TEST BANK OF EARTH SCIENCE 14TH ed BY TARBUCK AND LUTGENS – Test Bank

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TEST BANK OF EARTH SCIENCE 14TH ed BY TARBUCK AND LUTGENS – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 3   Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth

 

1) Why does magma rise toward the Earth’s surface?

  1. A) because it is hot
  2. B) because it is a liquid
  3. C) because it is less dense than the material around it
  4. D) because it is immiscible and cannot combine with the material around it

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) What is required for an igneous rock to weather?

  1. A) It must move downslope under the influence of gravity.
  2. B) It must be exposed at the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) It must be uplifted from where it was emplaced.
  4. D) It must be deposited by water or ice.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) What is the most common place for sediment to be deposited?

  1. A) rivers
  2. B) beaches
  3. C) mountains
  4. D) oceans

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) What is the difference between “magma” and “lava”?

  1. A) Magma is formed deep in the Earth and lava forms near the surface of the Earth.
  2. B) It is just a name change, and lava is what magma is called if it reaches the surface of the Earth.
  3. C) Magma makes igneous rocks and lava forms volcanoes.
  4. D) Magma is less dense than lava.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

5) Which of the following places is well known for its intrusive igneous rocks that were exposed by erosion?

  1. A) Mount St. Helens Volcano
  2. B) Hawaii
  3. C) Yosemite National Park
  4. D) Yellowstone National Park

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

6) Why do crystals in a magma stop growing during cooling?

  1. A) They run out of space.
  2. B) They run out of heat.
  3. C) They become too dense to grow.
  4. D) The pressure from rocks above becomes too great and the magma stops growing crystals.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) If magma or lava cools quickly, the resulting igneous rock will have ________.

  1. A) more silicate minerals
  2. B) more variations in mineral types
  3. C) very small crystals
  4. D) very large crystals

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) Which of the following is not a dark silicate mineral?

  1. A) biotite
  2. B) amphibole
  3. C) quartz
  4. D) pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

9) Igneous rocks with an andesitic composition ________.

  1. A) are denser than basaltic compositional rocks
  2. B) make up most of the sea floor
  3. C) are denser than granitic compositional rocks
  4. D) are found primarily in continental interiors

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Which of the following is not true of peridotite?

  1. A) It is rarely found at the Earth’s surface.
  2. B) It is denser than basaltic rocks.
  3. C) It is composed almost entirely of olivine and pyroxene.
  4. D) It is the main constituent of the Earth’s crust.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) Rocks that contain high amounts of silica typically also contain ________.

  1. A) iron, magnesium, potassium
  2. B) aluminum, magnesium, and potassium
  3. C) aluminum, sodium, and potassium
  4. D) calcium, magnesium, and potassium

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) Intrusive igneous rocks are often characterized as coarse-grained because ________.

  1. A) the pressures at depth cause them to have a rough texture
  2. B) the slow cooling at depth allows large crystals to grow
  3. C) the uplift process that exposes the rock fractures them and makes them rough
  4. D) small holes from escaping gases leave them rough and course

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

13) A porphyritic texture where large crystals are embedded in a matrix of small crystal may form when ________.

  1. A) climate change causes crystals to cool at different rates
  2. B) crystals of different compositions cool at different rates
  3. C) crystals of different compositions grow to different sizes
  4. D) a magma that has partially crystallized slowly moves to a different location where it then cools rapidly.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) Obsidian exhibits a ________ texture.

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Which igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes?

  1. A) fine-grained
  2. B) glassy
  3. C) coarse-grained
  4. D) porphyritic

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

16) Granite and gabbro ________.

  1. A) have a similar mineral composition
  2. B) have a similar texture
  3. C) are similar in both texture and mineral composition
  4. D) are not similar in either texture or mineral composition

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

17) Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) rhyolite
  3. C) slate
  4. D) shale

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

19) Select from the list below the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar.

  1. A) basalt
  2. B) andesite
  3. C) granite
  4. D) diorite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

20) The texture of an igneous rock ________.

  1. A) is controlled by the composition of magma
  2. B) determines the color of the rock
  3. C) is caused by leaching
  4. D) records the rock’s cooling history

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

21) Igneous rock is formed ________.

  1. A) by the weathering of preexisting rocks
  2. B) by changes in mineral composition
  3. C) at great depth within Earth
  4. D) by crystallization of magma

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) The first step in turning a rock into a sediment is ________.

  1. A) gravity and erosional agents (wind, water, etc.) remove material from the parent rock
  2. B) rock is broken into small pieces during the transportation phase
  3. C) weathering alters the rock
  4. D) compaction

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

23) Most sediment is formed by ________.

  1. A) settling out of a fluid
  2. B) the downhill movement of material during mass wasting
  3. C) the rapid distribution of material in a mountain stream
  4. D) rocks that erode from the bottoms of glaciers

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) Which of the following is an economically important sedimentary rock?

  1. A) marble
  2. B) coal
  3. C) pumice
  4. D) calcite

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) Which of the following pairs are likely products of weathering granite?

  1. A) sandstone and calcite
  2. B) feldspar and mica
  3. C) clay and quartz
  4. D) olivine and pyroxene

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) Which of the following is not a product of the chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

  1. A) silica
  2. B) potassium ions
  3. C) iron oxide
  4. D) clay

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) Detrital sedimentary rocks are typically classified on the basis of their ________.

  1. A) lithology
  2. B) texture
  3. C) provenance
  4. D) particle size

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

28) Breccia, a rock with angular particles, is likely to have traveled ________.

  1. A) in a mountain stream
  2. B) only a short distance
  3. C) a long distance
  4. D) in a glacier

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

29) When sand lithifies, the resulting rock is commonly called ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

30) The most common sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) sandstone
  2. B) shale
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) Silts and clays are commonly deposited in lakes, lagoons, swamps and marine environments because ________.

  1. A) those settings are more acidic
  2. B) those settings are more basic
  3. C) those settings have relatively still water
  4. D) those settings have highly varied activities and multiple inlets for water

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

32) Chemical sedimentary rocks form from materials ________.

  1. A) carried in solution
  2. B) too fine to see without a microscope
  3. C) that form weak bonds with oxygen
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

33) Limestone is formed primarily through ________.

  1. A) direct precipitation from seawater
  2. B) chemical interactions between ocean bottom sediments and ions in sea water
  3. C) biochemical sediments secreted by marine organisms
  4. D) evaporation of calcite rich seawater

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

34) Chalk forms from ________.

  1. A) the hard parts of microscopic organisms that accumulate on the sea floor
  2. B) magnesium rich fluids that chemically alter limestone bearing reefs
  3. C) direct precipitation from seawater
  4. D) evaporation of magnesium rich waters

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Which one of the following is not related to chemical weathering?

  1. A) decomposition
  2. B) frost wedging
  3. C) hydrolysis
  4. D) oxidation

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

36) Chemical weathering would be most effective ________.

  1. A) in a warm, dry climate
  2. B) in a cold, dry climate
  3. C) in a warm, humid climate
  4. D) equally in any kind of climate

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

37) Travertine, a form of limestone commonly found in caves, forms ________.

  1. A) when water in a cave is heated
  2. B) when water in a cave is cooled
  3. C) when carbon dioxide in the water escapes into the air
  4. D) when carbon dioxide from the air contacts the moisture in the cave

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

38) Death Valley is a site where ________ sedimentary rocks are common.

  1. A) detrital
  2. B) evaporite
  3. C) biochemical
  4. D) clastic

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

39) An important condition for the formation of coal is ________.

  1. A) abundant plant and animal life in a region
  2. B) decomposition of organic matter with abundant oxygen
  3. C) incomplete decomposition of organic matter due to a lack of oxygen
  4. D) acid rich waters that reduce the organic matter to pure carbon

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

40) Sedimentary rocks comprise approximately ________ percent of Earth’s outermost 10 miles.

  1. A) 5
  2. B) 15
  3. C) 30
  4. D) 50

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

41) Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)?

  1. A) conglomerate
  2. B) shale
  3. C) chert
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

42) Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except ________.

  1. A) swamp
  2. B) salt flat
  3. C) river floodplain
  4. D) delta

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

43) Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for ________.

  1. A) shale
  2. B) sandstone
  3. C) conglomerate
  4. D) breccia

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

44) The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is ________.

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) dolomite
  3. C) chert
  4. D) rock salt

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

45) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

  1. A) detrital sedimentary rocks
  2. B) varieties of dolostone
  3. C) varieties of coal and peat
  4. D) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

46) Coal beds originate in ________.

  1. A) shallow lakes in a dry, desert region
  2. B) channels of fast-moving streams
  3. C) deep, marine basins below wave action
  4. D) freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

47) The common source of pressure during compaction of sediments is ________.

  1. A) the weight of the sediments deposited above the compacting sediments
  2. B) the pressure of the sediments pushing the compacting sediments out of the way during deposition
  3. C) the weight of the compacting sediments causing internal pressure
  4. D) the weight of water above the sediments after they are deposited

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

48) For a geologist, the most important characteristic of a sedimentary rock is its ________.

  1. A) texture
  2. B) composition
  3. C) layering
  4. D) lithology

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

49) Metamorphism occurs when a rock ________.

  1. A) experiences conditions that include high temperatures
  2. B) experiences conditions that include high pressures
  3. C) experiences conditions that are significantly different from those that formed the rock
  4. D) experiences conditions that are similar to those that formed the rock

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

50) The low grade metamorphism of shale produces ________.

  1. A) marble
  2. B) schist
  3. C) gneiss
  4. D) slate

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

51) Mountain building causes metamorphism because ________.

  1. A) mountains are heavy and they compress the rocks under them.
  2. B) mountains are heavy and they push shallow, cool rocks to depths where they get heated
  3. C) mountains form by the gradual buildup of material that comes from other areas and this can produce an uneven pressure on rocks
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

52) The most important agent(s) of metamorphism, according to your text, is (are) ________.

  1. A) chemically active fluids
  2. B) heat
  3. C) differential stress
  4. D) confining pressure

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

53) The major role of thermal energy (heat) in metamorphism is ________.

  1. A) reducing the strength of rocks so that stress can be an effective agent of change
  2. B) increasing the processes of dissolution and flow of different minerals
  3. C) driving chemical reactions that lead to recrystallization
  4. D) providing energy for the physical changes that occur during metamorphism

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

54) In an area where the temperature increase with depth averages 20°C per kilometer, the temperature at a depth of 5 kilometers would be ________.

  1. A) 100°C
  2. B) 200°C
  3. C) 50°C
  4. D) 20°C

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) The quartz in granite begins to melt at 650°C, so if we find a migmatite where quartz has melted in a granitic rock and we know the temperature in the region increased with depth by about 25°C per kilometer, we could estimate the depth that the rock had been at to be about ________.

  1. A) 12.5 km
  2. B) 18.0 km
  3. C) 23.5 km
  4. D) 26.0 km

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

56) Confining pressure is where ________.

  1. A) forces are applied equally in all directions
  2. B) forces are applied from the top and the bottom equally
  3. C) pressure is applied in a cubic region
  4. D) pressure is parallel to the bedding planes

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

57) When rocks experience high temperatures and differential stresses deep in the Earth, their grains tend to ________.

  1. A) break in small fragments like a piece of fine crystal
  2. B) fracture along planes of weakness
  3. C) flatten and elongate
  4. D) form new minerals

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

58) Chemically active fluids are ________.

  1. A) fluids that readily change to gases at surface conditions
  2. B) fluids that contain large quantities of oxygen which reacts with most minerals to form new minerals during metamorphism
  3. C) more acidic than regular fluids
  4. D) more basic than regular fluids

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) Recrystallization during metamorphism causes grains to grow longer in the ________.

  1. A) direction of maximum differential stress
  2. B) direction perpendicular to the compressional stress
  3. C) direction parallel to the compressional stress
  4. D) horizontal direction

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

60) Slate is ________ than shale.

  1. A) more planar
  2. B) darker
  3. C) denser
  4. D) lighter

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

61) Which of the following is not an example of a foliation in a metamorphic rock?

  1. A) compositional banding
  2. B) bedding planes and strata
  3. C) parallel alignment of flattened pebbles
  4. D) parallel alignment of platy or flat minerals

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

62) Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

  1. A) Certain minerals may recrystallize.
  2. B) The rock becomes more compact.
  3. C) Crystals may grow larger.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

63) The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is ________.

  1. A) marble
  2. B) mica schist
  3. C) phyllite
  4. D) gneiss

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

64) ________ is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals.

  1. A) Marble
  2. B) Mica schist
  3. C) Phyllite
  4. D) Gneiss

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

65) The primary agent of contact metamorphism is ________.

  1. A) folding
  2. B) heat
  3. C) stress
  4. D) strain

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

66) Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

  1. A) phyllite, slate, schist
  2. B) schist, slate, phyllite
  3. C) slate, phyllite, schist
  4. D) slate, schist, phyllite

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

67) Magma differentiation tends to produce deposits of ________ near the base of intrusions.

  1. A) gold
  2. B) silver
  3. C) chromite
  4. D) copper

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

68) The very large crystals of quartz, feldspar, and muscovite found in pegmatites form from ________.

  1. A) the early crystallizing parts of a magma
  2. B) the final crystallizing parts of a magma
  3. C) the middle crystallizing parts of a magma
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

69) The minerals gold, silver and mercury are often found in ________.

  1. A) hydrothermal veins
  2. B) the lower parts of an intrusion
  3. C) disseminated deposits
  4. D) alteration of limestone

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

70) A major difference between coal and oil/gas is ________.

  1. A) coal forms in deep marine environments and oil/gas form in shallow marine environments
  2. B) coal forms in shallow marine environments and oil/gas form in swamps
  3. C) coal forms in swamps and oil/gas form in marine environments
  4. D) coal forms on land from dinosaurs and oil/gas form from ancient fish

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

71) In order to get oil and gas in sufficient quantities to make a profit, an oil trap must exist with ________.

  1. A) no fractures or structure
  2. B) permeability and porosity
  3. C) lateral continuity that allows fluids to migrate
  4. D) shale with little or no sulfur.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Word Analysis.  Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

72) lava           magma           pahoehoe          aa

Answer:  magma

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

73) pyroxene      plagioclase          quartz           olivine

Answer:  quartz

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

74) granite          basalt            diorite              gabbro

Answer:  basalt

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

75) calcite        iron oxide           shale             silica

Answer:  shale

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

76) lithification        cementation        weathering           compaction

Answer:  weathering

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

77) shale          sandstone          breccia           conglomerate

Answer:  shale

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

78) confining pressure     differential stress        melting        chemical fluids

Answer:  melting

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

79) Under the right circumstances, any rock can be transformed into another type of rock in the rock cycle.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

80) The change from a sediment to a sedimentary rock typically involves burying the sediment.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

81) Magma is currently forming beneath the Rockies.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

82) Lava always erupts violently, but magma often flows quietly.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

83) Crystal size is controlled by temperature.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

84) Igneous rocks are composed primarily of sulfate-type minerals.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

85) Basaltic rocks make up most of the sea floor.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

86) Bowen’s reaction series predicts the sizes of the different mineral grains that grow from crystallizing magmas.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

87) Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same igneous rock.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

88) One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

89) Basalt is the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

90) Glassy igneous rocks form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

91) Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sands in riverbeds and on beaches.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

92) Sedimentary rocks make up approximately 60 percent of the rocks in the Earth’s crust.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

93) Sedimentary rocks are an important source of information about the Earth’s history.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

94) Lignite and bituminous coals are sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

95) The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

96) The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

97) Evaporites have a biochemical origin.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

98) Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

99) Most limestone has a biochemical origin.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

100) Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sand-sized particles.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

101) Every metamorphic rock has a parent rock from which it formed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

102) During metamorphism, the material undergoing deformation remains a solid.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

103) In general, recrystallization tends to produce larger crystals.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

104) Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

105) Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

106) Most of the energy and mineral resources we use are renewable.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.5 Resources from Rocks and Minerals

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

107) An igneous rock that cools deep inside the Earth is called a(n) ________ igneous rock

Answer:  intrusive

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

108) Igneous rocks that contain mostly quartz and feldspar with small amounts of biotite would be described as having a(n) ________ composition.

Answer:  granitic

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

109) Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of what two main characteristics?

Answer:  texture and mineral composition

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

110) Obsidian exhibits a(n) ________ texture.

Answer:  glassy

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

111) If all of the olivine crystallized in a typical magma and then settled to the floor of the magma chamber, would there still be enough elements present in the magma to form quartz?

Answer:  Yes, there is much more silicon and oxygen present in a typical magma than iron and magnesium.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

112) Rock salt and rock gypsum are common examples of a group of chemical sedimentary rocks called ________.

Answer:  evaporites

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

113) Probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is ________.

Answer:  layering (strata or beds)

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

114) List three agents of metamorphism.

Answer:  heat, pressure, chemically active fluids

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

115) When a metamorphic rock exhibits a layered or banded appearance, it is said to exhibit a(n) ________ texture.

Answer:  foliated

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 3 to answer the questions below.

 

116) Why do most sediments end up being deposited in oceans instead of other parts of the Earth?

Answer:  There are a few explanations.  First, 2/3 of the Earth’s surface is oceans so it is most likely that anything on the Earth’s surface will be in an ocean.  In addition, most streams end in the oceans and the streams are one of the important mechanisms for moving sediment.  I would also add that gravity moves things downhill and the ocean basins are generally lower than the continental surfaces.

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.1 Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

117) Fill in the missing rock names on the chart below.

 

Answer:  See Figure 3.7 in Earth Science, 14e.

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

118) What does Bowen’s reaction series tell us about how rocks evolve?

Answer:  Bowen’s reaction series gives the temperature and order in which minerals crystallize from a magma (or alternatively melting temperature and order).  For that reason, we can look at the constituent minerals in an igneous rock and get an idea of the temperature of the magma when it started to cool.  Minerals with high cooling temperatures will not usually be found with low cooling temperature minerals and this may indicate that the magma moved after the highest temperature rocks had crystallized.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.2 Igneous Rocks: “Formed by Fire”

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

119) Explain why sedimentary rocks are particularly important in studying the past history of the Earth.

Answer:  Sedimentary rocks form at the surface of the Earth, and during that process, they record information about conditions during their formation.  For example, a poorly sorted conglomerate will indicate the presence of a rapidly moving stream while a breccia will indicate rock types nearby its depositional site and may also indicate instabilities like earthquakes or landslides because of its rapid deposition.  The cements indicate the types of fluids traveling through the rocks, and fossils give information about the environment of deposition.

Diff: 2

Topic:  3.3 Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

120) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in the diagram below?

 

Answer:  confining pressure

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

121) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in the diagram below?

 

Answer:  differential stress

Diff: 1

Topic:  3.4 Metamorphic Rock: New Rock from Old

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Earth Science, 14e (Tarbuck/Lutgens)

Chapter 5   Running Water and Groundwater

 

1) Approximately how much of the Earth’s water supply is saline?

  1. A) 20%
  2. B) 43%
  3. C) 67%
  4. D) 98%
  5. E) 100%

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

2) The main process that links water in the atmosphere with water on the Earth’s surface is ________.

  1. A) transpiration
  2. B) infiltration
  3. C) evaporation
  4. D) condensation
  5. E) wind

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

3) Water plays an important role in sculpting the landscape of continents because ________.

  1. A) water is a major cause of erosion on land
  2. B) water contributes to plant and animal life that strongly affects the landscape
  3. C) water deposits sediments in areas like the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone National Park where they landscape is changing rapidly
  4. D) water moves through streams that are a major cause of mass wasting
  5. E) ground water causes sinkholes and domes that change the landscape rapidly

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

4) The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called ________.

  1. A) evaporation
  2. B) degassing
  3. C) transpiration
  4. D) infiltration

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Which one of the following statements is correct?

  1. A) Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers.
  2. B) Sea level rises when water is added to the oceans through increased rainfall and increased inflow from rivers.
  3. C) Sea level drops when evaporation rates increase over the oceans and when this extra atmospheric moisture falls on land as rain.
  4. D) Sea level rises when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

6) Which of the following is not part of the water cycle?

  1. A) water evaporating from a lake
  2. B) water infiltrating into the soil and bedrock
  3. C) calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater
  4. D) water moving into creeks and streams following a rainstorm

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

7) Which of the following is not a significant factor in determining whether precipitation will soak into the ground or run off on the surfaces?

  1. A) steepness of the slope
  2. B) vegetation
  3. C) saturation level
  4. D) lithology
  5. E) amount and duration of precipitation

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

8) Sediment production occurs primarily in ________ part of a river system.

  1. A) the head waters
  2. B) the drainage divide
  3. C) the trunk stream
  4. D) the outlet
  5. E) the flood plain

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

9) Sediment is neither stored nor produced ________.  It is primarily a zone of transport in a river system.

  1. A) in the head waters
  2. B) in the drainage divide
  3. C) in the trunk stream
  4. D) near the outlet
  5. E) in the flood plain

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

10) Sediment deposition occurs primarily in what part of a river system?

  1. A) the head waters
  2. B) the drainage divide
  3. C) the trunk stream
  4. D) near the outlet
  5. E) the flood plain

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

11) A dendritic (tree-like) drainage pattern develops in regions where the underlying material is relatively uniform so the major control on the water movement is ________.

  1. A) vegetation
  2. B) slope
  3. C) saturation
  4. D) climate
  5. E) sediment load

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

12) A ________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward.

  1. A) radial
  2. B) dendritic
  3. C) boreal
  4. D) trellis

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

13) The Trellis drainage pattern shown below develops ________.

 

 

  1. A) in areas of relatively uniform surface materials
  2. B) on isolated volcanic cones or domes
  3. C) on highly jointed bedrock
  4. D) in areas of alternating weak and resistant bedrock
  5. E) in areas of folded and fractured domes

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

14) Laminar flow, where water moves in approximately straight-line paths, characterizes ________.

  1. A) fast-moving streams
  2. B) slow-moving streams
  3. C) the edges of channels
  4. D) the bottoms of channels
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

15) A stream’s turbulence is strongly influenced by its ________.

  1. A) temperature
  2. B) sediment load
  3. C) velocity
  4. D) viscosity
  5. E) sinuosity

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

16) Which of the following is not a factor influencing a stream’s flow velocity?

  1. A) channel slope
  2. B) channel sinuosity
  3. C) channel roughness
  4. D) channel width and cross sectional shape
  5. E) the amount of water in the channel

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

17) Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

  1. A) the distance traveled by water in a channel times a drop in elevation
  2. B) the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels
  3. C) the water pressure at the bottom of the stream divided by the stream’s width
  4. D) the increase in discharge of a stream per unit drop in elevation

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

18) A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient?

  1. A) 2 m/km
  2. B) 2 km/m
  3. C) 0.5 m/km
  4. D) 0.5 km/in

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

19) The Mississippi River has an average discharge of 17,300 cubic meters per second but the ________ River discharges 12 times more water than the Mississippi River.

  1. A) Colorado
  2. B) Nile
  3. C) Yangtze
  4. D) Amazon
  5. E) Yukon

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

20) As a stream changes from its headwaters to its mouth, which of the following is not likely to occur?

  1. A) Flow velocity decreases.
  2. B) The channel gets wider downstream.
  3. C) Sediment size gets smaller downstream.
  4. D) The channel gets smoother.
  5. E) The volume of water increases.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

21) If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is ________.

  1. A) steepest near the mouth
  2. B) steepest near the head
  3. C) the same at both the head and mouth
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

22) As stream discharge increases ________.

  1. A) velocity, width, and depth increase
  2. B) only velocity increases
  3. C) velocity, width, and depth decrease
  4. D) only depth increases

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

23) The  main power of water in a channel is related to its ________.

  1. A) velocity and temperature
  2. B) viscosity and velocity
  3. C) discharge and viscosity
  4. D) slope and discharge
  5. E) slope and temperature

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

24) The main source of the dissolved load in a stream is ________.

  1. A) material along the sides of the stream channel
  2. B) material along the bottom of the stream channel
  3. C) groundwater
  4. D) salt flats
  5. E) cut bank soil

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

25) The type and amount of material carried in the suspended load of a stream depends on ________.

  1. A) turbulence and viscosity
  2. B) source accessibility and slope
  3. C) ground cover and channel shape
  4. D) flow velocity and discharge
  5. E) settling and flow velocities

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

26) ________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

  1. A) Dissolved ions and sand
  2. B) Dissolved salts
  3. C) Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains
  4. D) Sand and gravel that move during floods

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

27) ________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

  1. A) Capacity
  2. B) Discharge
  3. C) Competence
  4. D) Hydro-load factor

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

28) The suspended load of a stream ________.

  1. A) is deposited before the bed load
  2. B) is highly soluble substances
  3. C) moves along the bottom
  4. D) usually consists of fine particles

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

29) ________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.

  1. A) Bed load
  2. B) Dissolved load
  3. C) Suspended load
  4. D) Saltation load

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

30) The single most important erosional agent is ________.

  1. A) running water
  2. B) wind
  3. C) ice
  4. D) waves

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

31) At a bend in a river, the main erosion is ________.

  1. A) on the outside of the bend
  2. B) on the inside of the bend
  3. C) both outside and inside the bend
  4. D) at an oxbow lake

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

32) ________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

  1. A) A bulltrail
  2. B) An oxbow
  3. C) A cowhock
  4. D) A gatorback

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

33) You are in a boat and concerned about shallow water in a meandering river.  Where should you aim your boat to find the deepest water?

  1. A) along the inside of the curve
  2. B) midchannel
  3. C) on the outside of the curve, close to the cut bank
  4. D) It doesn’t matter, as long as you remain a meter or two from either bank

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

34) Assuming rivers of comparable discharge, which type of stream would most likely be crossable by wading rather than having to swim?

  1. A) braided stream
  2. B) meandering stream
  3. C) bedrock stream
  4. D) There would be no difference.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

35) The Platte River crosses the Nebraska sandhills and carries little silt and clay, but moves large amounts of sand.  What kind of stream would you predict from this characteristic?

  1. A) meandering stream
  2. B) braided stream
  3. C) bedrock stream
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

36) The Mississippi River today is a classic meandering river.  20,000 years ago the Mississippi River was a major outwash channel for the Laurentide ice sheet, and was characterized by dramatic variations in flow with huge discharge during summer ice melt and a dramatic falloff in discharge during the winter.  The river also carried coarser sediment than today, with abundant sand and even gravel in its upper reaches.  What does this suggest about the ancient Mississippi?

  1. A) It probably looked similar to the river today, but was characterized by more dramatic summer floods that occurred every year.
  2. B) It probably resembled modern rivers in Alaska with a broad braided stream valley that dried up during the winter months, producing winter dust storms.
  3. C) It was probably a lush heavily vegetated valley due to the nutrients brought down by the glacial meltwater, producing a swampy landscape with numerous channels.
  4. D) It is impossible to predict what the river might have looked like.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

37) People learned by trial and error years ago how to paddle a canoe upstream in meandering rivers, knowing where the strongest currents were located.  Assuming you don’t want to go backwards, what is the best paddling route to maximize your speed upstream?

  1. A) Keep on the outside bends, near the cut banks, as much as possible.
  2. B) Stay in midchannel.
  3. C) Stay on the inside bend of meanders, crossing over whenever the meander turns so you can stay on the inside bend.
  4. D) Always stay close to one bank or the other, regardless of how the river bends.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

38) If you just want to go for a swim in a meandering river and want to find a sandy beach, where is the best place to look for your swimming hole?

  1. A) a point bar on the inside bend of a meander
  2. B) outside bend of the meander loops
  3. C) straight stretches between meander loops
  4. D) It isn’t easy to predict, you’ll just have to look around.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

39) A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth, canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. A) The natural channel had a lower gradient and less friction than the modified channel.
  2. B) The straight channel has a higher gradient and more friction than the natural channel.
  3. C) The natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel.
  4. D) All of the above statements are true.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

40) ________ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

  1. A) Rapids and lots of whitewater
  2. B) Wide floodplains
  3. C) U-shaped, cross-valley profiles
  4. D) Meandering channels and natural levees

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

41) When a stream is in a v-shaped valley running on bedrock, the stream is ________.

  1. A) well above base level
  2. B) at base level
  3. C) below base level
  4. D) responding to a rise in base level

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

42) A stream meanders across a broad, flat valley with numerous swamps and lakes.  This stream is ________.

  1. A) running well above base level
  2. B) running at base level or below base level
  3. C) running on bedrock
  4. D) responding to a fall in base level

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

43) A river is flowing in a broad, alluvial valley and the river is silt-laden but also moves sand and a small amount of gravel.  The government decides to build a dam across the valley for power and flood control.  What will happen to the river, upstream of the dam?

  1. A) The river will downcut.
  2. B) The river will start to deposit sand and gravel, frequently spilling out of its channel.
  3. C) The river will not change.
  4. D) The river will respond to the new temporary base level and cut laterally outside its valley, widening the valley.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

44) Over time as erosion lowers the landscape a river valley will typically ________.

  1. A) deepen into a bigger and bigger canyon, like the Grand Canyon
  2. B) become steeper and discharge increases in the streams
  3. C) become narrower but with a lower gradient, entrenching meanders
  4. D) become broader and lower gradient

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

45) A river emerges from a valley onto a flat plain, but the river itself lies in a narrow, shallow canyon as it crosses the plain, then plunges into a steep sided canyon as it flow past the plain.  A geologist floating down the canyon headed for the whitewater in the canyon notices the river is flowing through lake deposits as it flows across the plain.  What happened in this area?

  1. A) The river is at base level throughout its trace and has been for a long time.
  2. B) The river used to flow into a lake, which formed a temporary base level, but in recent geologic time the lakes dam broke, and the river is now downcutting in response to the change in local base level.
  3. C) The river has cut a deep canyon that crossed through a lake, and this process has been continuous for a long time.
  4. D) The geologist can’t be right; this is an impossible scenario.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

46) Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams?

  1. A) sea level drops; land subsides
  2. B) sea level falls; land rises
  3. C) sea level rises; land subsides
  4. D) sea level rises; land rises

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

47) Downcutting (also known as rejuvenation) of a stream may be due to ________.

  1. A) rising of sea level
  2. B) uplift of land
  3. C) a decreased gradient
  4. D) thermal expansion

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

48) A meandering river is flowing in a broad, alluvial valley and the river is silt-laden but also moves sand and a small amount of gravel.  The government decides to build a dam across the valley for power and flood control.  What will happen to the river downstream of the dam?

  1. A) The river will start to deposit sand and gravel, frequently spilling out of its channel.
  2. B) The river will not change.
  3. C) The river will respond to the new temporary base level and cut laterally outside its valley, widening the valley.
  4. D) The trapping of silt in the reservoir will change the river to a braided stream because it will only have sand and gravel in its sediment load.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys and 5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

49) At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________.

  1. A) endotributaries
  2. B) exotributaries
  3. C) distributaries
  4. D) cotributaries

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

50) A natural levee is ________.

  1. A) an erosional feature
  2. B) a depositional feature
  3. C) essentially parallel to its stream channel
  4. D) both a depositional feature and essentially parallel to its stream channel

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

51) Which of the following features characterize meandering streams and valleys?

  1. A) natural levees; broad floodplains
  2. B) rapids; channel bed potholes
  3. C) waterfalls; entrenched meanders
  4. D) V-shaped valley cross sections

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

52) An alluvial fan ________.

  1. A) is another name for a small delta forming along a beach
  2. B) a fan-shaped mass of sediment deposited at the base of a mountain front due to an abrupt change in stream gradient
  3. C) a fan-shaped sediment mass generated by a distributary channel
  4. D) a plant that grows in deltas and is diagnostic of a delta

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

53) The city of New Orleans is in the delta of a great river.  During hurricane Katrina most of the city flooded but the area along the river, like the French Quarter, did not.  Why didn’t these areas flood?

  1. A) The army corps of engineers must have dredged the river and built these areas up before the city was built.
  2. B) These areas were natural levees of the river, and were higher in elevation than adjacent areas.
  3. C) The water couldn’t flow fast enough to cover these areas and was halted before it could flood these areas.
  4. D) The river flowed away from these areas into other parts of the city when it broke the levees, and these areas just happened to be spared.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

54) Which of the following is not a form of artificial flood control?

  1. A) levee construction
  2. B) dam construction
  3. C) channel cutoff to form oxbow lakes during a flood
  4. D) forced levee breaks to deflect flood waters

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

55) A ________ flood occurs when heavy rain strikes a mountainous area.

  1. A) regional
  2. B) flash
  3. C) monsoon
  4. D) quick

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

56) In 2011 snow melt and heavy rains in the upper Missouri River drainage basin produced record runoff that led to extensive flooding in lower Missouri River valley, despite the construction of numerous large flood control dams built on the river in the mid 20th century.  What type of failure in an artificial flood control system is this an example of?

  1. A) Insufficient levee construction downstream of the dams
  2. B) A flood outside the design capabilities of the dam system overwhelmed the capacity of the reservoirs forcing opening of flood gates, exacerbating the downstream impact of the flooding
  3. C) Bad planning by the water managers who cared more about power production than downstream flooding
  4. D) It was not a failure; the dam system worked as planned. It was poor planning by the downstream government agencies.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

57) Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called ________.

  1. A) perched water tables
  2. B) aquitards
  3. C) springs
  4. D) aquifers

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

58) ________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.

  1. A) Permeability
  2. B) Space yield
  3. C) Porosity
  4. D) Saturation index

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

59) The water table is ________.

  1. A) a boundary between unsaturated bedrock and an underground river
  2. B) a boundary between unsaturated bedrock below and saturated bedrock above
  3. C) an underground mass of partly saturated rock
  4. D) a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

60) Caves most commonly form in ________.

  1. A) limestone
  2. B) sandstone
  3. C) quartzite
  4. D) shale

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

61) Sinkholes and karst topography are a clear indication that ________.

  1. A) the groundwater is moving through cracks in the rock
  2. B) the groundwater is moving through a limestone and forming caves that periodically collapse
  3. C) the area has been subjected to past meteorite bombardments and groundwater is moving through the fractured rock
  4. D) there is nothing unusual; these features occur everywhere there is fast motion of groundwater in the subsurface

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

62) In the canyonlands of Utah and Arizona, canyon walls often support “hanging gardens” in which plants cling to sandstone cliffs and these hanging gardens are typically along shale beds in the sandstone.  These areas are deserts, so what might explain these features?

  1. A) The shales hold the water better than the sandstone, so plants preferentially grow in them.
  2. B) The shales form better soils than the sand, so the plants grow there.
  3. C) The shales form aquitards in the sandstone acquifer, trapping groundwater along the shale horizons that helps aid plant growth.
  4. D) The shales are more fractured than the sandstones so the plants have an easier time starting in the shale.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

63) An artesian well is one in which ________.

  1. A) the water is warm, fairly saline, and recharged by an affluent stream
  2. B) pressurized groundwater rises from a deep, unsaturated aquifer
  3. C) water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping
  4. D) the well is horizontal and the water table is perched

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

64) When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table. Such a depression is a(n) ________.

  1. A) perched water table
  2. B) pumping dimple
  3. C) cone of depression
  4. D) artesian well

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

65) Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is not true?

  1. A) The well penetrates an aquifer overlain by an aquitard.
  2. B) The well penetrates an aquifer underlain by an impermeable bed.
  3. C) The aquifer is generally inclined, and it is saturated to an elevation above the point where the well penetrates the aquifer.
  4. D) When the well penetrates the aquifer, the water rises to the bottom of the aquitard above the aquifer.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

66) Hot springs are most numerous in which region of the United States?

  1. A) Southeast
  2. B) Midwest
  3. C) West
  4. D) Northeast

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

67) Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?

  1. A) Water suddenly boils in disconnected voids and cracks above the water table, causing the aquifer to explosively fragment.
  2. B) Water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks above the water table, sending up a plume of steam and hot water.
  3. C) Water below the water table slowly boils in a vertical crack or natural conduit, causing a plume of condensed water vapor to rise above the vent.
  4. D) With a slight reduction in pressure, water in a saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending a plume of steam and hot water into the air above the vent.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

68) Farmer Brown lives in a semi-arid part of the United States with numerous small lakes associated with glacial deposits of sand and gravel.  He decides he needs to irrigate part of his land and drills a shallow well 100m from his property line with Farmer Smith who has a small lake just across the property line, and he depends on this lake to water his cattle.  By late summer, Farmer Smith goes out to his lake and discovers it is dry.  What happened?

  1. A) Farmer Brown’s well produced a sinkhole that swallowed up Farmer Smith’s lake.
  2. B) There must have been a drought or Farmer Brown wouldn’t have needed to irrigate, so it must be natural.
  3. C) Farmer Brown has been secretly pumping water from Farmer Smith’s lake, and now Farmer Smith is going to come out at night with a shotgun.
  4. D) Farmer Browns well has dropped the water table in the well’s cone of depression, and the well has led to the lake drying up.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

69) ________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.

  1. A) Fractured granite
  2. B) Well-sorted, coarse gravel
  3. C) Slightly clayey sand
  4. D) Limestone with solution channels and caverns

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.11 Environmental Problems of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

70) Much of the city of New Orleans is below sea level, yet it was not an ocean when the city was first settled.  How did it get below sea level?

  1. A) Drainage canals and groundwater withdrawal produced subsidence that dropped the land below sea level.
  2. B) The area was dredged to build levees, and so it was left below sea level.
  3. C) Oil production withdrew oil and produced land subsidence.
  4. D) Sea level is just rising.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.11 Environmental Problems of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

71) A small town in New Mexico discovers that a chemical plant outside of town recently learned that one of their underground pipelines had broken without their knowledge and had been leaking a toxic organic compound for over a month.  The spill occurred 5m below the surface in a sandstone above a thin shale bed in the local bedrock.  The beds are flat lying and this shale crops out 200m from the chemical plant.  The town gets is water from deep wells, about 300m deep.  What should the town worry about from this spill?

  1. A) There is an immediate threat of contamination of the city water supply.
  2. B) There is a threat by the company to move because they do not want to clean up the damage.
  3. C) There is no immediate worry, but in the long term their city water will almost certainly be contaminated.
  4. D) There is no threat to the city water, but there is a likely health threat when the chemical moves to the surface outcrops of the layers the spill occurred in.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.11 Environmental Problems of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

 

72) Which of the following is associated with areas of karst topography?

  1. A) sinkholes
  2. B) soluble rock
  3. C) caverns
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

73) A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.

  1. A) stalandite
  2. B) stalactite
  3. C) stalagmite
  4. D) slagdite

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

74) The term karst topography was first used in ________.

  1. A) the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the former Yugoslavia
  2. B) eastern Canada in areas of fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks
  3. C) India, near the southern foothills of the Himalayan Mountains
  4. D) Australia for the extremely dry interior area near Ayres Rock and Alice Springs

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

75) gradient        velocity          capacity              discharge

Answer:  capacity

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

76) Bed load         Cap load          Dissolved load      Suspended load

Answer:  Cap load

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

77) cut bank       point bar         natural levee        delta

Answer:  cut bank

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.7 Depositional Landforms

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

78) artificial levees         dams       floodplains        channelization

Answer:  floodplains

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

79) porosity        permeability       aquitard           aquifer

Answer:  aquitard

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

80) stalagmite        soda straw       sinkhole           stalactite

Answer:  sinkhole

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

81) Sea level has risen and fallen significantly in the past history of the Earth due to climate change.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

82) Most of the water that evaporates from the oceans falls on land where it runs off to the oceans again.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle (Fig. 5.2)

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

83) The hydrologic cycle is not balanced right now and, as a result, sea level is rising.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

84) More water is evaporated from the ocean than is returned to the ocean by precipitation.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

85) Trunk streams are a major region of sediment storage in a river system.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

86) Gradients usually decrease downstream in a major river system.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

87) If two streams are otherwise identical, the stream with the smaller gradient would have the highest velocity flow.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

88) Flowing water experiences friction when it flows along the sides and bottom of its channel.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

89) Stream discharge is defined as the quantity of water flowing past a specific channel location per unit time.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

90) The Mississippi River is North America’s largest river in terms of discharge.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

91) The Mississippi is only slightly smaller than the Amazon river.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

92) The bed load of a stream moves at average rates of meters/day to several kilometers/day in most streams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

93) The capacity of a stream measures the maximum size of particles it is capable of transporting.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

94) Alluvium refers to stream deposits, mainly sand and gravel.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

95) Point bars are depositional features located along the outer portions of meander bends.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.5 Stream Channels

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

96) The lowest base level for most streams is sea level.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

97) One river can be the base level for another.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

98) A V-shaped valley and no floodplain indicate a youthful, downcutting stream.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

99) Creating artificial cutoffs increases stream velocity.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

100) Floods are the least destructive of all geologic hazards.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

101) Porosity is a measure of the volume of open space in rocks and unconsolidated geological materials such as alluvium and soils.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Goundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

102) As its name implies, the water table is always very level (flat).

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Goundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

103) Most hot springs in the United States are located in the southeast, especially Georgia.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

104) The source of heat for most hot springs is hot igneous material beneath the surface.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

105) Lowering of the water table around a pumping well results in a cone of infiltration.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

106) For a well to be characterized as being artesian, water must flow freely at the surface.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

107) One environmental problem associated with groundwater is land subsidence caused by withdrawal.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.11 Environmental Problems of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

108) Most caves and caverns originate by solution of limestone.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

109) The formation of stalactites and stalagmites occurs in the zone of saturation.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

110) Karst topography is most commonly associated with areas underlain by massive sandstone strata.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

111) Sinkholes are actively forming in portions of the southeastern United States.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

112) Which component of the water cycle describes the recharge of water to the soil and groundwater systems?

Answer:  infiltration

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

113) ________ is the boundary line separating adjacent stream drainage basins.

Answer:  A stream divide

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.2 Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

114) ________ is defined as the drop in elevation of the stream surface divided by the distance the water flows.

Answer:  Gradient

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

115) ________ is the quantity of water flowing past a certain stream cross section per unit time.

Answer:  Discharge

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

116) ________ is the total quantity of sediment carried by a river.

Answer:  Capacity

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

117) What stream characteristic is measured by the size of the largest particle that a stream can move?

Answer:  competence

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

118) ________ refers to sediments deposited from streams.

Answer:  Alluvium

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

119) The lowest elevation limiting stream erosion is called ________.

Answer:  base level

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.6 Shaping Stream Valleys

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

120) As a form of flood control, ________ involves altering a stream channel to speed the flow of water to prevent it from reaching flood height.

Answer:  channelization

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.8 Floods and Flood Control

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

121) Highly impermeable layers such as compacted clay or shale are known as ________.

Answer:  aquitards

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

122) What term denotes the percentage of open space or voids in a material?

Answer:  porosity

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

123) The unsaturated zone above the water table is also known as the ________.

Answer:  zone of aeration, vadose zone

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

124) What feature originates where the water table intersects the land surface?

Answer:  spring

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

125) What term describes a groundwater system in which water in a well rises above the top of the aquifer without use of a pump?

Answer:  artesian

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

 

126) Which slender, conical speleothem grows from water dripping from the ceiling of a cavern?

Answer:  stalactite

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

127) A stream flowing into a sinkhole is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  disappearing stream

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

128) A(n) ________ is a circular to elliptical, closed depression in karst areas.

Answer:  sinkhole

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.12 The Geologic Work of Groundwater

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

Critical Thinking and Discussion.  Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 5 to answer the questions below.

 

129) How does climate change affect the hydrologic cycle?

Answer:  Climate influences the amount of evaporation and that will impact precipitation and the movement of land water toward the oceans.  Climate change will also change the amount of water stored in both sea ice and in glaciers.  Changing the amount of water stored in glaciers will change sea level.

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.1 Earth as a System: The Hydrologic Cycle

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

130) Where would the words “head,” “mouth,” “steep gradient,” and “gentle gradient” be located on the diagram below?

 

Answer:  See Figure 5.8 in Chapter 5 of Earth Science, 14e.

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.3 Streamflow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

 

131) The textbook makes the point that stream transport is a mechanism for sorting material.  Explain how a stream sorts rocks.

Answer:  Rocks move within a stream as Dissolved, Suspended, or Bed loads.  Each of these modes of transport is based on a size and/or chemical property of the rocks and the velocity and turbulence of the water.  If a rock can be easily dissolved in water then that mode of transport is likely and the rock will not be deposited until the stream encounters a suitable environment (either a chemical change or a velocity change or both) for precipitation of the dissolved material.  Similarly, the material that can be transported in suspension is limited to particles that are small enough to stay in the moving water and they will be deposited when the velocity of the water is decreased enough that it can no longer carry the particles.  The bed load can only be moved when there is sufficient velocity or turbulence in the water to move material.  As a result of these different conditions for transport and deposition, it is likely that different sizes or chemical compositions will be deposited in different parts of a stream system so they will be sorted by their size and composition.

Diff: 2

Topic:  5.4 The Work of Running Water

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

132) On the cutaway sides of the illustration below, areas shaded light represent the zone of aeration, and areas that are darkly shaded represent the zone of saturation.  All rock types are aquifers except for the labeled aquitard.  On the blanks provided, fill in the name of the labeled features.

 

Answer:  (a) main water table     (b) perched water table

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

 

133) When examining the geology of a region for potential aquifers, what characteristics or factors would you consider?  Also, what areas (based on natural and human factors) would you avoid?

Answer:  One would be looking for unconsolidated sediments of uniform particle size and a high water table.  One would avoid crystalline rock unless it was highly fractured, and one would avoid, as much as possible, any areas where contamination might occur.

Diff: 3

Topic:  5.9 Groundwater: Water Beneath the Surface

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis/Evaluation

 

134) What is the name of the localized lowering of the water table shown in the diagram below?

 

Answer:  cone of depression

Diff: 1

Topic:  5.10 Springs, Wells, and Artesian Systems

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis