential in order to propel inhaled dust and other
debris out of the respiratory tract. Anything that inhibits this mechanism would allow foreign substances
to remain in the tract, which may cause damage. Chemicals such as nicotine may inhibit the action of the
cilia, allowing carbon particles found in smoke to reach the lungs.
21
110) In adult humans, most cancers are carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. These include cancers of the skin, lung,
colon, breast, and prostate. Which of the four basic tissue types is involved? Why do you think this is so?
Answer: Epithelium gives rise to most cancers. This is probably because epithelial cells divide more, leading to
more opportunity for damage to growth control mechanisms, and because epithelia are more often in
contact with environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation and carcinogens.
111) Explain why an infection may occur in a tissue injury.
Answer: The skin is the largest organ in the body and protects underlying tissues from injury by preventing the
passage of microorganisms. The skin and the mucous membranes are considered the body’s first line of
defense.
112) Aunt Jessie woke up one morning with excruciating pain in her chest. She had trouble breathing for several
weeks. Following a visit to the doctor, she was told she had pleurisy. What is this condition and what did it
affect?
Answer: Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura, the serosal membranes covering the lungs and lining the
thoracic wall. Pain is caused by the irritation and friction as the lungs rub against the walls of the cavity.
113) A 45-year-old woman is admitted to the hospital for surgical removal of a tumor on her thyroid gland. The
surgeon informs her that she will have only a very thin scar. How could this be possible?
Answer: By making a sharp incision which minimizes the number of injured cells and wound defects once
reapproximated, the amount of granulation (scar-forming) tissue will be minimal. As the scar tissue
beneath matures and contracts, very little new epithelium needs to bridge the gap. The final result may
be only a fine white line.
22
Answer Key
Testname: C4
1) D
2) A
3) C
4) B
5) D
6) B
7) D
8) A
9) D
10) C
11) D
12) B
13) B
14) D
15) D
16) A
17) C
18) B
19) C
20) C
21) B
22) D
23) C
24) B
25) C
26) A
27) C
28) B
29) C
30) D
31) B
32) D
33) D
34) A
35) A
36) D
37) D
38) E
39) A
40) C
41) Adipocytes contain a fat-filled vacuole that can fill or empty, causing the cell to gain or lose volume.
42) B
43) transitional
44) E
45) The most reliable distinctions are two. Compared to stratified squamous epithelium, transitional epithelium has fewer
layers (6 or less) and has more rounded surface cells when it is bunched up with more apparent layers and more likely
to be mistaken for stratified squamous..
46) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
47) simple cuboidal
48) B
23
Answer Key
Testname: C4
49) C
50) D
51) The ectoderm produces the skin and nervous system. The mesoderm produces muscles and connective tissue. The
endoderm produces the inner epithelial surface of all internal organ tubes opening to the outside and many endocrine
glands.
52) basement membrane
53) Epithelial versus connective distinctions include: tight cell packing versus wide cell spacing, avascular versus vascular
(except cartilage), polar versus nonpolar orientation, no matrix versus matrix (with important fibers), limited versus
numerous cell types, and surface versus subsurface purposes.
54) compound tubuloalveolar
55) Epithelial tissue contains no blood vessels but is supplied by nerve fibers.
56) D
57) Areolar
58) Blood does not give mechanical support, its matrix is fluid, the cells are loose, the fibers are soluble, it carries nutrients,
waste products, and other substances, and it attaches to several gases.
59) A
60) 1, 4, 3, 7, 6, 5, 2
61) phagocytosis
62) Tendons are composed of dense regular connective tissue, which consists of densely packed, parallel connective tissue
fibers. This type of tissue has relatively few cells and vascular supply is poor; consequently, repair is slow. Because of
the structure of the tissue, surgical repair can be compared to attempting to suture two bristle brushes together. The
broken ends of existing collage fibers will not reunite and can still slip past each other. Furthermore, any scar that
forms has an irregular pattern with less one-way strength than parallel fibers.
63) branched
64) metastasis and invasiveness
65) Skeletal
66) TRUE
67) FALSE
68) TRUE
69) FALSE
70) FALSE
71) TRUE
72) FALSE
73) FALSE
74) FALSE
75) TRUE
76) TRUE
77) TRUE
78) FALSE
79) FALSE
80) TRUE
81) TRUE
82) FALSE
83) FALSE
84) TRUE
85) FALSE
86) FALSE
87) TRUE
88) TRUE
89) TRUE
24
Answer Key
Testname: C4
90) TRUE
91) A
92) A
93) B
94) A
95) A
96) B
97) C
98) A
99) A
100) A
101) A
102) A
103) B
104) A
105) A
106) Epithelium cannot grow across a defect without a blood supply from underlying connective tissue. Granulation tissue
contains capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and first lay down the needed capillary bed.
107) Macrophages are large, irregularly shaped cells that act as key defenders that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of
foreign materials, ranging from foreign molecules to entire bacteria to dust particles. This “big eater” also disposes of
dead tissue cells, which helps to clean out the wound, allowing for granulation tissue to form.
108) The first stage is the inflammatory stage, characterized by injured cells releasing inflammatory chemicals, which causes
increased permeability and allows white blood cells and clotting proteins to seep into the injured area. This protects the
body from bacteria and loss of blood.
109) The sweeping action of the ciliated epithelium is essential in order to propel inhaled dust and other debris out of the
respiratory tract. Anything that inhibits this mechanism would allow foreign substances to remain in the tract, which
may cause damage. Chemicals such as nicotine may inhibit the action of the cilia, allowing carbon particles found in
smoke to reach the lungs.
110) Epithelium gives rise to most cancers. This is probably because epithelial cells divide more, leading to more
opportunity for damage to growth control mechanisms, and because epithelia are more often in contact with
environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation and carcinogens.
111) The skin is the largest organ in the body and protects underlying tissues from injury by preventing the passage of
microorganisms. The skin and the mucous membranes are considered the body’s first line of defense.
112) Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleura, the serosal membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic wall. Pain
is caused by the irritation and friction as the lungs rub against the walls of the cavity.
113) By making a sharp incision which minimizes the number of injured cells and wound defects once reapproximated, the
amount of granulation (scar-forming) tissue will be minimal. As the scar tissue beneath matures and contracts, very
little new epithelium needs to bridge the gap. The final result may be only a fine white line.
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