Test Bank of Essentials of Life Span Development 2Nd ed by Santrock

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Essentials of Life Span Development 2Nd ed by Santrock

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Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson’s view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate
during the early childhood period?
A. Children’s consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take.
B. Children feel guilty if they do nothing, so their consciences tell them to take the initiative.
C. Children’s consciences tell them they are guilty, so they take initiative to prove they are not.
D. Children’s consciences are not yet mature enough to distinguish between guilt and initiative.
2. When Travis decided he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his parents encouraged him to test out
his idea. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with:
A. autonomy.
B. initiative.
C. industry.
D. trust.
3. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:
A. initiative versus guilt.
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
C. industry versus inferiority.
D. intimacy versus isolation.
4. According to Erik Erikson, what is the “great governor” of initiative?
A. conscience
B. independence
C. fear
D. obedience
5. In general terms, the preschool child’s understanding of self is:
A. concrete.
B. abstract.
C. symbolic.
D. transitory.
6. Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?
A. “I am quiet, nice, and friendly.”
B. “I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle.”
C. “I like preschool, especially reading, and I am good in art.”
D. “I am the daughter of Sam and Renee and the sister of William.”
7. According to research, children start to understand others in terms of psychological traits (e.g., “my
teacher is nice”) starting around what age?
A. 2 to 3 years
B. 4 to 5 years
C. 6 years
D. between 7 and 8 years
8. Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of:
A. basic emotions.
B. self-conscious emotions.
C. primary negative emotions.
D. secondary negative emotions.
9. Which of the following emotions are not in the same “category” as the other three?
A. embarrassment
B. shame
C. guilt
D. fear
10. Self-conscious emotions do not appear until the second year of life because:
A. children do not identify with their same sex parent until that time.
B. children have not developed a sense of self-awareness until then.
C.children do not have the cognitive structures to retain the knowledge of both actions and their
consequences until that time.
D. children’s id’s continue to dominate their self-structures until that time.
11. Which of the following is NOT a marked change in emotional development during early childhood?
A. Children can use more terms to describe emotions.
B. Children can reflect upon their emotions.
C. Children can deceive others with their emotions.
D. Children can understand the causes of emotions.
12. Five-year-old Joe is crying because his favorite aunt is moving away. His parents are in the kitchen
arguing about how to respond to the situation. Joe’s father wants to tell him “big boys don’t cry.” Joe’s
mother wants to tell him “it is okay to cry when you feel sad.” According to research, which response will
be most helpful for Joe?
A. Joe’s father’s response.
B. Joe’s father’ response, but only because Joe is a boy. For girls, Joe’s mother’s response would be more
helpful.
C. Joe’s mother’s response.
D
.
Joe’s mother’s response, but only because Joe is around preschool age. For older children, Joe’s father’s
response would be more helpful.
13. A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called
an:
A. emotion-dismissing parent.
B. emotion-criticizing parent.
C. emotion-coaching parent.
D. emotion-ignoring parent.
14. The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people
should do in their interactions with other people is called _________ development
A. moral
B. superego
C. integrity
D. democratic
15. Jennie is in third grade and is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she knows that it
would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral development, what is responsible for
keeping Jennie from doing wrong?
A. guilt from her superego
B. empathy for other people
C. reprimands from caregivers
D. rewards from caregivers
16. When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her
puppy. Selena is exhibiting:
A. guilt.
B. empathy.
C. heteronomous morality.
D. lack of perspective taking.
17. In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and
________.
A. learn to identify others’ emotional states; anticipate what will improve others’ emotional states
B. learn to regulate their emotional states; teach other children to regulate their emotional states
C. overcome their innate desire to hurt others; learn to do things for the good of the group
D. deny their natural selfish tendencies; be concerned with the well-being of other people
18. Jean Piaget was primarily interested in:
A. moral reasoning of children.
B. moral behavior of children.
C. how parents teach moral standards to children.
D. the biological basis of moral integrity.
19. Jerome and Hani got up early on Saturday morning and decided to make “breakfast in bed” for their
mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally bumped and
broke one of their mother’s favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome knew that he was going to get into “big
trouble,” and he thought that he should get into big trouble. Hani told him not to worry because Mom
would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning,
respectively, of Jerome and Hani?
A. Jerome—autonomous morality; Hani—heteronomous morality
B. Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality
C. Jerome—universal law morality; Hani—context-specific morality.
D. Jerome—context-specific morality; Hani—universal law morality.
20. Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game, yelling, “You
can’t do that! You can’t change rules!” Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral
reasoning?
A. autonomous morality
B. heteronomous morality
C. peer-negotiated morality
D. immanent justice morality
21. Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is
referred to as belief in:
A. immanent justice.
B. moral justice.
C. concrete justice.
D. authoritative justice.
22. According to Jean Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to foster moral development than peer
relations because:
A. parents are inconsistent in delivering the consequences for broken rules.
B. peers are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning about broken rules.
C. parents have the power in that relationship and can hand down rules in an authoritarian manner.
D. peers settle disagreements by instituting clear and immediate social sanctions.
23. Jean Piaget’s approach to studying morality focuses on ________, whereas the behavioral approach
focuses on __________
A. moral reasoning; moral behavior.
B. correct moral behavior, moral transgressions.
C. influences of environment; influences of heredity.
D. nurture; nature.
24. Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of
children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?
A. Reinforcement, punishment, and imitation can explain the development of moral behavior.
B. Self-control is evidenced by the child’s ability to delay gratification.
C. Punishment will always increase the modeling of moral behavior.
D. Cognitive factors are important in the development of self-control.
25. A child’s sense of being male or female is referred to as their:
A. gender role
B. gender
C. gender schema
D. gender identity
26. The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
A. gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures.
B. the mother and father role are social constructions that emerged from our evolutionary past.
C. different social roles for men and women in most societies are chosen, not determined.
D. nature is the primary determinant of differences between the social labels we call “gender.”
27. Research has shown that women perform more domestic work, spend fewer hours in paid employment,
receive lower pay, and are less represented in the highest levels of organizations. These findings support
which theory of gender?
A. social cognitive theory of gender
B. sex role theory of gender
C. psychoanalytic theory of gender
D. social role theory
28. The primary social theories of gender include all but which of the following?
A. evolutionary psychology view
B. gender schema theory
C. psychoanalytic theory
D. social cognitive theory
29. The __________ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child’s attraction to his
or her opposite-sex parent.
A. psychoanalytic
B. social cognitive
C. biological drive
D. cognitive developmental
30. The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the
same sex parent at about age:
A. 1 or 2 years.
B. 3 or 4 years.
C. 5 or 6 years.
D. 7 or 8 years.
31. Social influences on gender roles appear to operate mainly through:
A. cognitive processes stimulated by other people.
B. learning processes in the company of other people.
C. biological processes stimulated by social interactions.
D. a complex interaction of biological processes.
32. Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning parenting practices and gender development?
A. Fathers are more consistently given responsibility for the nurturance and physical care of their
children.
B. Mothers are more likely than fathers to engage in playful interactions with their children.
C. Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat their sons and daughters differently.
D. Fathers are more involved in socializing their sons than their daughters.
33. Researchers refer to elementary school playgrounds as “gender school” because:
A. teachers treat boys and girls differently.
B. children reinforce and punish each other for gender behaviors.
C. parents expect schools to treat children in gender-stereotypical ways.
D. children’s gender concepts do not begin to form until elementary school.
34. Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:
A. there is greater pressure for boys.
B. there is greater pressure for girls.
C. pressure to conform is equal for both boys and girls.
D. neither boys nor girls are pressured by their peers to conform.
35. At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate?
A. around 3 years old
B. around 6 years old
C. around 8 years old
D. around 10 years old
36. Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of:
A. mixed ages.
B. the same sex.
C. boys and girls.
D. children with their own level of social competence.
37. According to Maccoby (1998, 2002), gender is important in:
A. the composition of children’s groups.
B. the size of children’s groups.
C. the interaction in children’s groups.
D. all of these.
38. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Girls are more likely than boys to associate together in larger groups.
B. Boys are more likely than girls to participate in organized group games.
C. Girls are more likely than boys to talk and act in “collaborative discourse.”
D. Boys are more likely than girls to engage in activities to attain a group goal.
39. Same-sex boy peer groups are characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. cooperative play.
B. competitive play.
C. risk taking.
D. larger groups.
40. A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual’s
perception is called a:
A. format.
B. schema.
C. subset.
D. system.
41. Which of these is TRUE of gender schema theory?
A. This theory identifies constants in the way children understand gender.
B. This theory focuses on imitation as a process of gender socialization.
C. This theory demonstrates how emotions contribute to gender identification.
D. This theory states how ideas of gender appropriateness are developed.
42. A parent who is very uninvolved in a child’s life, showing neither responsiveness nor control, is a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
43. A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of their children is a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
44. A parent who spanks his/her children frequently is most likely to be a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
45. Suzie just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. When looking at the
grades, her father stated, “You are an embarrassment to me! You better get those grades up, or else!”
Suzie’s dad is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
46. Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula’s mom’s
first response was “Oh, you must be very disappointed.” Then, the two of them sat down and tried to
determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They
decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula’s mom is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
47. Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he
was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard’s
dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found
his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad’s name and put it in his backpack. Bernard’s
dad is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
48. Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate
boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably
a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
49. Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
50. Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few
friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope states that the other kids would
not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with
parents who were:
A. authoritarian.
B. authoritative.
C. indulgent.
D. neglectful.
51. Which of the following parenting styles has high demands and low responsiveness?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
52. Which of the following parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
53. Research conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005, 2007) suggests that:
A
.
the high control of “authoritarian” Asian parents is best conceptualized as “training” and is distinct from
the domineering control that is generally associated with the authoritarian style of parenting.
B
.
“authoritarian” parenting is “authoritarian” parenting, whether the parent is Asian American, African
American, or European American.
C. contrary to many stereotypes, Asian parents are indulgent and permissive.
D
.
consistent with stereotypes, Asian parents are domineering, controlling, and have rigid/unrealistic
expectations for academic achievement in their children.
54. In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported that
they frequently spanked their children.
A. 16%
B. 26%
C. 57%
D. 67%
55. In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported that
they frequently yelled at their children.
A. 16%
B. 26%
C. 57%
D. 67%
56. Which of the following countries has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?
A. Sweden
B. Spain
C. Germany
D. United States
57. In which of the following countries are adults most likely to report that their parents used corporal
punishment?
A. Canada
B. Russia
C. Africa
D. Sweden
58. Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following,
EXCEPT:
A. higher levels of immediate compliance.
B. higher levels of adolescent depression.
C. higher levels of moral internalization.
D. higher levels of juvenile delinquency
59. Young Ori has just been misbehaving at home, and his mother is very angry with him. She yells at him
for his poor behavior, spanks him on the backside, and sends him to his room. According to your authors,
which of the following is a possible undesirable outcome of this sort of reaction?
A. Ori will develop an Oedipal rage at his mother.
B.Ori will not understand what behaviors should have occurred, because this sort of punishment does not
present better options.
C. Ori will not be willing to leave his room later when he is permitted to.
D. Ori will be more likely to run away when his mother is not looking.
60. In response to child misbehavior, most child psychologists recommend:
A. reasoning with the child.
B. explaining the consequences of the child’s actions for others.
C. removing the child from a setting that offers positive reinforcement.
D. all of these.
61. Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should Becky’s mom do? Most developmental
psychologists would suggest:
A. give Becky a spanking; she is too young to understand reasoning.
B. explain to Becky that “hitting hurts”; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her
behavior.
C. give Becky a “time-out”; she is too young to understand reasoning.
D.give Becky a spanking; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior and should
be punished accordingly.
62. The support that parents give each other in raising children, including coordination of rules and parenting
efforts, is called:
A. coparenting
B. cohesive rearing
C. directional childcare
D. collaborative directing
63. Of the 905,000 children in the United States who were found to be victims of child abuse in 2002,
__________ were abused by their parent(s).
A. 24%
B. 44%
C. 64%
D. 84%
64. The term “child maltreatment” includes all but which of the following possibilities?
A. physical abuse
B. tough love
C. child neglect
D. sexual abuse
65. Marella and Ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. They pushed and smacked each other, and
both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Their young son, Juan, witnessed the entire event. Which of
the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation?
A. physical abuse
B. child neglect
C. sexual abuse
D. emotional abuse
66. __________ is almost always present when other forms of child maltreatment are identified.
A. Physical abuse
B. Child neglect
C. Sexual abuse
D. Emotional abuse
67. About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.
A. one-quarter
B. one-third
C. one-half
D. two-thirds
68. What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?
A. depression, delinquency, and substance abuse
B. personality disorders and physical health problems
C. a rigid and controlling personality
D. None of these
69. Approximately ____ percent of American children have at least one sibling.
A. 50
B. 60
C. 70
D. 80
70. Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the
other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is
the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?
A. They will side with the younger son and punish the older son.
B. They will put both boys in time-out.
C. They will do nothing at all.
D. They will side with the older son and punish the younger son.
71. According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the
following is not one of those points?
A. the age differences that exist in the relationship
B. the emotional quality of the relationship
C. the familiarity and intimacy of the relationship
D. the variations in sibling relationships
72. In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?
A. Their existence is not confirmed by research.
B. They are most pronounced when there are three or more children in a family.
C.They are a result of birth order itself and not to differences in interpersonal interactions that result from
having multiple children.
D. They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors.
73. Why do more and more researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been
emphasized too strongly?
A. There are no clear patterns of birth-order influences on personality.
B
.
If we continue to study birth-order influences, our findings will create self-fulfilling prophecies that
will perpetuate birth-order differences.
C. The pattern of birth-order influences that scientists have found makes little sense and is not very
useful.
D
.
The overly simplistic model that suggests that birth-order effects are very large ignores the complexity
of influences on a child’s development.
74. Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
A. Canada
B. Germany
C. United States
D. Sweden
75. How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?
A. Children are not properly socialized for the adult roles they will occupy.
B. Children are not able to develop a secure attachment to their parents.
C. Children tend to perform poorly academically.
D. Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.
76. Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
A. A divorce may improve children’s lives under some circumstances.
B. Divorces inevitably impair children’s ability to adapt to difficulties in their lives.
C. Competent children cannot be raised in single-parent families.
D. Divorce has only minor effects on children.
77. Which theory of divorce suggests that children can recognize and distinguish between marital conflict
that can be negative for children and that which can be positive for children?
A. emotion security theory
B. divorce schema theory
C. marital conflict valence theory
D. conflict applicability theory
78. With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research?
A. disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later
B. intense conflict immediately after the divorce and intense conflict 2 years later
C. mild disruption after the divorce, with increasing disruption 2 years later
D. mild disruption after the divorce, with mild conflict 2 years later
79. Approximately __________ of lesbians are parents.
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%
80. Approximately __________ of gay men are parents.
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%
81. Most children of gay or lesbian parents are/were:
A. adopted.
B. born via artificial insemination or surrogate parenting.
C. born in a heterosexual relationship that ended in divorce.
D. foster children.
82. Children who grew up in gay and lesbian families usually self-identify themselves as:
A. homosexual.
B. heterosexual.
C. bisexual.
D. asexual.
83. In general in the United States, African American and Latino family orientations differ from White
family orientations in that:
A. the nuclear family plays a less prominent role in white families.
B. the extended family plays a greater role in African American and Latino families.
C. the emphasis in African American and Latino families is on individual self-reliance.
D. the emphasis in white families is on family attachment and unity.
84. Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
A. spank their children.
B. criticize their children.
C. emphasize adherence to authority.
D. emphasize delaying gratification.
85. Social class differences in parenting behaviors have been found in the United States and most Western
cultures. Lower socioeconomic status parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class
parents.
A. ask their children questions
B. use reasoning to accompany their discipline
C. use physical discipline
D. use verbal praise
86. Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some
say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use
physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
A. Latino.
B. authoritarian.
C. divorced but coparenting.
D. of a higher socioeconomic status.
87. What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?
A. a same-sex friend
B. a chance to share intimate feelings
C. an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age
D. a view of what the world looks like from another person’s perspective
88. Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with:
A. her same-aged best friend.
B. her older brother.
C. her tennis instructor.
D. the captain of the tennis team.
89. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered play to be valuable because:
A. it allows children to relieve and master tension and anxiety.
B. it advances the child’s cognitive development.
C. it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D. it allows children to interact with their peers.
90. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:
A. it allows children to release tension.
B. it advances the child’s cognitive development.
C. it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D. it allows children to interact with their peers.
91. Which statement best summarizes Daniel Berlyne’s views about children’s play?
A. Play is important for developing motor skills and coordination.
B. Play is important only because it occupies children during times when they are not learning more
important things.
C. Children use play as a way to digest past experiences, to derive meaning from what has happened to
them.
D. Children use play as a way to explore new things and as a way to satisfy their natural curiosity about
the world.
92. Tessa is sitting by herself in her 1st grade classroom, and is watching a group of other children playing
together with some jacks. She takes another set of jacks and plays the same way, even though she does
not join the group. Which of the following would Parten say describes Tessa’s play?
A. parallel play
B. solitary play
C. imaginary play
D. practice play
93. Which of the following is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?
A. parallel play
B. solitary play
C. practice play
D. unoccupied play
94. From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived?
A. Anna Freud
B. Erik Erikson
C. Jean Piaget
D. Mildred Parten
95. When a 2-year-old pretends to “eat” a book and uses this type of play as a funny way to explore ideas,
this play is referred to as:
A. practice.
B. sensorimotor.
C. constructive.
D. symbolic.
96. Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of:
A. associative play.
B. constructive play.
C. pretense/symbolic play.
D. sensorimotor/practice play.
97. Constructive play:
A. transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
B. combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation.
C. involves children in social interactions with their peers.
D. increases mastery and coordination of skills.
98. Which type of play is most common among 10- to 12-year-olds?
A. constructive play
B. social play
C. symbolic play
D. games
99. By the time that Jacques graduates from high school, it is likely he will have spent the most time:
A. watching TV.
B. eating meals.
C. in the classroom.
D. with his parents.
100.Overall, the effects of television on children’s development are:
A. almost all negative.
B. almost all positive.
C. some positive, some negative.
D. not measurable enough to be significant.
101.Steur, Applefield, and Smith (1971) randomly assigned children to two groups. One group watched
cartoons containing violence, and the other group watched cartoons with the violence removed. During
a free-play session, the children who watched the cartoons containing violence showed more aggression
than children who watched the nonviolent cartoons. Which conclusion can be drawn from this study?
A. We can say that TV is the only factor that causes aggression.
B. We cannot say that violent TV caused the increased aggression, because this was a correlational study.
C. We cannot say what caused the aggression, since aggression is caused by so many other factors.
D. We can say that the violent TV caused the increased aggression if all other factors in the groups were
equal.
102.Children’s shows like Sesame Street are:
A. good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children.
B. good at direct teaching but not good at indirect teaching.
C. good at indirect teaching but not good at direct teaching.
D. more effective as entertainment than as instruction.
103.This theorist stated that the psychological stage of childhood was “initiative versus guilt.”
104.This theorist suggested that children internalize their standards of right and wrong in order to reduce
anxiety and avoid punishment.
105.This theorist proposed that parenting behavior can best understood when both parent control/discipline
and parent acceptance/responsiveness are taken into account.
106.This theorist proposed an elaborate classification system that divided children’s play activities into six
different categories.
107.In early childhood, children develop this aspect of the representation of self. This includes the substance
and content of self-conceptions and provides the rational underpinnings for personal identity.
108.Parents who monitor their children’s emotions, view their children’s negative emotions as opportunities
for teaching, and assist their children in labeling their emotions.
109.Parents who deny, ignore, or try to change the negative emotions of their children.
110.The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people
should do in interactions with other people.
111.The ability to discern the emotional states of others.
112.According to Jean Piaget, this is the first stage of moral development. Children think of justice and rules
as unchangeable properties of the world.
113.According to Jean Piaget, this is the second stage of moral development. Children become aware that
rules and laws are created by people and that intentions are a part of determining the morality of an
action.
114.The belief that when a rule is broken, punishment is sure to follow.
115.The social and psychological dimensions of being male or female.
116.The sense of being male or female, which is usually acquired by 3 years of age.
117.The sets of expectations that dictate how females or males should think, act, or feel in a particular
culture.
118.This theory states that gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurture are a result of the social
hierarchy where women have less power than men.
119.A way of speaking, most often used by girls with their friends where individuals talk to one another in a
reciprocal manner.
120.This theory states that children gradually develop cognitive structures about gender-appropriate and
gender-inappropriate activities and behaviors in their culture. Children are then internally motivated to
perceive the world and act in accordance with these cognitive structures.
121.A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an individual’s
perceptions.
122.A kind of parenting style that is restrictive and punitive. The parents place firm limits and controls on
their children and allow little verbal exchange.
123.A kind of parenting style that encourages children to be independent, but still places limits and controls
on child behavior. The parents allow verbal give-and-take and are nurturing toward their children.
124.A kind of parenting style in which parents are warm, nurturing, and involved with their children. The
parents, however, place few demands or controls on their children.
125.A kind of parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in their children’s life. They are neither warm
nor controlling.
126.A parenting technique for handling misbehavior in children. It is characterized by removing the child
from a setting that offers positive reinforcement.
127.The support that parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.
128.A type of child maltreatment that is characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of such
things as spanking, punching, and shaking a child.
129.A theory that suggests that children can distinguish between positive marital conflict and negative marital
conflict.
130.A type of therapy that uses games and toys to allow children to work off frustrations and give the
therapist a way to analyze the child’s conflicts.
131.A kind of play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or
mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports.
132.A kind of play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
133.Jean Piaget identified two stages of moral reasoning in children. Please (a) name these
stages of moral reasoning, (b) give the approximate ages of children at each of these
stages, and (c) briefly describe/explain the moral reasoning of children at each of these
stages.
134.For the following, (a) list the three major social theories of gender, (b) identify the primary
theorist associated with each theory, and (c) briefly describe the major tenants of the
theory.
135.Cultures around the world tend to give mothers and fathers different parenting roles. List two
socialization strategies each of mothers and fathers which influence their children’s gender
development.
136.List at least three ways that boy and girl peer/friendship groups tend to
differ.
137.Label each of the four parenting styles, as identified by Diana Baumrind, in the boxes provided
below.
138.List four types of child
maltreatment.
139.List at least four possible functions of
play.
140.Explain Erik Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt.
141.Define self-conscious emotions and provide two examples. What is a criterion necessary for children to
experience self-conscious emotions? What is an especial influence on their development during the early
childhood years? Give an example of this influence.
142.List four characteristics that are generally associated with the firstborn child. Discuss what accounts for
these differences.
143.Briefly contrast the differences in values that low-SES and high-SES parents emphasize in childrearing.
144.List and describe 4 of the 6 types of play identified by Mildred Parten.
6 Key
1. Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson’s view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience
operate during the early childhood period?
A. Children’s consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take.
B. Children feel guilty if they do nothing, so their consciences tell them to take the initiative.
C. Children’s consciences tell them they are guilty, so they take initiative to prove they are not.
D. Children’s consciences are not yet mature enough to distinguish between guilt and initiative.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Initiative Versus Guilt
Santrock – Chapter 06 #1
2. When Travis decided he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his parents encouraged him to test
out his idea. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with:
A. autonomy.
B. initiative.
C. industry.
D. trust.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Initiative Versus Guilt
Santrock – Chapter 06 #2
3. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:
A. initiative versus guilt.
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
C. industry versus inferiority.
D. intimacy versus isolation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Initiative Versus Guilt
Santrock – Chapter 06 #3
4. According to Erik Erikson, what is the “great governor” of initiative?
A. conscience
B. independence
C. fear
D. obedience
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Initiative Versus Guilt
Santrock – Chapter 06 #4
5. In general terms, the preschool child’s understanding of self is:
A. concrete.
B. abstract.
C. symbolic.
D. transitory.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Self-Understanding and Understanding Others
Santrock – Chapter 06 #5
6. Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?
A. “I am quiet, nice, and friendly.”
B. “I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle.”
C. “I like preschool, especially reading, and I am good in art.”
D. “I am the daughter of Sam and Renee and the sister of William.”
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Self-Understanding and Understanding Others
Santrock – Chapter 06 #6
7. According to research, children start to understand others in terms of psychological traits (e.g., “my
teacher is nice”) starting around what age?
A. 2 to 3 years
B. 4 to 5 years
C. 6 years
D. between 7 and 8 years
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Understanding Others
Santrock – Chapter 06 #7
8. Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of:
A. basic emotions.
B. self-conscious emotions.
C. primary negative emotions.
D. secondary negative emotions.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Expressing Emotions
Santrock – Chapter 06 #8
9. Which of the following emotions are not in the same “category” as the other three?
A. embarrassment
B. shame
C. guilt
D. fear
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Expressing Emotions
Santrock – Chapter 06 #9
10. Self-conscious emotions do not appear until the second year of life because:
A. children do not identify with their same sex parent until that time.
B. children have not developed a sense of self-awareness until then.
C. children do not have the cognitive structures to retain the knowledge of both actions and their
consequences until that time.
D. children’s id’s continue to dominate their self-structures until that time.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Expressing Emotions
Santrock – Chapter 06 #10
11. Which of the following is NOT a marked change in emotional development during early childhood?
A. Children can use more terms to describe emotions.
B. Children can reflect upon their emotions.
C. Children can deceive others with their emotions.
D. Children can understand the causes of emotions.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Understanding Emotions
Santrock – Chapter 06 #11
12. Five-year-old Joe is crying because his favorite aunt is moving away. His parents are in the kitchen
arguing about how to respond to the situation. Joe’s father wants to tell him “big boys don’t cry.” Joe’s
mother wants to tell him “it is okay to cry when you feel sad.” According to research, which response
will be most helpful for Joe?
A. Joe’s father’s response.
B. Joe’s father’ response, but only because Joe is a boy. For girls, Joe’s mother’s response would be
more helpful.
C. Joe’s mother’s response.
D.
Joe’s mother’s response, but only because Joe is around preschool age. For older children, Joe’s
father’s response would be more helpful.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Emotion-Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #12
13. A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be
called an:
A. emotion-dismissing parent.
B. emotion-criticizing parent.
C. emotion-coaching parent.
D. emotion-ignoring parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Factual
Page Reference: Emotion-Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #13
14. The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what
people should do in their interactions with other people is called _________ development
A. moral
B. superego
C. integrity
D. democratic
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Development
Santrock – Chapter 06 #14
15. Jennie is in third grade and is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she knows that it
would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral development, what is responsible
for keeping Jennie from doing wrong?
A. guilt from her superego
B. empathy for other people
C. reprimands from caregivers
D. rewards from caregivers
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Moral Feelings
Santrock – Chapter 06 #15
16. When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost
her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:
A. guilt.
B. empathy.
C. heteronomous morality.
D. lack of perspective taking.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Moral Feelings
Santrock – Chapter 06 #16
17. In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and
________.
A. learn to identify others’ emotional states; anticipate what will improve others’ emotional states
B. learn to regulate their emotional states; teach other children to regulate their emotional states
C. overcome their innate desire to hurt others; learn to do things for the good of the group
D. deny their natural selfish tendencies; be concerned with the well-being of other people
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Feelings
Santrock – Chapter 06 #17
18. Jean Piaget was primarily interested in:
A. moral reasoning of children.
B. moral behavior of children.
C. how parents teach moral standards to children.
D. the biological basis of moral integrity.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #18
19. Jerome and Hani got up early on Saturday morning and decided to make “breakfast in bed” for their
mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally bumped and
broke one of their mother’s favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome knew that he was going to get into “big
trouble,” and he thought that he should get into big trouble. Hani told him not to worry because
Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral
reasoning, respectively, of Jerome and Hani?
A. Jerome—autonomous morality; Hani—heteronomous morality
B. Jerome—heteronomous morality; Hani—autonomous morality
C. Jerome—universal law morality; Hani—context-specific morality.
D. Jerome—context-specific morality; Hani—universal law morality.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #19
20. Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of their game,
yelling, “You can’t do that! You can’t change rules!” Katrina is exhibiting which of the following
types of moral reasoning?
A. autonomous morality
B. heteronomous morality
C. peer-negotiated morality
D. immanent justice morality
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #20
21. Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is
referred to as belief in:
A. immanent justice.
B. moral justice.
C. concrete justice.
D. authoritative justice.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #21
22. According to Jean Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to foster moral development than peer
relations because:
A. parents are inconsistent in delivering the consequences for broken rules.
B. peers are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning about broken rules.
C. parents have the power in that relationship and can hand down rules in an authoritarian manner.
D. peers settle disagreements by instituting clear and immediate social sanctions.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #22
23. Jean Piaget’s approach to studying morality focuses on ________, whereas the behavioral approach
focuses on __________
A. moral reasoning; moral behavior.
B. correct moral behavior, moral transgressions.
C. influences of environment; influences of heredity.
D. nurture; nature.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #23
24. Social cognitive theory provides several important principles to help us understand moral behavior of
children. Which one of the following is NOT one of those principles?
A. Reinforcement, punishment, and imitation can explain the development of moral behavior.
B. Self-control is evidenced by the child’s ability to delay gratification.
C. Punishment will always increase the modeling of moral behavior.
D. Cognitive factors are important in the development of self-control.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Moral Behavior
Santrock – Chapter 06 #24
25. A child’s sense of being male or female is referred to as their:
A. gender role
B. gender
C. gender schema
D. gender identity
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #25
26. The social role theory of gender differences suggests that:
A. gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures.
B. the mother and father role are social constructions that emerged from our evolutionary past.
C. different social roles for men and women in most societies are chosen, not determined.
D. nature is the primary determinant of differences between the social labels we call “gender.”
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #26
27. Research has shown that women perform more domestic work, spend fewer hours in paid
employment, receive lower pay, and are less represented in the highest levels of organizations. These
findings support which theory of gender?
A. social cognitive theory of gender
B. sex role theory of gender
C. psychoanalytic theory of gender
D. social role theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #27
28. The primary social theories of gender include all but which of the following?
A. evolutionary psychology view
B. gender schema theory
C. psychoanalytic theory
D. social cognitive theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #28
29. The __________ theory of gender holds that gender development is governed by a child’s attraction to
his or her opposite-sex parent.
A. psychoanalytic
B. social cognitive
C. biological drive
D. cognitive developmental
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #29
30. The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the
same sex parent at about age:
A. 1 or 2 years.
B. 3 or 4 years.
C. 5 or 6 years.
D. 7 or 8 years.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #30
31. Social influences on gender roles appear to operate mainly through:
A. cognitive processes stimulated by other people.
B. learning processes in the company of other people.
C. biological processes stimulated by social interactions.
D. a complex interaction of biological processes.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #31
32. Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning parenting practices and gender development?
A. Fathers are more consistently given responsibility for the nurturance and physical care of their
children.
B. Mothers are more likely than fathers to engage in playful interactions with their children.
C. Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat their sons and daughters differently.
D. Fathers are more involved in socializing their sons than their daughters.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Parental Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #32
33. Researchers refer to elementary school playgrounds as “gender school” because:
A. teachers treat boys and girls differently.
B. children reinforce and punish each other for gender behaviors.
C. parents expect schools to treat children in gender-stereotypical ways.
D. children’s gender concepts do not begin to form until elementary school.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #33
34. Research on peer pressure to conform to traditional gender roles suggests that:
A. there is greater pressure for boys.
B. there is greater pressure for girls.
C. pressure to conform is equal for both boys and girls.
D. neither boys nor girls are pressured by their peers to conform.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #34
35. At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate?
A. around 3 years old
B. around 6 years old
C. around 8 years old
D. around 10 years old
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #35
36. Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of:
A. mixed ages.
B. the same sex.
C. boys and girls.
D. children with their own level of social competence.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #36
37. According to Maccoby (1998, 2002), gender is important in:
A. the composition of children’s groups.
B. the size of children’s groups.
C. the interaction in children’s groups.
D. all of these.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #37
38. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Girls are more likely than boys to associate together in larger groups.
B. Boys are more likely than girls to participate in organized group games.
C. Girls are more likely than boys to talk and act in “collaborative discourse.”
D. Boys are more likely than girls to engage in activities to attain a group goal.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #38
39. Same-sex boy peer groups are characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. cooperative play.
B. competitive play.
C. risk taking.
D. larger groups.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #39
40. A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an
individual’s perception is called a:
A. format.
B. schema.
C. subset.
D. system.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cognitive Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #40
41. Which of these is TRUE of gender schema theory?
A. This theory identifies constants in the way children understand gender.
B. This theory focuses on imitation as a process of gender socialization.
C. This theory demonstrates how emotions contribute to gender identification.
D. This theory states how ideas of gender appropriateness are developed.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Cognitive Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #41
42. A parent who is very uninvolved in a child’s life, showing neither responsiveness nor control, is
a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #42
43. A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behavior of their children is a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #43
44. A parent who spanks his/her children frequently is most likely to be a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #44
45. Suzie just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. When looking
at the grades, her father stated, “You are an embarrassment to me! You better get those grades up, or
else!” Suzie’s dad is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #45
46. Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula’s mom’s
first response was “Oh, you must be very disappointed.” Then, the two of them sat down and tried to
determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They
decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula’s mom is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #46
47. Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that
he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents.
Bernard’s dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning,
Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad’s name and put it in his
backpack. Bernard’s dad is most likely a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #47
48. Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate
boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably
a(n):
A. authoritarian parent.
B. authoritative parent.
C. indulgent parent.
D. neglectful parent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #48
49. Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #49
50. Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few
friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope states that the other kids would
not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home
with parents who were:
A. authoritarian.
B. authoritative.
C. indulgent.
D. neglectful.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #50
51. Which of the following parenting styles has high demands and low responsiveness?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #51
52. Which of the following parenting styles has low demands and high responsiveness?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. indulgent
D. neglectful
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #52
53. Research conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005, 2007) suggests that:
A.
the high control of “authoritarian” Asian parents is best conceptualized as “training” and is distinct
from the domineering control that is generally associated with the authoritarian style of parenting.
B.”authoritarian” parenting is “authoritarian” parenting, whether the parent is Asian American,
African American, or European American.
C. contrary to many stereotypes, Asian parents are indulgent and permissive.
D.
consistent with stereotypes, Asian parents are domineering, controlling, and have rigid/unrealistic
expectations for academic achievement in their children.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Parenting Styles in Context
Santrock – Chapter 06 #53
54. In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported
that they frequently spanked their children.
A. 16%
B. 26%
C. 57%
D. 67%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #54
55. In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year-old children, about __________ reported
that they frequently yelled at their children.
A. 16%
B. 26%
C. 57%
D. 67%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #55
56. Which of the following countries has the most favorable attitude toward corporal punishment?
A. Sweden
B. Spain
C. Germany
D. United States
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #56
57. In which of the following countries are adults most likely to report that their parents used corporal
punishment?
A. Canada
B. Russia
C. Africa
D. Sweden
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #57
58. Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the
following, EXCEPT:
A. higher levels of immediate compliance.
B. higher levels of adolescent depression.
C. higher levels of moral internalization.
D. higher levels of juvenile delinquency
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #58
59. Young Ori has just been misbehaving at home, and his mother is very angry with him. She yells at
him for his poor behavior, spanks him on the backside, and sends him to his room. According to your
authors, which of the following is a possible undesirable outcome of this sort of reaction?
A. Ori will develop an Oedipal rage at his mother.
B.Ori will not understand what behaviors should have occurred, because this sort of punishment does
not present better options.
C. Ori will not be willing to leave his room later when he is permitted to.
D. Ori will be more likely to run away when his mother is not looking.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #59
60. In response to child misbehavior, most child psychologists recommend:
A. reasoning with the child.
B. explaining the consequences of the child’s actions for others.
C. removing the child from a setting that offers positive reinforcement.
D. all of these.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #60
61. Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should Becky’s mom do? Most developmental
psychologists would suggest:
A. give Becky a spanking; she is too young to understand reasoning.
B. explain to Becky that “hitting hurts”; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her
behavior.
C. give Becky a “time-out”; she is too young to understand reasoning.
D.give Becky a spanking; she is old enough to understand the consequences of her behavior and
should be punished accordingly.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #61
62. The support that parents give each other in raising children, including coordination of rules and
parenting efforts, is called:
A. coparenting
B. cohesive rearing
C. directional childcare
D. collaborative directing
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Coparenting
Santrock – Chapter 06 #62
63. Of the 905,000 children in the United States who were found to be victims of child abuse in 2002,
__________ were abused by their parent(s).
A. 24%
B. 44%
C. 64%
D. 84%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Types of Child Maltreatment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #63
64. The term “child maltreatment” includes all but which of the following possibilities?
A. physical abuse
B. tough love
C. child neglect
D. sexual abuse
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Types of Child Maltreatment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #64
65. Marella and Ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. They pushed and smacked each other, and
both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Their young son, Juan, witnessed the entire event. Which
of the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation?
A. physical abuse
B. child neglect
C. sexual abuse
D. emotional abuse
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Types of Child Maltreatment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #65
66. __________ is almost always present when other forms of child maltreatment are identified.
A. Physical abuse
B. Child neglect
C. Sexual abuse
D. Emotional abuse
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Types of Child Maltreatment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #66
67. About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.
A. one-quarter
B. one-third
C. one-half
D. two-thirds
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Context of Abuse
Santrock – Chapter 06 #67
68. What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?
A. depression, delinquency, and substance abuse
B. personality disorders and physical health problems
C. a rigid and controlling personality
D. None of these
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Developmental Consequences of Abuse
Santrock – Chapter 06 #68
69. Approximately ____ percent of American children have at least one sibling.
A. 50
B. 60
C. 70
D. 80
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sibling Relationships
Santrock – Chapter 06 #69
70. Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and
the other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors,
which is the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?
A. They will side with the younger son and punish the older son.
B. They will put both boys in time-out.
C. They will do nothing at all.
D. They will side with the older son and punish the younger son.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Sibling Relationships
Santrock – Chapter 06 #70
71. According to Dunn (2007) there are three important aspects to sibling relationships. Which of the
following is not one of those points?
A. the age differences that exist in the relationship
B. the emotional quality of the relationship
C. the familiarity and intimacy of the relationship
D. the variations in sibling relationships
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sibling Relationships
Santrock – Chapter 06 #71
72. In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?
A. Their existence is not confirmed by research.
B. They are most pronounced when there are three or more children in a family.
C.They are a result of birth order itself and not to differences in interpersonal interactions that result
from having multiple children.
D. They are limited in predicting behavior considering the many other influencing factors.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Birth Order
Santrock – Chapter 06 #72
73. Why do more and more researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been
emphasized too strongly?
A. There are no clear patterns of birth-order influences on personality.
B.If we continue to study birth-order influences, our findings will create self-fulfilling prophecies that
will perpetuate birth-order differences.
C. The pattern of birth-order influences that scientists have found makes little sense and is not very
useful.
D.
The overly simplistic model that suggests that birth-order effects are very large ignores the
complexity of influences on a child’s development.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Birth Order
Santrock – Chapter 06 #73
74. Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?
A. Canada
B. Germany
C. United States
D. Sweden
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Changing Family in a Changing Society
Santrock – Chapter 06 #74
75. How does maternal employment outside of the home affect children?
A. Children are not properly socialized for the adult roles they will occupy.
B. Children are not able to develop a secure attachment to their parents.
C. Children tend to perform poorly academically.
D. Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Working Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #75
76. Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?
A. A divorce may improve children’s lives under some circumstances.
B. Divorces inevitably impair children’s ability to adapt to difficulties in their lives.
C. Competent children cannot be raised in single-parent families.
D. Divorce has only minor effects on children.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Children in Divorced Families
Santrock – Chapter 06 #76
77. Which theory of divorce suggests that children can recognize and distinguish between marital conflict
that can be negative for children and that which can be positive for children?
A. emotion security theory
B. divorce schema theory
C. marital conflict valence theory
D. conflict applicability theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Children in Divorced Families
Santrock – Chapter 06 #77
78. With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research?
A. disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later
B. intense conflict immediately after the divorce and intense conflict 2 years later
C. mild disruption after the divorce, with increasing disruption 2 years later
D. mild disruption after the divorce, with mild conflict 2 years later
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Children in Divorced Families
Santrock – Chapter 06 #78
79. Approximately __________ of lesbians are parents.
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gay Male and Lesbian Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #79
80. Approximately __________ of gay men are parents.
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gay Male and Lesbian Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #80
81. Most children of gay or lesbian parents are/were:
A. adopted.
B. born via artificial insemination or surrogate parenting.
C. born in a heterosexual relationship that ended in divorce.
D. foster children.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gay Male and Lesbian Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #81
82. Children who grew up in gay and lesbian families usually self-identify themselves as:
A. homosexual.
B. heterosexual.
C. bisexual.
D. asexual.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gay Male and Lesbian Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #82
83. In general in the United States, African American and Latino family orientations differ from White
family orientations in that:
A. the nuclear family plays a less prominent role in white families.
B. the extended family plays a greater role in African American and Latino families.
C. the emphasis in African American and Latino families is on individual self-reliance.
D. the emphasis in white families is on family attachment and unity.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Ethnicity
Santrock – Chapter 06 #83
84. Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:
A. spank their children.
B. criticize their children.
C. emphasize adherence to authority.
D. emphasize delaying gratification.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Status
Santrock – Chapter 06 #84
85. Social class differences in parenting behaviors have been found in the United States and most Western
cultures. Lower socioeconomic status parents are more likely to __________ than middle-class
parents.
A. ask their children questions
B. use reasoning to accompany their discipline
C. use physical discipline
D. use verbal praise
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Status
Santrock – Chapter 06 #85
86. Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him
some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to
use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:
A. Latino.
B. authoritarian.
C. divorced but coparenting.
D. of a higher socioeconomic status.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Status
Santrock – Chapter 06 #86
87. What does a child get from peers that he or she typically cannot get from siblings?
A. a same-sex friend
B. a chance to share intimate feelings
C. an idea of how the child compares with other children the same age
D. a view of what the world looks like from another person’s perspective
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Peer Relations
Santrock – Chapter 06 #87
88. Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with:
A. her same-aged best friend.
B. her older brother.
C. her tennis instructor.
D. the captain of the tennis team.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Peer Relations
Santrock – Chapter 06 #88
89. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson considered play to be valuable because:
A. it allows children to relieve and master tension and anxiety.
B. it advances the child’s cognitive development.
C. it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D. it allows children to interact with their peers.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Functions of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #89
90. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:
A. it allows children to release tension.
B. it advances the child’s cognitive development.
C. it helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment.
D. it allows children to interact with their peers.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Functions of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #90
91. Which statement best summarizes Daniel Berlyne’s views about children’s play?
A. Play is important for developing motor skills and coordination.
B. Play is important only because it occupies children during times when they are not learning more
important things.
C. Children use play as a way to digest past experiences, to derive meaning from what has happened
to them.
D. Children use play as a way to explore new things and as a way to satisfy their natural curiosity
about the world.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Functions of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #91
92. Tessa is sitting by herself in her 1st grade classroom, and is watching a group of other children playing
together with some jacks. She takes another set of jacks and plays the same way, even though she does
not join the group. Which of the following would Parten say describes Tessa’s play?
A. parallel play
B. solitary play
C. imaginary play
D. practice play
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Partens Classic Study of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #92
93. Which of the following is NOT one of the types of play identified by Mildred Parten?
A. parallel play
B. solitary play
C. practice play
D. unoccupied play
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Partens Classic Study of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #93
94. From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived?
A. Anna Freud
B. Erik Erikson
C. Jean Piaget
D. Mildred Parten
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sensorimotor and Practice Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #94
95. When a 2-year-old pretends to “eat” a book and uses this type of play as a funny way to explore ideas,
this play is referred to as:
A. practice.
B. sensorimotor.
C. constructive.
D. symbolic.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Pretense/Symbolic Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #95
96. Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of:
A. associative play.
B. constructive play.
C. pretense/symbolic play.
D. sensorimotor/practice play.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Pretense/Symbolic Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #96
97. Constructive play:
A. transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
B. combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation.
C. involves children in social interactions with their peers.
D. increases mastery and coordination of skills.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Constructive Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #97
98. Which type of play is most common among 10- to 12-year-olds?
A. constructive play
B. social play
C. symbolic play
D. games
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Games
Santrock – Chapter 06 #98
99. By the time that Jacques graduates from high school, it is likely he will have spent the most time:
A. watching TV.
B. eating meals.
C. in the classroom.
D. with his parents.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Television
Santrock – Chapter 06 #99
100. Overall, the effects of television on children’s development are:
A. almost all negative.
B. almost all positive.
C. some positive, some negative.
D. not measurable enough to be significant.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Television
Santrock – Chapter 06 #100
101. Steur, Applefield, and Smith (1971) randomly assigned children to two groups. One group watched
cartoons containing violence, and the other group watched cartoons with the violence removed.
During a free-play session, the children who watched the cartoons containing violence showed more
aggression than children who watched the nonviolent cartoons. Which conclusion can be drawn from
this study?
A. We can say that TV is the only factor that causes aggression.
B. We cannot say that violent TV caused the increased aggression, because this was a correlational
study.
C. We cannot say what caused the aggression, since aggression is caused by so many other factors.
D. We can say that the violent TV caused the increased aggression if all other factors in the groups
were equal.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Television
Santrock – Chapter 06 #101
102. Children’s shows like Sesame Streetare:
A. good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children.
B. good at direct teaching but not good at indirect teaching.
C. good at indirect teaching but not good at direct teaching.
D. more effective as entertainment than as instruction.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Effects of Television on Childrens Prosocial Behavior
Santrock – Chapter 06 #102
103. This theorist stated that the psychological stage of childhood was “initiative versus guilt.”
Erik Erikson
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Initiative Versus Guilt
Santrock – Chapter 06 #103
104. This theorist suggested that children internalize their standards of right and wrong in order to reduce
anxiety and avoid punishment.
Sigmund Freud
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Feelings
Santrock – Chapter 06 #104
105. This theorist proposed that parenting behavior can best understood when both parent control/discipline
and parent acceptance/responsiveness are taken into account.
Diana Baumrind
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #105
106. This theorist proposed an elaborate classification system that divided children’s play activities into six
different categories.
Mildred Parten
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Partens Classic Study of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #106
107. In early childhood, children develop this aspect of the representation of self. This includes the
substance and content of self-conceptions and provides the rational underpinnings for personal
identity.
self-understanding
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Self-Understanding and Understanding Others
Santrock – Chapter 06 #107
108. Parents who monitor their children’s emotions, view their children’s negative emotions as
opportunities for teaching, and assist their children in labeling their emotions.
emotion-coaching parents
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Emotion-Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #108
109. Parents who deny, ignore, or try to change the negative emotions of their children.
emotion-dismissing parents
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Emotion-Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents
Santrock – Chapter 06 #109
110. The development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what
people should do in interactions with other people.
moral development
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Development
Santrock – Chapter 06 #110
111. The ability to discern the emotional states of others.
perspective taking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Feelings
Santrock – Chapter 06 #111
112. According to Jean Piaget, this is the first stage of moral development. Children think of justice and
rules as unchangeable properties of the world.
heteronomous morality
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #112
113. According to Jean Piaget, this is the second stage of moral development. Children become aware that
rules and laws are created by people and that intentions are a part of determining the morality of an
action.
autonomous morality
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #113
114. The belief that when a rule is broken, punishment is sure to follow.
immanent justice
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Moral Reasoning
Santrock – Chapter 06 #114
115. The social and psychological dimensions of being male or female.
gender
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #115
116. The sense of being male or female, which is usually acquired by 3 years of age.
gender identity
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #116
117. The sets of expectations that dictate how females or males should think, act, or feel in a particular
culture.
gender roles
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #117
118. This theory states that gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurture are a result of the social
hierarchy where women have less power than men.
social role theory (of gender)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Social Theories of Gender
Santrock – Chapter 06 #118
119. A way of speaking, most often used by girls with their friends where individuals talk to one another in
a reciprocal manner.
collaborative discourse
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Peer Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #119
120. This theory states that children gradually develop cognitive structures about gender-appropriate and
gender-inappropriate activities and behaviors in their culture. Children are then internally motivated to
perceive the world and act in accordance with these cognitive structures.
gender schema theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cognitive Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #120
121. A cognitive structure that consists of a network of associations that guides and organizes an
individual’s perceptions.
schema
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cognitive Influences
Santrock – Chapter 06 #121
122. A kind of parenting style that is restrictive and punitive. The parents place firm limits and controls on
their children and allow little verbal exchange.
authoritarian
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #122
123. A kind of parenting style that encourages children to be independent, but still places limits and
controls on child behavior. The parents allow verbal give-and-take and are nurturing toward their
children.
authoritative
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #123
124. A kind of parenting style in which parents are warm, nurturing, and involved with their children. The
parents, however, place few demands or controls on their children.
indulgent
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #124
125. A kind of parenting style in which parents are uninvolved in their children’s life. They are neither
warm nor controlling.
neglectful
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Santrock – Chapter 06 #125
126. A parenting technique for handling misbehavior in children. It is characterized by removing the child
from a setting that offers positive reinforcement.
time out
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Punishment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #126
127. The support that parents provide one another in jointly raising a child.
coparenting
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Coparenting
Santrock – Chapter 06 #127
128. A type of child maltreatment that is characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of
such things as spanking, punching, and shaking a child.
physical abuse
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Types of Child Maltreatment
Santrock – Chapter 06 #128
129. A theory that suggests that children can distinguish between positive marital conflict and negative
marital conflict.
emotion security theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Children in Divorced Families
Santrock – Chapter 06 #129
130. A type of therapy that uses games and toys to allow children to work off frustrations and give the
therapist a way to analyze the child’s conflicts.
play therapy
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Functions of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #130
131. A kind of play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical
or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports.
practice play
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Functions of Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #131
132. A kind of play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
pretense play or symbolic play
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Pretense/Symbolic Play
Santrock – Chapter 06 #132

 

7
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. On average, children grow _______ inches per year during middle and late childhood.
A. 1 to 2
B. 2 to 3
C. 5 to 7
D. 7 to 10
2. On average, children gain ______ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
A. 1 to 2
B. 2 to 3
C. 5 to 7
D. 7 to 10
3. During elementary school years, most children double their:
A. height.
B. weight.
C. muscle-to-fat ratio.
D. strength capabilities.
4. Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is likely a result of:
A. increased myelination of the central nervous system.
B. the proliferation of neuron circuits in the brain.
C. an increase in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
D. a simultaneous process in which axons in the brain die off, while dendrites in the brain grow and
branch out.
5. Seven-year-old Milaka can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something she
could not do well at age 5. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
A. practice
B. increased myelination in the central nervous system
C. increased bone ossification
D. increased muscle development
6. Which of the following is most fatiguing to an elementary school child?
A. playing basketball
B. running track
C. climbing on the monkey bars
D. long periods of sitting
7. What is the percentage of children who were involved in daily physical education programs in the United
States in 1999?
A. 20
B. 40
C. 60
D. 80
8. Although many think that television is uniquely responsible for the deficit in exercise that children are
getting in the United States, your authors point out that increased __________ is also contributing to this
problem.
A. cell phone use
B. availability of shopping malls
C. options for fast-food dining
D. computer usage
9. One research study found that ____ minutes of moderate and ____ minutes of vigorous physical activity
per day can significantly help reduce the risk of a child becoming overweight.
A. 10; 30
B. 45; 15
C. 30: 30
D. 30; 10
10. Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important
cognitive activity in children?
A. attention
B. seriation
C. planning
D. short-term memory
11. Which of the following children is statistically the most likely to be overweight?
A. Jaden, an 8-year-old Caucasian boy
B. Leslie, a 10-year-old Asian-American girl
C. Lester, a 11-year-old African-American boy
D. Anna, a 12-year-old Latina girl.
12. What is the second most common cause of death for the child in middle childhood?
A. motor vehicle accident
B. drowning
C. disease
D. cancer
13. Cancer is the _______ leading cause of death in children.
A. first
B. second
C. fourth
D. sixth
14. Which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?
A. leukemia
B. lung
C. pancreas
D. colon
15. Eight-year-old Joshua is obese. His excess weight puts him at risk for all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. hip problems.
B. high blood pressure.
C. sleep apnea.
D. anemia.
16. Compared to girls, boys are __________ times more likely to be classified as having a learning
disability.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
17. What does the research indicate about gender differences in learning disabilities?
A. Boys are more likely to have a learning disability.
B. Girls are more likely to have a learning disability.
C. There are no significant gender differences in learning disabilities.
D. Although boys are referred more often for treatment, girls have higher rates of learning disabilities.
18. About __________ of all school-age children in the United States receive special education or related
services.
A. 1%
B. 10%
C. 25%
D. 30%
19. The most common problem that characterizes children with learning disabilities is the inability to:
A. pay attention.
B. do arithmetic.
C. read easily.
D. correctly pronounce words.
20. Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he
is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder
might Tavonte be suffering with?
A. dyscalculia
B. dysgraphia
C. dyslexia
D. disorder of executive functioning
21. _______ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
A. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. Phonological disorder
C. Dyslexia
D. Articulation disorder
22. A dimension that distinguishes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from learning disability
is:
A. activity level.
B. success in school.
C. emotional maturity.
D. level of intelligence.
23. Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD
until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part
of the brain is referred to in these studies?
A. the lateral geniculate nucleus of the hypothalamus
B. the prefrontal cortex
C. the corpus callosum
D. the cerebral cortex
24. Recent trends suggest that the number of children diagnosed and treated for attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) has:
A. slightly increased.
B. substantially increased.
C. slightly decreased.
D. substantially decreased.
25. What does the research indicate about gender differences in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)?
A. Boys are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
B. Girls are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
C. There are no significant gender differences in the occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD).
D
.
Girls are more likely to be diagnosed as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while
boys are more likely to be referred for treatment due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
26. Currently, researchers are considering all of the following as possible causes of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), EXCEPT:
A. unusual activity of various neurotransmitters in the brain.
B. heredity.
C. child abuse.
D. prenatal and postnatal abnormalities.
27. Kang has been diagnosed with ADHD, and Kang recently started a common form of drug therapy. Kang
is probably receiving a _____.
A. barbiturate
B. benzodiazepine
C. stimulant
D. depressant
28. Recent research suggests that __________ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A. medication
B. behavior management
C. a combination of medication and behavior management
D. a combination of medication, behavior management, and the Feingold diet
29. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142) requires:
A. mainstreaming of all students with disabilities.
B. special classes for all students with disabilities.
C. a free and appropriate education for all children.
D. the same daily activities for students with and without disabilities.
30. Children who are diagnosed with __________ have deficits in social relationships; abnormalities in
communication; and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
A. Asperger syndrome
B. Autistic disorder
C. childhood disintegrative disorder
D. pica
31. Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in
repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and
watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington,
D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
A. autistic disorder
B. Rhett’s disorder
C. ADHD
D. Asperger syndrome
32. The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities
receive:
A. an individualized education plan (IEP).
B. an exclusive learning environment.
C. specially trained educators.
D. free continuing education.
33. Jacob is a third-grader with a disability that had caused him to be separated from his peers during the
school day. Just recently, Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. What is this change
called?
A. transforming
B. transitioning
C. incorporation
D. inclusion
34. Jean Piaget believed that children below the age of _______ years do not have concrete operational
thought.
A. 3
B. 5
C. 7
D. 9
35. A second-grader is in what stage of cognitive development?
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational thought
C. concrete operations
D. formal operations
36. Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his little brother, Craig. He starts to cut it into eight pieces, but
his brother says, “Don’t cut it into so many pieces; I can’t eat that many.” Jack laughs but obeys. Craig’s
reactions characterize _______ thought, and Jack’s reactions characterize _______ thought.
A. sensorimotor; preoperational
B. preoperational; concrete operational
C. symbolic; intuitive
D. concrete operational; formal operational
37. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the following is
NOT one of those areas?
A. Several concrete operational concepts do not appear in synchrony.
B. Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought.
C. Children who are at one cognitive stage can be trained to reason at a higher cognitive stage.
D. Culture and education exert less influence on children’s development than Piaget believed.
38. Sadie has a learning disability and has been placed in a classroom where she is educated in the least
restrictive environment possible. This means that Sadie:
A. is given great freedom and few rules.
B. is placed in as regular a classroom as possible.
C. has significant input into developing her educational goals.
D. spends part of her time in a regular classroom and part of her time in a special education classroom.
39. Two identical glasses are filled to the same level with juice. A child then watches as the juice from one
glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass. A child who is capable of concrete operational thought might
say:
A. “The tall one has more juice—see how much taller it is?”
B. “The tall one has more juice—they just look like they are the same.”
C. “It’s still the same amount of juice—you can tell by just pouring it back.”
D. “It’s still the same amount of juice—you can tell by how tall this one is.”
40. A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin
shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in
the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, the child most likely is in which
stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory?
A. sensorimotor stage
B. preoperational stage
C. formal operational stage
D. concrete operational stage
41. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?
A. the ability to reverse actions mentally
B. transitivity
C. classification skills
D. the ability to think abstractly
42. To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to
use the skill of:
A. seriation.
B. centration.
C. classification.
D. mental reversibility.
43. Mimi looks at her mother and says, “Grandma can’t be your mother, because she is my grandmother.”
Mimi does not yet understand:
A. classification.
B. reversibility.
C. c, conservation.
D. mental representation.
44. Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is because
Julio understands:
A. seriation.
B. centration.
C. classification.
D. transitivity.
45. Luis is able to organize coins in a row from the largest in size (the silver half dollar) to the smallest (a
dime). His newfound ability is called:
A. centration.
B. seriation.
C. reversibility.
D. classification.
46. The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and
learning. What other view is this?
A. information-processing approach to cognition
B. individual differences study of intelligence
C. behaviorist concepts of learning
D. Vygotsky’s ideas about the importance of culture and context
47. _______ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _______ develop(s) more rapidly during
middle and late childhood.
A. Long-term memory; short-term memory
B. Short-term memory; long-term memory
C. Control processes; learner characteristics
D. Learner characteristics; control processes
48. Compared with novices, experts have:
A. better overall memory.
B. better memory for their area of expertise.
C. no better memory but more experiences.
D. higher levels of motivation.
49. In a famous study, Chi (1978) found that 10-year-old children who knew a lot about chess remembered
chessboard positions better than adults who did not play much chess. Evidently, these 10-year-old chess
experts could do this because they:
A. had more prior knowledge about chess than the adults.
B. had better long-term memory processes than the adults.
C. were highly motivated to show that they could beat the adults.
D. had a longer duration of short-term memory than the adults.
50. To remember that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, Greg thinks about a cupcake (because Dolly
Madison is a cupcake company) with a slice of cheese on top (because Wisconsin is the cheese state).
This is an example of using _______ to improve memory.
A. rehearsal
B. organization
C. mental imagery
D. a fuzzy trace
51. __________ consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
A. Operations
B. Schemas
C. Concepts
D. Strategies
52. Which of the following is a strategy that helps us remember information by making it more personally
meaningful?
A. Visualizing
B. Elaboration
C. Rehearsing
D. Chunking
53. The fuzzy trace theory of memory suggests that two types of representations are responsible for memory.
What are they?
A. Verbatim memory trace and gist
B. Visualization and elaboration
C. Semantics and pragmatics
D. Operation and strategies
54. The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to
problems is called:
A. spontaneity.
B. congruency.
C. elasticity.
D. creativity.
55. Questions on intelligence tests often measure _______ thinking.
A. convergent
B. creative
C. divergent
D. analytical
56. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
A. divergent thinking.
B. convergent thinking.
C. expressive thinking.
D. multiple thinking.
57. Knowing about knowing is referred to as:
A. metamemory.
B. first-order cognition.
C. metacognition.
D. megacognition.
58. According to the text, the concept of intelligence can be defined as:
A. problem-solving skills.
B. adapting to experiences.
C. learning from experiences.
D. all of these in combination.
59. The term “individual differences” in the text discussion of intelligence refers to:
A. differences between individuals that change over time.
B. the relative strengths and weaknesses within an individual.
C. day-to-day changes in an individual’s knowledge and skills.
D. differences among individuals that are stable over time.
60. In contrast to the study of information processing, the study of intelligence is more likely to involve the
concept of:
A. language.
B. individual differences.
C. problem-solving skills.
D. cognitive processes.
61. Sally’s mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally’s IQ is:
A. 75.
B. 100.
C. 108.
D. 133.
62. If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in
the overall population?
A. more people of high intelligence than of low intelligence
B. more people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
C. more people of high intelligence than of moderate or low intelligence
D. more people of low intelligence than of moderate or high intelligence
63. Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 12.8 and her
chronological age is 11.0. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
A. Her IQ score is 86.
B. Her IQ score is about average.
C. Her IQ score is below the majority of the population.
D. Her IQ score is above the majority of the population.
64. When compared to the Binet intelligence test, the Wechsler test offers the advantage of:
A. an overall IQ score.
B. both verbal and nonverbal scores.
C. scores in four different content areas.
D. being suitable for testing both children and adults.
65. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence includes all but which of the following?
A. creative intelligence.
B. practical intelligence.
C. analytical intelligence.
D. verbal intelligence.
66. Students who are high on Robert J. Sternberg’s ________ intelligence tend to be favored in conventional
schooling.
A. practical.
B. naturalistic.
C. analytical.
D. creative.
67. Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, can use ideas, implement them, and
put them into practice. According to Sternberg, he has _______ intelligence.
A. spatial
B. practical
C. analytical
D. interpersonal
68. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea
that:
A. intelligence is a general ability.
B. there are three types of intelligence.
C. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
D. there are separate information-processing components of intelligence.
69. Howard Gardner has developed _______ types of intelligence.
A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 11
70. Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner’s theories of intelligence are alike in that both:
A. emphasize the ability to adapt to novel situations.
B. hypothesize several different types of intelligence.
C. hypothesize a single-factor theory of intelligence.
D. stress the ability to quickly identify and remember patterns.
71. Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to
Gardner, Colin has _______ skills.
A. spatial
B. intrapersonal
C. bodily-kinesthetic
D. interpersonal
72. Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
A. an accountant
B. a theologian
C. a botanist
D. an architect
73. All of the following are types of intelligence according to Howard Gardner, EXCEPT:
A. naturalist skills.
B. musical skills.
C. artistic skills.
D. verbal skills.
74. What is the best way to determine the relative influence of genetics in the development of a person’s
intelligence?
A. examining identical and fraternal twins
B. examining parents and their children
C. doing genetic testing on fetuses
D. studying those who have exceptional or deficient IQs
75. What is the best explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?
A. environment
B. prejudice
C. racism
D. unfair scoring
76. Which researcher is responsible for identifying the trend that intelligence scores are slowly increasing
worldwide over time?
A. Mary Ainsworth
B. James Flynn
C. John Bowlby
D. Jonathan Richard
77. Early intervention programs designed to help provide an intellectually stimulating environment for
children have been found to be most effective for:
A. poor children and those whose parents have little education.
B. Caucasian children.
C. girls.
D. children from high socioeconomic backgrounds.
78. Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
A. test predominantly nonverbal skills.
B. reflect the common values of all test takers.
C. reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
D. use only standardized test items familiar to all test takers.
79. Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
A. Yes. It requires including only nonverbal items on the test.
B. Yes. It requires adapting the test language to fit the test-taker’s culture.
C. No. There are too many different levels of intelligence to assess them all.
D. No. There are too many different variations in test-takers’ cultures to address them all.
80. Paul has an IQ of 68. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many
friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According
to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:
A. organically retarded.
B. mildly retarded.
C. moderately retarded.
D. severely retarded.
81. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 are classified as _______ mentally retarded.
A. mildly
B. moderately
C. severely
D. profoundly
82. What percentage of Americans with mental retardation is considered moderately retarded?
A. about 89%
B. about 6%
C. about 3.5%
D. less than 1%
83. Fewer than 1% of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:
A. mildly retarded.
B. moderately retarded.
C. severely retarded.
D. profoundly retarded.
84. Cultural-familial retardation normally results in:
A. mild to moderate retardation.
B. moderate to severe retardation.
C. severe to profound retardation.
D. evidence of moderate damage to brain tissues.
85. Organic retardation is caused by:
A. physical damage to brain tissues.
B. being raised by poorly educated parents.
C. an impoverished intellectual environment.
D. traumatic experiences in early childhood.
86. Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?
A. Protect your children from exposure to lead.
B. Give your children an enriched environment.
C. Make children’s nutrition your number one priority.
D. Do not conceive any children after the age of 40.
87. Children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something are called:
A. gifted.
B. creative.
C. mastery oriented.
D. intrinsically motivated.
88. A gifted child has an IQ of _______ or higher.
A. 110
B. 120
C. 130
D. 140
89. Studies have shown that most people who are academically gifted or who have a superior talent in some
area tend to:
A. be more mature and have fewer emotional problems than the average person.
B. be more mature than average people, but they have more emotional problems.
C. also have some type of emotional disturbance like moodiness or an antisocial tendency.
D. also have some type of mild-to-moderate mental disorder like depression or psychosis.
90. Lewis Terman’s (1925) study of approximately 1,500 children with high IQs shows that:
A. IQ is too variable to be a reliable predictor of success.
B. high IQ in childhood does not predict academic success in adolescence and adulthood.
C. high IQ in childhood is a good predictor of success in adulthood.
D. high IQ in childhood predicts academic success from kindergarten through grade 12 only.
91. The _______ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language
learning.
A. assisted-language
B. remedial-language
C. complex-language
D. whole-language
92. Carmenita is teaching her son to read by sounding out words in storybooks she reads to him. What
approach is she using?
A. whole-language
B. phonics
C. balanced instruction
D. sound-it-out
93. Cecilia begins teaching children to read by having them learn to make sounds that go with each letter of
the alphabet. Cecilia appears to be taking an approach called the _______ approach.
A. whole-language
B. phonics
C. information-processing
D. analytic
94. Research comparing the whole-language and phonics approaches to language has shown that:
A. the whole-language approach produces superior word recognition.
B. the phonics approach helps children to sound out words better.
C. children can benefit from both, but phonics instruction needs emphasis.
D. the approaches are equally successful if teachers follow one or the other.
95. Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
A. bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency.
B. learning one’s native language interferes with learning a second language.
C. bilingualism is associated with various cognitive deficits.
D. bilingualism leads to poorer social adjustment.
96. Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
A. Ron’s first language is English, and now he is taking a Spanish course in middle school.
B
.
Maria’s first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her classes
until Maria can learn more English.
C
.
Lynn’s first language is English, and one of her teachers is speaking in Spanish sometimes during class
so the children can learn a little Spanish.
D
.
Anibal’s first language is Spanish, so he is taking a Spanish literature class taught in Spanish that
follows his regular classes that are taught in English.
97. Experts suggest that it takes approximately ______ years for an immigrant child to learn to speak English
proficiently, and approximately ____ years for that same child to learn to read English proficiently.
A. 2; 4
B. 3; 5
C. 2 to 4; 6
D. 3 to 5; 7
98. This theorist suggested that the cognitive skill that emerges in middle childhood is the ability to think/
reason with logic.
99. This theorist argued that convergent thinking and divergent thinking were two qualitatively different
ways of thinking.
100.The psychologist who was the first to develop a standardized intelligence test in the early 1900s.
101.This theorist proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence.
102.This theorist suggested that there were 8 types of intelligences (frames of mind).
103.A category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
104.A category of disability in which children display inattention and impulsivity, and may or may not have
high levels of physical activity.
105.Legislation passed in 1975 requiring that all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public
education.
106.A written statement that spells out a program tailored to a child with a disability.
107.The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to
settings of children who do not have disabilities.
108.Educating a child with special needs in a regular classroom on a full-time basis.
109.The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.
110.The ability to combine relations logically to understand certain conclusions.
111.Deliberate mental activities designed to improve the processing of information.
112.A kind of thinking that is characterized by reflection, productivity, and evaluation of evidence.
113.The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
114.A king of thinking which produces one correct answer or solution to a problem.
115.A kind of thinking which produces many different answers to the same questions.
116.Knowing about knowing.
117.Problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences.
118.A person’s mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100.
119.Tests of intelligence that are intended to be free of cultural biases.
120.A kind of mental retardation that is caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage.
121.Retardation that is characterized by no evidence of organic brain damage, but the individual’s IQ is
between 50 and 70.
122.Having above-average intelligence (IQ 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.
123.A way of teaching children how to read that is based on the idea that instruction should parallel children’s
natural language learning.
124.A way of teaching children how to read that emphasizes phonics and the basic rules for translating written
symbols into sounds.
125.The author of your text proposed several strategies to try to get children
to exercise more. List at least two ways to get children to exercise
more.
126.List at least three of the negative consequences of obesity in
children.
127.List the three types of learning disabilities identified in your
textbook.
128.List three mental abilities associated with concrete
operations.
129.List and define/describe the three forms of intelligence identified by Robert J.
Sternberg.
130.List Gardner’s eight types of
Intelligence.
131.What is dyslexia?
132.Discuss what IDEA does.
133.How is IQ measured?
134.What are culture-fair IQ tests?
135.What is giftedness? Name three characteristics of the gifted child.
136.Describe two approaches to teaching children how to read.
7 Key
1. On average, children grow _______ inches per year during middle and late childhood.
A. 1 to 2
B. 2 to 3
C. 5 to 7
D. 7 to 10
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Body Growth and Change
Santrock – Chapter 07 #1
2. On average, children gain ______ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
A. 1 to 2
B. 2 to 3
C. 5 to 7
D. 7 to 10
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Body Growth and Change
Santrock – Chapter 07 #2
3. During elementary school years, most children double their:
A. height.
B. weight.
C. muscle-to-fat ratio.
D. strength capabilities.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Body Growth and Change
Santrock – Chapter 07 #3
4. Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is likely a result of:
A. increased myelination of the central nervous system.
B. the proliferation of neuron circuits in the brain.
C. an increase in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
D. a simultaneous process in which axons in the brain die off, while dendrites in the brain grow and
branch out.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Brain
Santrock – Chapter 07 #4
5. Seven-year-old Milaka can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something
she could not do well at age 5. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
A. practice
B. increased myelination in the central nervous system
C. increased bone ossification
D. increased muscle development
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Brain
Santrock – Chapter 07 #5
6. Which of the following is most fatiguing to an elementary school child?
A. playing basketball
B. running track
C. climbing on the monkey bars
D. long periods of sitting
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Exercise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #6
7. What is the percentage of children who were involved in daily physical education programs in the
United States in 1999?
A. 20
B. 40
C. 60
D. 80
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Exercise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #7
8. Although many think that television is uniquely responsible for the deficit in exercise that children are
getting in the United States, your authors point out that increased __________ is also contributing to
this problem.
A. cell phone use
B. availability of shopping malls
C. options for fast-food dining
D. computer usage
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Exercise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #8
9. One research study found that ____ minutes of moderate and ____ minutes of vigorous physical
activity per day can significantly help reduce the risk of a child becoming overweight.
A. 10; 30
B. 45; 15
C. 30: 30
D. 30; 10
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Exercise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #9
10. Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important
cognitive activity in children?
A. attention
B. seriation
C. planning
D. short-term memory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Exercise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #10
11. Which of the following children is statistically the most likely to be overweight?
A. Jaden, an 8-year-old Caucasian boy
B. Leslie, a 10-year-old Asian-American girl
C. Lester, a 11-year-old African-American boy
D. Anna, a 12-year-old Latina girl.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Overweight Children
Santrock – Chapter 07 #11
12. What is the second most common cause of death for the child in middle childhood?
A. motor vehicle accident
B. drowning
C. disease
D. cancer
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Overweight Children
Santrock – Chapter 07 #12
13. Cancer is the _______ leading cause of death in children.
A. first
B. second
C. fourth
D. sixth
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cancer
Santrock – Chapter 07 #13
14. Which of the following types of cancer is the most prevalent in children?
A. leukemia
B. lung
C. pancreas
D. colon
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cancer
Santrock – Chapter 07 #14
15. Eight-year-old Joshua is obese. His excess weight puts him at risk for all of the following,
EXCEPT:
A. hip problems.
B. high blood pressure.
C. sleep apnea.
D. anemia.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Cancer
Santrock – Chapter 07 #15
16. Compared to girls, boys are __________ times more likely to be classified as having a learning
disability.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Scope of Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #16
17. What does the research indicate about gender differences in learning disabilities?
A. Boys are more likely to have a learning disability.
B. Girls are more likely to have a learning disability.
C. There are no significant gender differences in learning disabilities.
D. Although boys are referred more often for treatment, girls have higher rates of learning disabilities.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #17
18. About __________ of all school-age children in the United States receive special education or related
services.
A. 1%
B. 10%
C. 25%
D. 30%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #18
19. The most common problem that characterizes children with learning disabilities is the inability to:
A. pay attention.
B. do arithmetic.
C. read easily.
D. correctly pronounce words.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #19
20. Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried,
he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning
disorder might Tavonte be suffering with?
A. dyscalculia
B. dysgraphia
C. dyslexia
D. disorder of executive functioning
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #20
21. _______ is characterized by severe impairments in reading and spelling ability.
A. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. Phonological disorder
C. Dyslexia
D. Articulation disorder
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #21
22. A dimension that distinguishes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from learning
disability is:
A. activity level.
B. success in school.
C. emotional maturity.
D. level of intelligence.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #22
23. Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with
ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7.
Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies?
A. the lateral geniculate nucleus of the hypothalamus
B. the prefrontal cortex
C. the corpus callosum
D. the cerebral cortex
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #23
24. Recent trends suggest that the number of children diagnosed and treated for attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has:
A. slightly increased.
B. substantially increased.
C. slightly decreased.
D. substantially decreased.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #24
25. What does the research indicate about gender differences in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)?
A. Boys are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
B. Girls are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
C. There are no significant gender differences in the occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD).
D.
Girls are more likely to be diagnosed as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
while boys are more likely to be referred for treatment due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD).
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #25
26. Currently, researchers are considering all of the following as possible causes of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), EXCEPT:
A. unusual activity of various neurotransmitters in the brain.
B. heredity.
C. child abuse.
D. prenatal and postnatal abnormalities.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #26
27. Kang has been diagnosed with ADHD, and Kang recently started a common form of drug therapy.
Kang is probably receiving a _____.
A. barbiturate
B. benzodiazepine
C. stimulant
D. depressant
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #27
28. Recent research suggests that __________ is the most effective treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A. medication
B. behavior management
C. a combination of medication and behavior management
D. a combination of medication, behavior management, and the Feingold diet
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #28
29. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142) requires:
A. mainstreaming of all students with disabilities.
B. special classes for all students with disabilities.
C. a free and appropriate education for all children.
D. the same daily activities for students with and without disabilities.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #29
30. Children who are diagnosed with __________ have deficits in social relationships; abnormalities in
communication; and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
A. Asperger syndrome
B. Autistic disorder
C. childhood disintegrative disorder
D. pica
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Santrock – Chapter 07 #30
31. Quentin has been diagnosed with a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder. He often engages in
repetitive routines, and he is preoccupied with airplanes. He studies them constantly, reads books and
watches documentaries, and makes his father take him to the Air and Space Museum in Washington,
D.C., every summer. Quentin might be most aptly diagnosed with:
A. autistic disorder
B. Rhett’s disorder
C. ADHD
D. Asperger syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Santrock – Chapter 07 #31
32. The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that students with disabilities
receive:
A. an individualized education plan (IEP).
B. an exclusive learning environment.
C. specially trained educators.
D. free continuing education.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #32
33. Jacob is a third-grader with a disability that had caused him to be separated from his peers during the
school day. Just recently, Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. What is this
change called?
A. transforming
B. transitioning
C. incorporation
D. inclusion
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #33
34. Jean Piaget believed that children below the age of _______ years do not have concrete operational
thought.
A. 3
B. 5
C. 7
D. 9
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #34
35. A second-grader is in what stage of cognitive development?
A. sensorimotor
B. preoperational thought
C. concrete operations
D. formal operations
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #35
36. Jack is cutting up a pizza for himself and his little brother, Craig. He starts to cut it into eight
pieces, but his brother says, “Don’t cut it into so many pieces; I can’t eat that many.” Jack laughs but
obeys. Craig’s reactions characterize _______ thought, and Jack’s reactions characterize _______
thought.
A. sensorimotor; preoperational
B. preoperational; concrete operational
C. symbolic; intuitive
D. concrete operational; formal operational
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #36
37. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the
following is NOT one of those areas?
A. Several concrete operational concepts do not appear in synchrony.
B. Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought.
C. Children who are at one cognitive stage can be trained to reason at a higher cognitive stage.
D. Culture and education exert less influence on children’s development than Piaget believed.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Evaluating Piagets Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #37
38. Sadie has a learning disability and has been placed in a classroom where she is educated in the least
restrictive environment possible. This means that Sadie:
A. is given great freedom and few rules.
B. is placed in as regular a classroom as possible.
C. has significant input into developing her educational goals.
D. spends part of her time in a regular classroom and part of her time in a special education classroom.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #38
39. Two identical glasses are filled to the same level with juice. A child then watches as the juice from
one glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass. A child who is capable of concrete operational thought
might say:
A. “The tall one has more juice—see how much taller it is?”
B. “The tall one has more juice—they just look like they are the same.”
C. “It’s still the same amount of juice—you can tell by just pouring it back.”
D. “It’s still the same amount of juice—you can tell by how tall this one is.”
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #39
40. A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin
shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or
in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, the child most likely is in
which stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory?
A. sensorimotor stage
B. preoperational stage
C. formal operational stage
D. concrete operational stage
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #40
41. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?
A. the ability to reverse actions mentally
B. transitivity
C. classification skills
D. the ability to think abstractly
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #41
42. To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able
to use the skill of:
A. seriation.
B. centration.
C. classification.
D. mental reversibility.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #42
43. Mimi looks at her mother and says, “Grandma can’t be your mother, because she is my grandmother.”
Mimi does not yet understand:
A. classification.
B. reversibility.
C. c, conservation.
D. mental representation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #43
44. Julio understands that although he is older than his brother, he is younger than his sister. This is
because Julio understands:
A. seriation.
B. centration.
C. classification.
D. transitivity.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #44
45. Luis is able to organize coins in a row from the largest in size (the silver half dollar) to the smallest (a
dime). His newfound ability is called:
A. centration.
B. seriation.
C. reversibility.
D. classification.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #45
46. The neo-Piagetians seem to incorporate ideas from another view about cognitive development and
learning. What other view is this?
A. information-processing approach to cognition
B. individual differences study of intelligence
C. behaviorist concepts of learning
D. Vygotsky’s ideas about the importance of culture and context
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Evaluating Piagets Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #46
47. _______ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _______ develop(s) more rapidly during
middle and late childhood.
A. Long-term memory; short-term memory
B. Short-term memory; long-term memory
C. Control processes; learner characteristics
D. Learner characteristics; control processes
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Memory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #47
48. Compared with novices, experts have:
A. better overall memory.
B. better memory for their area of expertise.
C. no better memory but more experiences.
D. higher levels of motivation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Knowledge and Expertise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #48
49. In a famous study, Chi (1978) found that 10-year-old children who knew a lot about chess
remembered chessboard positions better than adults who did not play much chess. Evidently, these 10-
year-old chess experts could do this because they:
A. had more prior knowledge about chess than the adults.
B. had better long-term memory processes than the adults.
C. were highly motivated to show that they could beat the adults.
D. had a longer duration of short-term memory than the adults.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Knowledge and Expertise
Santrock – Chapter 07 #49
50. To remember that Madison is the capital of Wisconsin, Greg thinks about a cupcake (because Dolly
Madison is a cupcake company) with a slice of cheese on top (because Wisconsin is the cheese state).
This is an example of using _______ to improve memory.
A. rehearsal
B. organization
C. mental imagery
D. a fuzzy trace
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Strategies
Santrock – Chapter 07 #50
51. __________ consist of deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
A. Operations
B. Schemas
C. Concepts
D. Strategies
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Strategies
Santrock – Chapter 07 #51
52. Which of the following is a strategy that helps us remember information by making it more personally
meaningful?
A. Visualizing
B. Elaboration
C. Rehearsing
D. Chunking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Strategies
Santrock – Chapter 07 #52
53. The fuzzy trace theory of memory suggests that two types of representations are responsible for
memory. What are they?
A. Verbatim memory trace and gist
B. Visualization and elaboration
C. Semantics and pragmatics
D. Operation and strategies
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Fuzzy Trace Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #53
54. The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions
to problems is called:
A. spontaneity.
B. congruency.
C. elasticity.
D. creativity.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #54
55. Questions on intelligence tests often measure _______ thinking.
A. convergent
B. creative
C. divergent
D. analytical
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #55
56. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
A. divergent thinking.
B. convergent thinking.
C. expressive thinking.
D. multiple thinking.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #56
57. Knowing about knowing is referred to as:
A. metamemory.
B. first-order cognition.
C. metacognition.
D. megacognition.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Metacognition
Santrock – Chapter 07 #57
58. According to the text, the concept of intelligence can be defined as:
A. problem-solving skills.
B. adapting to experiences.
C. learning from experiences.
D. all of these in combination.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #58
59. The term “individual differences” in the text discussion of intelligence refers to:
A. differences between individuals that change over time.
B. the relative strengths and weaknesses within an individual.
C. day-to-day changes in an individual’s knowledge and skills.
D. differences among individuals that are stable over time.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #59
60. In contrast to the study of information processing, the study of intelligence is more likely to involve
the concept of:
A. language.
B. individual differences.
C. problem-solving skills.
D. cognitive processes.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #60
61. Sally’s mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally’s IQ is:
A. 75.
B. 100.
C. 108.
D. 133.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Binet Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #61
62. If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find
in the overall population?
A. more people of high intelligence than of low intelligence
B. more people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
C. more people of high intelligence than of moderate or low intelligence
D. more people of low intelligence than of moderate or high intelligence
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Binet Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #62
63. Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 12.8 and her
chronological age is 11.0. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
A. Her IQ score is 86.
B. Her IQ score is about average.
C. Her IQ score is below the majority of the population.
D. Her IQ score is above the majority of the population.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Binet Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #63
64. When compared to the Binet intelligence test, the Wechsler test offers the advantage of:
A. an overall IQ score.
B. both verbal and nonverbal scores.
C. scores in four different content areas.
D. being suitable for testing both children and adults.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Wechsler Scales
Santrock – Chapter 07 #64
65. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence includes all but which of the following?
A. creative intelligence.
B. practical intelligence.
C. analytical intelligence.
D. verbal intelligence.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #65
66. Students who are high on Robert J. Sternberg’s ________ intelligence tend to be favored in
conventional schooling.
A. practical.
B. naturalistic.
C. analytical.
D. creative.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #66
67. Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, can use ideas, implement them,
and put them into practice. According to Sternberg, he has _______ intelligence.
A. spatial
B. practical
C. analytical
D. interpersonal
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #67
68. Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the
idea that:
A. intelligence is a general ability.
B. there are three types of intelligence.
C. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
D. there are separate information-processing components of intelligence.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Types of Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #68
69. Howard Gardner has developed _______ types of intelligence.
A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 11
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
Santrock – Chapter 07 #69
70. Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner’s theories of intelligence are alike in that both:
A. emphasize the ability to adapt to novel situations.
B. hypothesize several different types of intelligence.
C. hypothesize a single-factor theory of intelligence.
D. stress the ability to quickly identify and remember patterns.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Types of Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #70
71. Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to
Gardner, Colin has _______ skills.
A. spatial
B. intrapersonal
C. bodily-kinesthetic
D. interpersonal
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
Santrock – Chapter 07 #71
72. Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
A. an accountant
B. a theologian
C. a botanist
D. an architect
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
Santrock – Chapter 07 #72
73. All of the following are types of intelligence according to Howard Gardner, EXCEPT:
A. naturalist skills.
B. musical skills.
C. artistic skills.
D. verbal skills.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
Santrock – Chapter 07 #73
74. What is the best way to determine the relative influence of genetics in the development of a person’s
intelligence?
A. examining identical and fraternal twins
B. examining parents and their children
C. doing genetic testing on fetuses
D. studying those who have exceptional or deficient IQs
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Influence of Genetics
Santrock – Chapter 07 #74
75. What is the best explanation for why minorities earn lower scores on IQ tests?
A. environment
B. prejudice
C. racism
D. unfair scoring
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Group Differences
Santrock – Chapter 07 #75
76. Which researcher is responsible for identifying the trend that intelligence scores are slowly increasing
worldwide over time?
A. Mary Ainsworth
B. James Flynn
C. John Bowlby
D. Jonathan Richard
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Factual
Page Reference: Environmental Influences
Santrock – Chapter 07 #76
77. Early intervention programs designed to help provide an intellectually stimulating environment for
children have been found to be most effective for:
A. poor children and those whose parents have little education.
B. Caucasian children.
C. girls.
D. children from high socioeconomic backgrounds.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Environmental Influences
Santrock – Chapter 07 #77
78. Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
A. test predominantly nonverbal skills.
B. reflect the common values of all test takers.
C. reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
D. use only standardized test items familiar to all test takers.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Creating Culture-Fair Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #78
79. Is it possible to develop an intelligence test that is truly culturally fair?
A. Yes. It requires including only nonverbal items on the test.
B. Yes. It requires adapting the test language to fit the test-taker’s culture.
C. No. There are too many different levels of intelligence to assess them all.
D. No. There are too many different variations in test-takers’ cultures to address them all.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Creating Culture-Fair Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #79
80. Paul has an IQ of 68. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many
friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life.
According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:
A. organically retarded.
B. mildly retarded.
C. moderately retarded.
D. severely retarded.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #80
81. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 are classified as _______ mentally retarded.
A. mildly
B. moderately
C. severely
D. profoundly
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #81
82. What percentage of Americans with mental retardation is considered moderately retarded?
A. about 89%
B. about 6%
C. about 3.5%
D. less than 1%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #82
83. Fewer than 1% of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:
A. mildly retarded.
B. moderately retarded.
C. severely retarded.
D. profoundly retarded.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #83
84. Cultural-familial retardation normally results in:
A. mild to moderate retardation.
B. moderate to severe retardation.
C. severe to profound retardation.
D. evidence of moderate damage to brain tissues.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #84
85. Organic retardation is caused by:
A. physical damage to brain tissues.
B. being raised by poorly educated parents.
C. an impoverished intellectual environment.
D. traumatic experiences in early childhood.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #85
86. Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial
retardation?
A. Protect your children from exposure to lead.
B. Give your children an enriched environment.
C. Make children’s nutrition your number one priority.
D. Do not conceive any children after the age of 40.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #86
87. Children with above-average intelligence and a superior talent for something are called:
A. gifted.
B. creative.
C. mastery oriented.
D. intrinsically motivated.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Giftedness
Santrock – Chapter 07 #87
88. A gifted child has an IQ of _______ or higher.
A. 110
B. 120
C. 130
D. 140
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Giftedness
Santrock – Chapter 07 #88
89. Studies have shown that most people who are academically gifted or who have a superior talent in
some area tend to:
A. be more mature and have fewer emotional problems than the average person.
B. be more mature than average people, but they have more emotional problems.
C. also have some type of emotional disturbance like moodiness or an antisocial tendency.
D. also have some type of mild-to-moderate mental disorder like depression or psychosis.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Giftedness
Santrock – Chapter 07 #89
90. Lewis Terman’s (1925) study of approximately 1,500 children with high IQs shows that:
A. IQ is too variable to be a reliable predictor of success.
B. high IQ in childhood does not predict academic success in adolescence and adulthood.
C. high IQ in childhood is a good predictor of success in adulthood.
D. high IQ in childhood predicts academic success from kindergarten through grade 12 only.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Giftedness
Santrock – Chapter 07 #90
91. The _______ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language
learning.
A. assisted-language
B. remedial-language
C. complex-language
D. whole-language
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #91
92. Carmenita is teaching her son to read by sounding out words in storybooks she reads to him. What
approach is she using?
A. whole-language
B. phonics
C. balanced instruction
D. sound-it-out
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #92
93. Cecilia begins teaching children to read by having them learn to make sounds that go with each letter
of the alphabet. Cecilia appears to be taking an approach called the _______ approach.
A. whole-language
B. phonics
C. information-processing
D. analytic
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #93
94. Research comparing the whole-language and phonics approaches to language has shown that:
A. the whole-language approach produces superior word recognition.
B. the phonics approach helps children to sound out words better.
C. children can benefit from both, but phonics instruction needs emphasis.
D. the approaches are equally successful if teachers follow one or the other.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #94
95. Research on the effects and consequences of bilingualism has shown that:
A. bilingualism may be related to poorer formal language proficiency.
B. learning one’s native language interferes with learning a second language.
C. bilingualism is associated with various cognitive deficits.
D. bilingualism leads to poorer social adjustment.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Second-Language Learning
Santrock – Chapter 07 #95
96. Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
A. Ron’s first language is English, and now he is taking a Spanish course in middle school.
B.Maria’s first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her
classes until Maria can learn more English.
C.
Lynn’s first language is English, and one of her teachers is speaking in Spanish sometimes during
class so the children can learn a little Spanish.
D.
Anibal’s first language is Spanish, so he is taking a Spanish literature class taught in Spanish that
follows his regular classes that are taught in English.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Second-Language Learning
Santrock – Chapter 07 #96
97. Experts suggest that it takes approximately ______ years for an immigrant child to learn to speak
English proficiently, and approximately ____ years for that same child to learn to read English
proficiently.
A. 2; 4
B. 3; 5
C. 2 to 4; 6
D. 3 to 5; 7
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Second-Language Learning
Santrock – Chapter 07 #97
98. This theorist suggested that the cognitive skill that emerges in middle childhood is the ability to think/
reason with logic.
Jean Piaget
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #98
99. This theorist argued that convergent thinking and divergent thinking were two qualitatively different
ways of thinking.
J. P. Guilford
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #99
100. The psychologist who was the first to develop a standardized intelligence test in the early 1900s.
Alfred Binet
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Binet Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #100
101. This theorist proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence.
Robert J. Sternberg
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
Santrock – Chapter 07 #101
102. This theorist suggested that there were 8 types of intelligences (frames of mind).
Howard Gardner
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
Santrock – Chapter 07 #102
103. A category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
dyslexia
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Learning Disabilities
Santrock – Chapter 07 #103
104. A category of disability in which children display inattention and impulsivity, and may or may not
have high levels of physical activity.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Santrock – Chapter 07 #104
105. Legislation passed in 1975 requiring that all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate
public education.
Public Law 94-142 or the Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #105
106. A written statement that spells out a program tailored to a child with a disability.
individualized education plan (IEP)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #106
107. The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to
settings of children who do not have disabilities.
least restrictive environment
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #107
108. Educating a child with special needs in a regular classroom on a full-time basis.
inclusion
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Educational Issues
Santrock – Chapter 07 #108
109. The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.
seriation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #109
110. The ability to combine relations logically to understand certain conclusions.
transitivity
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Concrete Operational Stage
Santrock – Chapter 07 #110
111. Deliberate mental activities designed to improve the processing of information.
strategies
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Strategies
Santrock – Chapter 07 #111
112. A kind of thinking that is characterized by reflection, productivity, and evaluation of evidence.
critical thinking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Critical Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #112
113. The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
creative thinking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #113
114. A king of thinking which produces one correct answer or solution to a problem.
convergent thinking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #114
115. A kind of thinking which produces many different answers to the same questions.
divergent thinking
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creative Thinking
Santrock – Chapter 07 #115
116. Knowing about knowing.
metacognition
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Metacognition
Santrock – Chapter 07 #116
117. Problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to life’s everyday experiences.
intelligence
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Intelligence
Santrock – Chapter 07 #117
118. A person’s mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100.
intelligence quotient
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Binet Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #118
119. Tests of intelligence that are intended to be free of cultural biases.
culture-fair tests
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Creating Culture-Fair Tests
Santrock – Chapter 07 #119
120. A kind of mental retardation that is caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage.
organic retardation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #120
121. Retardation that is characterized by no evidence of organic brain damage, but the individual’s IQ is
between 50 and 70.
cultural-familial retardation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mental Retardation
Santrock – Chapter 07 #121
122. Having above-average intelligence (IQ 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.
giftedness
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Giftedness
Santrock – Chapter 07 #122
123. A way of teaching children how to read that is based on the idea that instruction should parallel
children’s natural language learning.
whole-language approach
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #123
124. A way of teaching children how to read that emphasizes phonics and the basic rules for translating
written symbols into sounds.
phonics approach
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Reading
Santrock – Chapter 07 #124