Test bank of Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White

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Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White

CHAPTER 6: DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND SOCIAL CONTROL

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. When driving, we stop at a red light, whether or not a policeman is present.  This is a form of:
a. internalized social control. c. externalization.
b. formal social control. d. anticipatory socialization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. According to your text, effective social control is dependent primarily on:
a. self control and informal social controls. c. formal social controls.
b. self control and formal social controls. d. self control.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Internalization occurs when:
a. a person exercises self-restraint because of fear of  what others will think.
b. sanctions such as fines, expulsion, and imprisonment are used to enforce conformity.
c. illegal acts are avoided because of fear of getting caught.
d. we don’t even think of violating the norms and values of our group because conformity is a part of our self-concept.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Alan, a 14-year-old boy, finds himself in a situation where he can steal a digital watch from K Mart.  He decides against the theft because he fears what others would think of him if they found out.  In this situation, Alan conforms to society’s values because of:
a. formal social controls. c. aversive social controls.
b. informal social controls. d. internalization.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Formal sanctions are LEAST likely to produce conformity when:
a. the police spend a substantial part of their time trying to eliminate illegal behavior.
b. formal sanctions for illegal behavior are severe.
c. economic conditions make illegal behavior attractive for quick rewards.
d. individuals and groups do not believe that the behavior should be illegal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. If caught cheating on this exam, you are likely to be punished by the professor and the university.  This is a type of:
a. informal control. c. self-control.
b. formal control. d. street-level justice.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Adrianne does not smoke or drink alcohol in front of her family because she is afraid they would disapprove.  This is an example of:
a. formal social control. c. aversive social control.
b. informal social control. d. internalization.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Norm violations that exceed the tolerance level of the community and result in negative sanctions are:
a. deviance. c. rule violations.
b. eccentric. d. fun.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. When sociologists stress that deviance is relative, they mean that:
a. relative to criminal acts, deviance is a minor form of  nonconformity.
b. it runs in the family, among relatives.
c. whether an act is regarded as deviant or not often depends on the time, place, or individual.
d. deviance is related to more serious criminal offenses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. In the definition of deviance, it is not the act itself that matters, it is the:
a. audience. c. intention of the actor.
b. reason for the behavior. d. legal definition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. Biological and psychological explanations for deviance look for the causes:
a. within society.
b. in the groups a person interacts with.
c. in the processes internal to the individual.
d. in the audience for the behavior.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.3

 

  1. Sociological theories of deviance tend to emphasize that the reasons for deviance:
a. stem from personality disorders.
b. are based largely on genetic factors.
c. stem from personal disorganization.
d. are found in the social structure of society.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.3

 

  1. The structural-functional perspective was first applied to the explanation of deviance by:
a. Durkheim. c. Sutherland
b. Merton. d. Hirschi.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   129                OBJ:   6.4                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The term used to describe a situation in which the norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable to current conditions is:
a. ambiguity. c. anomie.
b. moral decay. d. institutional change.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   129                OBJ:   6.4

 

  1. Durkheim first applied the explanation of anomie in his study of:
a. deviance. c. suicide.
b. social control. d. crime.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   129                OBJ:   6.4

 

  1. Extreme tattooing and body modification are used by some people:
a. to demonstrate their membership in a subculture.
b. to recover a sense of control over their body after a traumatic experience.
c. to indicate their rejection of dominant cultural values.
d. All of these are reasons cited for extreme forms of body modification.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   129                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. According to the text, the stigma against extreme forms of body modification is strongest when it is practiced by:
a. young people. c. women.
b. middle-aged people. d. the middle class.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   129                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. Citizens sometimes complain that employees in government agencies are more concerned about following the rules, even when this doesn’t make sense, than they are about helping citizens.  Robert Merton would refer to these employees as:
a. ritualists. c. innovators.
b. conformists. d. retreatists.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. According to Merton’s strain theory, the social class most likely to engage in deviance is:
a. lower class. c. middle class.
b. working class. d. upper class.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. Youths growing up in poor neighborhoods are more likely to deal drugs to make money than middle-class youth.  This example represents the pattern of deviance called:
a. rebellion. c. ritualism.
b. retreatism. d. innovation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. Which of the following examples is NOT an innovative adaptation to situations of strain?
a. athletic achievement through the use of steroids
b. joining the mafia to get rich
c. cheating on exams to get a better grade
d. getting a free handout by dropping out and drifting from one city mission to the next

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. Retreatists _____ the culturally approved goals of society and _____ the institutional means for achieving them.
a. accept; accept c. accept; reject
b. reject; accept d. reject; reject

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Rebels differ from retreatists, according to Merton’s strain theory, in that:
a. rebels are committed to creating an alternative society; retreatists just drop out.
b. retreatists withdraw to communes whereas rebels start revolutions.
c. retreatists reject society’s values but accept the means; rebels reject both means and values.
d. rebels reject society’s values but accept the means; retreatists reject both means and values.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. Examples of retreatists include:
a. revolutionaries and people who start communes.
b. steroid-using athletes and mafia types.
c. drifters and street people.
d. embezzlers and pranksters.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. According to strain theory, the solution to deviance is to:
a. reform the individual who deviates.
b. make it easier to reach societal goals through acceptable means.
c. put more money into correctional facilities.
d. implement tougher sentencing guidelines for the more dangerous crimes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   131                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. _____ refers to the extent to which individuals in a neighborhood share expectations that neighbors will intervene and work together to maintain social order.
a. Collective efficacy c. Retreatism
b. Anomie d. Ritualism

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   132                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. According to _____, crime is more likely to occur in neighborhoods that suffer extreme structural disadvantage and as a result experience low collective efficacy.
a. Differential Association Theory c. Strain Theory
b. Collective Efficacy Theory d. Symbolic Interaction Theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   132                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. If _____ theory is correct, we would expect crime among the lower classes to rise during economic recessions when it becomes difficult to meet basic needs.
a. anomie c. self-esteem
b. differential association d. conflict

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   132                OBJ:   6.6

 

  1. Which is NOT part of the conflict theory of deviance?
a. class conflict affects deviance
b. those in power decide what is deviant and how it will be punished
c. the lower class does not share the goals of the upper and middle classes
d. economic inequality leads to crime

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.6                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. All of the following are consistent with conflict theory’s view of deviance EXCEPT:
a. a young man who steals a pack of gum from Walgreens is sent to jail; a young man who steals a box of pens from work is reprimanded.
b. a city allocates more money to preventing consumer fraud than to stopping mugging.
c. Ted Turner’s house is robbed and police launch a full-scale investigation; Maria’s house is robbed and police take her statement and tell her to lock her doors.
d. a lawyer kills his wife but is found not guilty at the trial; a garbage man kills his wife and gets life in prison.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.6

 

  1. Conflict theorists point out that the class differentials in crime rates develop partly because:
a. the upper classes commit less important types of crimes.
b. law enforcement discriminates more heavily against the poor.
c. the lower classes are less integrated in their families and neighborhoods.
d. the lower classes have accepted subcultural values that are more supportive of crime.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.6

 

  1. Which of the following statements about conflict theories of deviance is TRUE?
a. All conflict theorists believe that the upper classes commit more crime.
b. Conflict theorists are in agreement that the lower class commits more crime.
c. All conflict theorists agree that crime is an unnatural condition, resulting from unattainable goals.
d. All conflict theorists believe that class interests determine which acts are criminalized and how heavily they are punished.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.6

 

  1. Symbolic interaction theories of deviance DO NOT suggest that deviance:
a. is learned.
b. involves the development of a deviant self-concept.
c. is an inevitable product of an unequal society.
d. arises out of face-to-face interactions.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Both conflict and structural-functional theory view deviance:
a. as the product of face-to-face interactions.
b. as the result of social inequality.
c. as resulting from the overall social structure.
d. All of these are true about conflict and structural-functional views of deviance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.5|6.6

 

  1. _____ theory sees deviance as a product of specific face-to-face interactions.
a. Conflict c. Structural-functional
b. Symbolic interaction d. Self-esteem

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Differential association theory was developed by:
a. Travis Hirschi. c. Howard Becker.
b. Robert Merton. d. Edwin Sutherland.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Differential association theory argues that:
a. people learn to be deviant when their associates favor deviance over conformity.
b. people choose deviance over conformity when normal avenues for success are blocked.
c. deviance results from social inequality.
d. differences in crime rates are associated with age, sex and race.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Diane’s aunts, uncles, parents and friends all take towels from the hotels where they stay.  Diane also takes the towels.  “Everybody does it,” she reasons.  Diane’s deviance is best explained by:
a. deterrence theory. c. differential association theory.
b. strain theory. d. labeling theory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. A similarity between differential association and deterrence theories is that they both:
a. see deviance as the result of social inequality.
b. view deviance results, at least in part, because there are greater rewards for deviance than for conformity.
c. locate the source of deviance in the social structure.
d. see deviance as the result of strain between goals and means of attaining them.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Deterrence theories place the primary blame for deviance on:
a. parents.
b. an inadequate system of rewards and punishments.
c. individuals.
d. peer pressure.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Which theory assumes that individuals consciously assess the costs and benefits of whether to conform or be deviant?
a. labeling theory c. differential association theory
b. deterrence theory d. reward theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. When social structures do not provide adequate rewards for conformity, more people will choose deviance.  This is part of which theory?
a. reward theory c. labeling theory
b. differential association theory d. deterrence theory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. In deterrence theory, conventional social rewards are important because they:
a. make crime a rational choice.
b. allow people to rationally decide that “crime doesn’t pay.”
c. encourage individuals to turn in deviants.
d. eliminate criminal behaviors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Empirical studies show that three kinds of rewards are especially important in deterring deviance.  Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. family ties c. doing well in school
b. large friendship networks d. having a good job

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. Labeling theory is concerned with the process by which:
a. a person who associates with deviants learns to be deviant.
b. the label of deviant comes to be attached to specific people and specific behavior.
c. deviant labels are used to stigmatize criminal behavior.
d. public labeling of criminals is used to deter crime.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. Labeling theory incorporates elements of which two theories?
a. symbolic interactionism and conflict theory
b. structural-functionalism and symbolic interactionism
c. deterrence and strain theories
d. developmental and conflict theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. ____ combines the symbolic interaction and conflict perspectives into one theory.
a. Differential Association Theory c. Labeling Theory
b. Merton’s Strain Theory d. Deterrence Theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. On a whim, three-year-old Bobby flicks a spoonful of mashed potatoes at his father.  Bobby’s father puts him in the time-out chair and tells him he is a bad boy.  Bobby’s behavior is an example of:
a. primary deviance. c. non-conformity.
b. secondary deviance. d. bad manners.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   135                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. Continued and deliberate deviance that results from labeling is:
a. primary deviance. c. secondary deviance.
b. innovation. d. white collar crime.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   135                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a criticism of labeling theory?
a. It cannot explain the repeated deviance of persons who have not been labeled deviant.
b. It does not address how a person goes from primary to secondary acts of deviance.
c. It does not explain why primary deviance occurs.
d. It does not explain why secondary deviance occurs.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   135                OBJ:   6.8                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The concept of “moral entrepreneur,” refers to:
a. persons who are labeled as deviants.
b. those who promote their own moral ideas about who should be labeled deviant.
c. social scientists who look for causes of deviance.
d. persons who commit victimless crimes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   135                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. In recent years, there has been a growing trend toward:
a. treating more types of deviance as legal infractions.
b. treating more types of deviance as diseases.
c. allowing fewer types of deviants to successfully claim the sick role.
d. demedicalization.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.9

 

  1. Which of the following categories is most likely to be able to successfully claim the label of “ill”?
a. people with AIDS c. lower status persons
b. alcoholics d. people in positions of power

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.9

 

  1. Which of these statements about the labeling of a behavior as an illness is FALSE?
a. People who are labeled ill are generally absolved from blame for their behavior.
b. Despite being labeled as an illness, deviant behavior is still stigmatized and punished.
c. People in positions of power are more likely to be labeled ill than deviant.
d. Child abuse, gambling, murder and rape may now be regarded as forms of mental illness better treated by physicians than sheriffs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.9

 

  1. Deviant acts that are subject to legal or civil penalties are defined as:
a. eccentric. c. deviance.
b. crimes. d. social deviance.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Report summarizes:
a. the incidence of all crimes that occur.
b. the number of victimless crimes that occur annually.
c. the number of incidents of crimes that are known to police and are of five major types.
d. the incidence of crimes of violence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Murder is among the most violent of criminal acts and is relatively rare. Murder victims are most likely to be:
a. unknown to their attackers. c. black and male.
b. rural residents. d. female.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Report monitors all of the following major offenses EXCEPT:
a. forcible rape. c. arson.
b. prostitution. d. motor vehicle theft.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Property crimes account for almost _____ of the index crimes reported in the Uniform Crime Reports.
a. 10% c. 50%
b. 30% d. 90%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Between 1990 and 2000:
a. rates rose for all crimes except burglary.
b. rates rose for the first time since 1984 for all crimes except arson.
c. rates for all crimes decreased.
d. rates of crime remained constant.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Rates of violent crime tend to be highest:
a. in the North. c. in the East.
b. in the South. d. in the West.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Property crime has declined steadily since 1980. Most observers agree that a major reason for this is:
a. a steady decline in the amount of personal property most people own.
b. a reduction in the number of young people throughout the country.
c. the decriminalization of marijuana in some areas.
d. better policing.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Which of the following is generally considered to be a victimless crime?
a. burglary c. gambling
b. illegal entry and trespass d. larceny-theft

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Victimless crimes are:
a. crimes that do not hurt anyone.
b. property crimes which do not involve victims.
c. voluntary exchanges between persons who desire goods or services from one another.
d. all crimes that are impersonal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Victimless crimes are difficult for the police to control because they:
a. do not harm anyone.
b. lack a complaining victim.
c. have wide acceptance in the larger community.
d. involve property and not persons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   138                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Laws regarding victimless crimes are enforced:
a. regularly.
b. only at the request of a complainant.
c. rarely.
d. through periodic crackdowns and routine harassment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   138                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Crimes committed by respectable people of high social status in the course of their occupations are known as:
a. victimless crimes. c. white-collar crimes.
b. graft and corruption. d. hidden crimes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   139                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of white-collar crime?
a. the armed robbery of a small business by an unemployed lower class white
b. an industrial plant ignoring the law which prohibits dumping toxic waste into the environment
c. legalized prostitution
d. the slaying of a government official by a subversive and radical political group

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   139                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the cost of white-collar crime?
a. Its total economic cost is relatively easy to assess.
b. The dollar loss due to corporate crime is about equal to that of street crime.
c. Its social costs can include undermining the integrity of social institutions.
d. The dollar loss due to corporate crime is much lower than that of street crime.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   140                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. The reasons for white-collar crime:
a. have more to do with the social structure than do the reasons for street crime.
b. are mostly to do with labeling; some actions would not be considered criminal otherwise.
c. are similar to those for street crimes, and differential association plays a role.
d. tend to be much more personal than the reasons for street crime.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   140                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. In regards to who commits crime in the U.S., the text suggests that:
a. people in lower classes commit the most crime.
b. the crimes committed by those in the lower class are the most costly to society.
c. people of different statuses have different opportunities to commit crime.
d. the crimes of people in the upper class are higher yield, but also higher risk.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   140                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. Low-risk, high-yield crimes are MOST likely to be committed by:
a. young adult males between the ages of 18-20.
b. persons engaged in victimless crimes, regardless of their status.
c. higher-status individuals in the course of their occupations.
d. lower-status individuals who are frustrated by their powerlessness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. The type of crime most likely to be “cleared” by an arrest is:
a. murder. c. larceny.
b. burglary. d. white-collar crime.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Less than half of violent crimes, and less than one-fourth of property crimes, are ever “cleared” by an arrest. This means that:
a. people arrested for criminal acts represent only a sample of people who commit crimes.
b. the police aren’t doing their job.
c. these crimes are the ones that most often go unreported.
d. those who are arrested are a good representation of those committing crimes more generally.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Persons arrested for criminal acts are disproportionately:
a. young adult males from minority groups. c. young females from minority groups.
b. young adult white males. d. older, lower-class white males.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Your text suggests that we need to be cautious when generalizing about crime and the larger population of criminals based on UCR statistics because:
a. levels of crime reporting are much higher than actual crime levels.
b. the people arrested for criminal acts are not a random sample of the people who commit crimes.
c. the UCR overemphasizes the crimes of white-collar professionals.
d. UCR statistics do not include those crimes that have been cleared by an arrest.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Young people are more likely to be deviant than older people because they:
a. have more energy.
b. do not have as much to lose, such as a career or a credit rating, by being deviant.
c. don’t know any better.
d. are growing up in a more complex society than the older generation did.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Adolescents are more likely to commit crimes than the middle aged because they lack a “stake in conformity.” This means adolescents:
a. simply have less to lose than adults do—a career, a mortgage, a spouse, for instance—if they get into trouble.
b. have a lot of free time and extra cash with which to get into trouble.
c. are less controlled by what their peers think than are adults.
d. are less likely to stake their self-esteem on conformity than are adults.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Research on juvenile delinquency shows that it basically occurs when:
a. there is nothing better to do.
b. an individual experiences a hormonal imbalance.
c. parents are too strict with their children.
d. adolescents are labeled as troublemakers.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   141                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. According to your text, the strongest social explanation for sex differentials in crime rates is:
a. girls are supervised more closely than boys.
b. boys are bigger in physical size.
c. boys have a biological predisposition to aggression.
d. boys are given less freedom so are more apt to rebel.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   142                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. A significant proportion of crime among females is explained by:
a. their greater need for material goods. c. their lack of supervision.
b. their victimization by males. d. their responsibility as single mothers.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   142                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. During the last decade, female participation in crime has:
a. increased, especially in violent crime.
b. decreased in all areas.
c. remained relatively unchanged.
d. increased primarily in property crime and drug possession.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   142                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. According to your text, which of the following BEST describes the effect of social class on crime rates?
a. Social class has historically been found to be unrelated to crime rates.
b. Social class determines who is more likely to commit crimes.
c. Social class differentials are greater for juvenile delinquency than adult crime.
d. Social class determines what type of crime one is likely to commit.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   143                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Race differences in arrest rates are due mainly to:
a. race differences in the quality of employment.
b. discrimination by police.
c. poverty and segregated neighborhoods and housing.
d. All of these explain racial differences in arrest rates.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   143                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. Differences in crime rates between members of minority groups and nonminorities are more apparent than actual. This means that:
a. the apparent differences are real.
b. when members of the different groups engage in the same crimes, members of minority groups are more likely to be cited, arrested, prosecuted and convicted.
c. while there are differences in the rate of arrest, the differences disappear by the time the crimes are prosecuted.
d. members of minority groups commit more crimes than do nonminorities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   144                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. When it comes to perceptions of crime, research indicates that the majority of people:
a. underestimate the amount of crime occurring.
b. overestimate the amount of crime occurring.
c. have a fairly accurate perception of how much crime is occurring.
d. have little interest in the amount of crime occurring.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   144                OBJ:   6.13

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a way in which the media contributes to overestimates of crime?
a. The media misdirects attention from more serious problems, making crime seem more important.
b. When the news fails to report crimes it makes the public fear what they do not know.
c. Reporters seek emotional stories that can be told briefly and that have clear villains and victims.
d. There is a tendency for the media to misidentify isolated incidents as trends.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   144                OBJ:   6.13               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. When society punishes offenders to avenge the victim and society as a whole, this is called:
a. reformation. c. retaliation.
b. retribution. d. specific deterrence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   145                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. Sending a juvenile delinquent to a boot camp rather than prison would be an example of:
a. deterrence. c. reform.
b. retribution. d. prevention.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   145                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. Elliott receives a very harsh sentence for committing a minor crime. The hope is that he will think twice before committing another crime. This tactic is called:
a. retaliation. c. retribution.
b. deterrence. d. reform.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   145                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. The decisions made by police officers:
a. are less important than those made by the courts.
b. are less visible than those made in court and therefore harder to evaluate.
c. have little impact on the rate of imprisonment.
d. All of these are true about the decisions of police officers.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   146                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. The most important phase in the determination of a person’s guilt or innocence is:
a. the arrest. c. the pretrial phase of prosecution.
b. the processing. d. the criminal trial.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   146                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. The country with the highest rate of imprisonment is:
a. Russia. c. China.
b. the United States. d. Japan.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   146                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. About what percentage of prison inmates are African American males?
a. 10 percent c. 35 percent
b. 20 percent d. 40 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   146                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. Studies of crime prevention indicate that:
a. the length of sentences given for various crimes are a good deterrent for future crime.
b. the length of the sentence is a good predictor of how prevalent the crime is.
c. the certainty of getting caught is a better deterrent than lengthy sentences.
d. prisons are more important than law enforcement within the criminal justice system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   147                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. Your text suggests that _____ is the probably the least effective of the ways listed to deal with crime and prison crowding.
a. developing more effective community-based corrections
b. putting more money into law enforcement
c. addressing the social problems and institutions that give rise to and encourage crime
d. building more prisons

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   147                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. Evaluation of newer intensive supervision probation programs indicates that they:
a. are not as effective as prison in terms of rehabilitation and deterrence.
b. they reduce costs and increase the likelihood of rehabilitation when combined with drug treatment and other service.
c. only work for the most serious offenders.
d. are effective at rehabilitation, but the services required make them more costly than prisons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   147                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. The 1972 Furman decision determined that capital punishment was:
a. racist but necessary to deter future crime.
b. racist and unconstitutional due to the uncontrolled discretion of judges and juries in sentencing.
c. not racist since more blacks than whites committed violent crimes.
d. a just way to deal with all rapists, regardless of race.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   148                OBJ:   6.14               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. New research shows that _____ is at least as important as race of the defendant in determining who receives the death penalty.
a. violence of the crime c. race of the victim
b. social class of the defendant d. gender of the defendant

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   148                OBJ:   6.14

 

  1. The text concludes this chapter by reporting that a leading sociologist recommends addressing crime in the United States by:
a. building more prisons.
b. instituting more “three strikes and you’re out” rules.
c. reducing social inequality.
d. using more boot camps.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   149                OBJ:   6.14

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. When people obey the law even when there is no reason to believe that they will be punished for breaking it, they are said to have internalized social control.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Effective social control depends almost entirely upon formal social control.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. When rules are not supported by group values it is difficult for even formal agencies to enforce compliance.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. Whether or not an act is considered deviant depends on the time, place, actor, and audience.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. Most sociologists agree that deviance is always dysfunctional for society.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. Both conflict theory and structural-functionalism locate the causes of deviance in the social structure.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   132                OBJ:   6.4|6.6

 

  1. Conflict theorists and structural-functionalists agree that members of the lower social classes are the most likely to engage in criminal behavior.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   133                OBJ:   6.4|6.6

 

  1. Symbolic interactionists who study deviance, argue that deviance is learned.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. According to deterrence theories, inadequate sanctioning systems are the primary reason that deviance occurs.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. When deviant behavior is medicalized, the individual involved is more likely to receive treatment and sympathy than punishment and stigma.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.9

 

  1. The Uniform Crime Report summarizes all crimes that are known by the police to have occurred.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   136                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. Victimless crimes are crimes that do not hurt anyone.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   138                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. The costs to society of white-collar crime are more social than economic.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   140                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. The social-class differential in the incidence of adult crime than it is for juvenile delinquency.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   143                OBJ:   6.12

 

  1. The U.S. prison system is designed for the rehabilitation of inmates.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   145                OBJ:   6.14

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is the difference between informal and formal social control?

 

ANS:

Informal social control is self-restraint because of fear of what others will think while formal social control includes administrative sanctions such as fines, expulsion, or imprisonment.

 

REF:   127                OBJ:   6.1

 

  1. What is meant by the statement that deviance is relative?

 

ANS:

Whether or not an act is regarded as deviant often depends upon the time, the place, the individual, and the audience.

 

REF:   128                OBJ:   6.2

 

  1. What is anomie?

 

ANS:

Anomie is a situation in which the norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable to current conditions.

 

REF:   129                OBJ:   6.4

 

  1. What is the basic idea behind strain theory?

 

ANS:

Strain theory suggests that deviance occurs when culturally approved goals cannot be reached by culturally approved means.

 

REF:   130                OBJ:   6.5

 

  1. What is the basic idea behind differential association theory?

 

ANS:

Differential association theory argues that people learn to be deviant when more of their associates favor deviance than favor conformity.

 

REF:   134                OBJ:   6.7

 

  1. What is the basic concern of labeling theory as it relates to crime and deviance?

 

ANS:

Labeling theory is primarily concerned with the process by which labels such as deviant come to be attached to specific people and behaviors.

 

REF:   134                OBJ:   6.8

 

  1. Explain the concept of medicalization.

 

ANS:

When deviance is defined as resulting from illness, either mental or physical, instead of a lack of morals or other deficit, the person engaged in the behavior is more likely to receive treatment and sympathy than to be punished.

 

REF:   136                OBJ:   6.9

 

  1. Name two examples of victimless crimes.

 

ANS:

Victimless crimes are crimes that are voluntary exchanges between persons who desire goods or services from each other.  Examples include prostitution, drug use, gambling, and pornography.

 

REF:   137                OBJ:   6.10

 

  1. What is white-collar crime?

 

ANS:

White collar crime is crime committed by respectable people of high status in the course of their occupations and by companies.

 

REF:   139                OBJ:   6.11

 

  1. Why are rates of imprisonment higher in the United States than anywhere else in the world?

 

ANS:

Imprisonment rates are higher in the United States because of harsher sentencing policies, especially for drug-related offenses, such as mandatory minimums and “three strikes and you’re out” laws.

 

REF:   146                OBJ:   6.14

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the three different types of social control and rank them in terms of their general importance in reducing deviance.  Identify the circumstances in which this order might be reversed.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   127

 

  1. Briefly outline the four types of strain deviance identified by Merton and give and example of each.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   130-131

 

  1. What is the foundation of conflict theory’s approach to the study of crime and deviance?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   132

 

  1. Explain the process by which a person is labeled a deviant. Include the concepts of primary and secondary deviance and how their role in the process.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   135

 

  1. Are lower class individuals REALLY more deviant than those from the upper classes? Discuss from the standpoint of one of the following theories: strain, deterrence, labeling, or conflict? Provide evidence to support your answer.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   130-134

 

  1. Give an example of a “victimless” crime.  Is it really victimless?  Explain using a major theoretical perspective to support your answer.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   137-138

 

  1. Define white-collar crime.  What are its costs and why does it receive so little attention, relative to street crime?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   139-141

 

  1. Discuss the differences in crime rates for each of the following characteristics: age, sex, race, and social class. Summarize the major reason(s) for each pattern.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   141-144

 

  1. Explain the role of the media in the creation and maintenance of a “culture of fear” in the U.S. Specifically, how does the media contribute to the public’s overestimation of the dangers of crime?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   144

 

  1. Explain the punishment rationale behind capital punishment.  Is justice served by death penalty sentencing?  Why or why not?  (Be sure to discuss issues of race differential in your answer.)

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   148

 

CHAPTER 7: STRATIFICATION

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to the definition in the text, which of these would be an example of stratification?
a. A curriculum with more physical education courses for boys than for girls.
b. A plan that raises the minimum wage.
c. Promotion based on more experience and more successful sales.
d. The fact that girls generally score better than boys on tests of verbal ability.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. Inequality becomes stratification when it is institutionalized and:
a. involves different abilities. c. based on membership in a status.
b. supported by personal qualities. d. involves blue collar employment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. A university professor may receive more social approval and respect than an auto mechanic. Sociologists would term this a difference in:
a. prestige. c. stratification.
b. power. d. caste.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. Sociologists call the ability to influence or force others to do what one wants them to do, regardless of their own wishes:
a. prestige. c. stratification.
b. power. d. caste.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. A status that is optional, one that we can reach (or fail to reach) on the basis of our own efforts is called:
a. an achieved status. c. a flexible status.
b. an ascribed status. d. an active status.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. In the distribution of scarce resources, caste systems rely on _____ statuses and class systems rely to a greater degree on _____ statuses.
a. achieved; ascribed c. educational; employment
b. employment; educational d. ascribed; achieved

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an ascribed status?
a. parent c. friend
b. female d. doctor

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. The primary distinction between a caste system and a class system is that under a caste system:
a. there is more inequality than under a class system.
b. only one type of reward (status) is used.
c. ascribed statuses that are fixed throughout a lifetime are the major criteria used to rank individuals.
d. occupation is used as the chief criterion for membership.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   153                OBJ:   7.2

 

  1. The process of changing one’s social class is called:
a. status climbing. c. career striving.
b. class consciousness. d. social mobility.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   153                OBJ:   7.2                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. According to Marx, one’s relationship to the means of production is known as:
a. class. c. social mobility.
b. status. d. employment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. In Marx’s framework, those who own the tools and materials necessary for their work are the:
a. bourgeoisie. c. proletariat.
b. middle class. d. government leaders.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. Marx’s term for the lack of awareness of one’s real position in the class structure is:
a. partial consciousness. c. false consciousness.
b. selective consciousness. d. incomplete consciousness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. What did Marx call the class that does NOT own the means of production and must sell its labor to those who do?
a. the working class c. labor
b. the underclass d. the proletariat

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. According to the definitions given in the text, which of the following workers would be considered having developed class consciousness?
a. the maid who works for a company thinks she is in the same class as the professor
b. the GM autoworker who thinks he is of a higher class than the janitor
c. man who owns the service station who believes he is of the same class as the nurse
d. the professor who knows she is of a higher class than her auto mechanic

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. How does Weber’s definition of social class differ from that of Marx?
a. Weber’s definition of class is focused on the relationship to the means of production; Marx’s definition is not.
b. Marx’s definition of class is focused on the relationship to the means of production; Weber’s is not.
c. Marx’s definition is of class; Weber was defining caste.
d. Marx and Weber use the same dimensions for defining social class.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of Weber’s three dimensions of social class?
a. class c. education
b. power d. status

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. The dimension of social class having to do with social honor expressed as sharing the same community and types of activities is called:
a. power. c. style.
b. class. d. status.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. The Duchess of York has so little money that she works as a spokesperson for Weight Watchers to make money.  She may be said to be:
a. high on status and low on class. c. high on class and low on status.
b. high on status and high on class. d. high on power and low on status.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.3                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. In contrast to the Marxian notion of class, the concept of social class includes an element of self-awareness.  This means that people:
a. are aware of and use their social class as a means to map their place in the social world.
b. have true class consciousness.
c. are aware of their own social class but fail to see how they are different from those of other social classes.
d. are able to determine their class but not their status or power.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. According to a 2008 survey most Americans consider themselves to be either _____ or _____ class.
a. upper; lower c. middle; upper
b. middle; working d. working; lower

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. A group of people who have a sense of identification with one another because they are about equal in class, power, and status are often referred to as sharing:
a. occupations. c. class consciousness.
b. socioeconomic status. d. social class.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. Which measure of social class ranks people on income, education, occupation, or some combination?
a. status c. socioeconomic status
b. class d. prestige indicators

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. Whether one identifies oneself as working or middle class has important consequences for all of the following EXCEPT:
a. how you vote. c. how much money you make.
b. to what church you go. d. how you raise your children.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. All the money that a person or family receives during a given period is termed:
a. wealth. c. income.
b. status. d. dividends.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. Income inequality in the United States:
a. has declined over the past decade.
b. is less pronounced than in all other industrialized.
c. is similar to that in Sweden.
d. has steadily increased since 1970.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   156                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. The richest 20 percent of the U.S. population hold approximately what percent of total income?
a. 20% c. 50%
b. 30% d. 98%

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   156                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. Which is true about inequality in the distribution of household income in the U.S.?
a. It has declined in recent decades.
b. It has increased in recent decades.
c. It has not changed at all in the last 50 years.
d. It is low compared with that of other industrialized nations.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   156                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. Your explains that the rise in income inequality in the U.S. over the past several decades is due to:
a. increased employment in service jobs that pay less than manufacturing jobs.
b. an increase in part-time and seasonal employment, as opposed to full-time jobs.
c. government policies making it difficult to unions to recruit members and gain influence.
d. All of these are reasons discussed in the text.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   156                OBJ:   7.5                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The sum of the money and goods owned by a person at a given point of time is termed:
a. status. c. wealth.
b. assets. d. income.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   156                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the difference between wealth and income?
a. Wealth measures all that a person and family have accumulated over years; income measures individual or family earnings.
b. In the U.S. income inequality is greater than inequality in wealth.
c. Inequality in wealth is a relatively new phenomenon in the U.S.
d. While inequality of wealth is high in the U.S., it is not as high as it is in European nations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   157                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. The richest 20 percent of the U.S. population hold approximately what percent of total wealth?
a. 20% c. 50%
b. 30% d. 69%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   157                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. As a general rule, a person’s social class is related to:
a. their behaviors but not their attitudes. c. their life-style but not their values.
b. their attitudes but not their behaviors. d. everything they do all day long.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   157                OBJ:   7.6

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT discussed in the text as a consequence of social class difference in the U.S.?
a. People with incomes below $7,500 per year are four times as likely to be victims of violent crime than are people with incomes higher than $75,000 per year.
b. People from the middle class people are much more likely to be overweight than members of the working class.
c. Students from poor and working class homes are more likely to drop out of college than middle-class students.
d. Infants born to mothers with college degrees are less than half as likely to die before their first birthday as those born to high school drop-outs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   157                OBJ:   7.6

 

  1. “Can money buy happiness?” The evidence in your text suggests that:
a. people with more money have a higher quality of life overall.
b. people with more money have more problems.
c. money little real impact on one’s quality of life.
d. social class is not very important any more in the United States.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   157                OBJ:   7.6

 

  1. The position that holds that inequality is both justifiable and necessary for society comes from:
a. structural-functional theory. c. synthetic theory.
b. conflict theory. d. symbolic interaction theory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. In structural-functional theory, rewards for performing essential tasks are increased when:
a. there is a scarcity of the talent and ability necessary to perform the task.
b. the task is pleasant.
c. the task is easy to accomplish.
d. All of these factors increase the rewards for a task.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. According to structural-functional theory, stratification is necessary because:
a. people would otherwise not be motivated to work.
b. some tasks essential to society’s survival require extra incentives because they are stressful and demanding.
c. social conflict is necessary in order to produce social change.
d. it provides individuals with a sense of belonging and social integration.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Applying Davis and Moore’s structural-functional theory, women do not need to be rewarded for being mothers because:
a. it is not a very important job.
b. it is a very easy job.
c. there are many women who will do it voluntarily.
d. there are too many mothers already.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. A major criticism of the structural-functional theory of stratification is that it:
a. overlooks the fact that people are unequal in talent and ability.
b. overlooks the usefulness of inequality.
c. underestimates the importance of the division of labor.
d. ignores that fact that job importance can be artificially maintained.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   159                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. Which theory of stratification offers a supply-and-demand explanation of occupational rewards?
a. symbolic interactionism c. conflict theory
b. differential association d. structural-functionalism

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of the structural-functional theory of stratification?
a. Social class, sex, and race probably have more to do with getting a good job than do scarce talents and abilities.
b. It does not account for the effect of unequal abilities.
c. It denies the necessity and desirability of authority and ranked statuses.
d. It fails to recognize the need to motivate people to work.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   159                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. According to Karl Marx, inequality is caused by:
a. the need for competition to ensure the best candidates for any particular job.
b. the economic structuring that occurs as society moves from manufacturing to service jobs.
c. private ownership of the means of production.
d. All of these are explanations for inequality offered by Marx.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   159                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. Marxists generally believe that inequality:
a. is a necessary evil within society.
b. is both necessary and desirable.
c. is undesirable, and benefits only the wealthy.
d. will disappear when productivity is increased.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   159                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. Modern conflict theory examines:
a. how ownership of the means of production creates class competition.
b. the impact of false consciousness on social values.
c. the uses of social conflict to ensure the best qualified are motivated for difficult positions.
d. control affects the struggle for scarce resources and the role of class in governmental policies.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   159                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. A major criticism of the conflict perspective on stratification is that it:
a. is an ideology that justifies inequality.
b. makes the assumption that unequal financial rewards are needed to motivate people.
c. ignores the fact that people are unequal and that coordination and authority are functional.
d. places too much emphasis on the importance of inequality  as a major motivator of human labor.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   160                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. Reproductive labor refers to:
a. traditionally female tasks such as cooking, cleaning, and child-rearing.
b. refurbishing old machinery.
c. jobs that enable women to spend more time with their families.
d. flex-jobs.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   160                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. The theoretical perspective that asks how inequalities are perpetuated within everyday life is:
a. structural-functionalism. c. symbolic interactionism.
b. conflict theory. d. strain theory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   160                OBJ:   7.8

 

  1. When something is defined as real and therefore becomes real in its consequences, this is termed:
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy. c. reality functioning.
b. structural-strain. d. critical reality.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   160                OBJ:   7.8

 

  1. If a teacher believes that a student is less intelligent than other students, that student is likely to receive less attention and assistance. Therefore, ultimately the student seen as less intelligent will perform poorly on assignments. This is an example of:
a. relative inequality. c. structural-strain.
b. a self-fulfilling prophecy. d. blaming the victim.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.8                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The theoretical perspective that explains how social interaction reinforces inequality by reminding each of us of our place in the social order is:
a. structural-functionalism. c. symbolic interactionism.
b. conflict theory. d. strain theory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.8

 

  1. In a class system, the allocation of statuses and resources in each new generation depends on:
a. personal characteristics such as education and job skills.
b. individual characteristics and labor market characteristics.
c. achievement motivation and intelligence alone.
d. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Although the class system of the U.S. permits social mobility, most people attain the same or similar social class as their parents. This is best described as:
a. a self-fulfilling prophecy. c. survival of the fittest.
b. the indirect inheritance model. d. operant conditioning.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. The best predictor of your eventual social class is:
a. your intelligence. c. your achievement motivation.
b. your determination. d. your parents’ income.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. In the United States, parents provide children with social and economic surroundings that ensure that the children have about the same social class position as their parents.  This is called:
a. achievement motivation. c. the indirect inheritance model.
b. an ascribed class system. d. intergenerational mobility.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Chris is an engineer.  Her daughter and son are also engineers.  This pattern is probably a result of:
a. direct inheritance. c. genetics.
b. indirect inheritance. d. parental determination.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Values, interests, knowledge, and social behavior patterns that mark you as middle or upper class are referred to as:
a. high class. c. inheritance.
b. cultural capital. d. achievement expectations.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Which of the following examples of inequality is best explained on the MACRO level?
a. Despite his Princeton degree in economics, Miguel is unable to find a job anywhere but McDonalds.
b. Jasmina, an African American woman, goes to Yale and becomes a doctor like her father.
c. Yu works hard in school and wins a scholarship to study in the U.S. despite his family’s low social class in China.
d. Olga has difficulty passing high school courses and, like her parents before her, decides not to attend college.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. In the last 90 years, the proportion of positions at the top of the U.S. occupational structure has:
a. dramatically decreased. c. dramatically increased.
b. slightly decreased. d. slightly decreased.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. The phrase “segmented labor market” refers to a situation in which:
a. there is one labor market for white males and one for women and minorities.
b. jobs are rotated by segments in order to maintain status equality.
c. jobs become more specialized.
d. workers are categorized as being “democratic” or “republican.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. A set of beliefs that rationalizes current social structures is called:
a. an institution. c. a mythology.
b. a culture. d. an ideology.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Studies of different stratification systems indicate that:
a. inequality is usually strongly resented.
b. few societies are aware of inequality.
c. inequality usually leads to resentment and revolution.
d. inequality is usually accepted as natural and just.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. The American Dream is an ideology that justifies inequality by saying that:
a. inequality is necessary to maintain society.
b. people are unequal in natural talent and ability.
c. achievement is possible and we each get what we earn.
d. the United States is a rich country and we are all better off than the poor people in third world  countries.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. The major ideology that justifies inequality in the U.S. is termed:
a. liberalism. c. conservativism.
b. the American Dream. d. imperialism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The belief that anyone who works hard will get ahead is stronger in the U.S. than in most comparable Western nations. Social mobility in the U.S. is _____ in most comparable Western nations.
a. lower than c. easier than
b. higher than d. the same as

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Sociologist Julie Bettie’s ethnographic research in a working-class high school found that some working-class students did experience upward mobility. What were the reasons for their success?
a. Many had middle-class friends or played on athletic teams.
b. Some were from immigrant families and were middle-class prior to arriving in the U.S.
c. Some of the successful students had older siblings who had attended college and could help them financially and with advice.
d. All of these are reasons that some working-class students were successful.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   164                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. In the U.S. the cutoff point for the poverty level is established as the:
a. amount earned by an individual working full year, full time at minimum wage.
b. average income of workers working full time, full year.
c. amount needed to meet the minimum requirements of a decent living standard.
d. amount needed to prevent starvation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   165                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. In 2009, the poverty level for a family of four was:
a. $12,126 per year c. $35,020 per year
b. $21,834 per year d. $60,340 per year

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   165                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. In 2007, about what percentage of Americans lived in homes that earned below the poverty line?
a. 2.5 percent c. 12.5 percent
b. 8.2 percent d. 24.3 percent

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   165                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Which of these groups is NOT among those most likely to be poor?
a. African Americans and Hispanics c. single-mother households
b. single-father households d. children

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   165                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Comprehensive research on poverty shows that the culture of poverty theories are:
a. excellent for explaining poverty in the United States.
b. not testable.
c. not well-supported.
d. not popular among the masses of Americans.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   166                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Oscar Lewis coined the term “culture of poverty” to explain why some people stay poor.  Which value is emphasized in the culture of poverty?
a. living for the moment c. investment in the future
b. thrift d. hard work

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   166                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Theories that suggest that the poor have different values and attitudes toward work than more affluent Americans are called:
a. conflict theories. c. self-fulfilling prophecies.
b. differential association . d. culture of poverty theories.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   166                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Sociological research over the past 30 years has tended to:
a. support culture of poverty explanations for the poor.
b. provide little if any support for culture of poverty theories.
c. ignore questions of what causes poverty to persist.
d. blame the poor for their situation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   167                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. A macro-level explanation for persistent poverty within the U.S. would be:
a. the lack of interest in work among the multi-generational poor.
b. teenage pregnancies and having children to receive public support.
c. the changing labor market due to deindustrialization.
d. All of these are macro-level explanations for poverty.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   167                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. People who are employed full-time and earn between about $22,000 to $44,000 annually are termed by sociologists:
a. the near poor. c. the permanently poor.
b. the lower-middle class. d. the working class.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   168                OBJ:   7.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a difference between the working class and the middle class, generally?
a. The working class is less likely than the middle class to have a pension or health insurance.
b. Middle-class jobs are more secure than working-class employment.
c. Members of the working class are more likely to experience promotions and increases in income over the course of their employment.
d. Much of the working class is employed in blue-collar industries.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   169                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Compared with members of the working class, the middle class is more likely to:
a. value security. c. work part-time without benefits.
b. have more job security. d. decorate their homes with religious icons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   169                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. In 2007, a family income of approximately _____ would put you in the top 5 percent income bracket of U.S. families.
a. $58,000 c. $529,000
b. $177,000 d. $1,000,000

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   170                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. According to your text, most U.S. families with incomes in the upper five percent:
a. would have a hard time making their mortgage payments if they lost their jobs.
b. would still be considered middle-class.
c. are not truly wealthy.
d. All of these are true about families with incomes in the upper 5 percent.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   170                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Today, most people in the U.S. who are millionaires:
a. went from rags to riches.
b. worked their way up from the lower classes by joining the military.
c. became wealthy because their wealthy families sent them to good schools and helped them financially.
d. pursued careers in sports.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   170                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Claudia and Marco think that it is only natural that Claudia should stay home with their children while Marco “goes out with the guys.”  They are most likely members of the:
a. middle class. c. working class.
b. poor. d. upper class.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   170                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. The approach to reducing inequality by raising the minimum wage is called:
a. a fair wage movement. c. collective bargaining.
b. unionization. d. wage differentials.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   172                OBJ:   7.11

 

  1. Research suggests that an important key to reducing inequality is:
a. public assistance. c. education.
b. collective bargaining. d. improving the culture of the poor.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   173                OBJ:   7.11               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The process of increasing the productivity and standard of living of a society is called:
a. westernization. c. industrialization.
b. modernization. d. development.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   173                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT included as a factor necessarily related to development?
a. Westernization c. higher standards of living
b. increased productivity d. more education

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   173                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. All of the following are intended outcomes of development EXCEPT:
a. longer life expectancy. c. a capitalist economy.
b. more consumer goods. d. better education.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   173                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. Development is a major goal in:
a. all western societies.
b. almost all societies.
c. almost no societies.
d. few Middle Eastern or Southeast Asian societies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   173                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. The most-developed countries contain _____ of the world’s population, and produce _____ of the gross world product.
a. 80%; 8% c. 20%; 80%
b. 50%; 50% d. 35%; 70%

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   174                OBJ:   7.13

 

  1. The least-developed countries consist of what percent of the world’s population?
a. 20 percent c. 9 percent
b. 60 percent d. 75 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   174                OBJ:   7.13

 

  1. The Human Development Index measures the:
a. average achievements of a country and the basic dimensions of human experience.
b. age at which adolescents in a given country become fully developed.
c. disparity between men’s and women’s quality of life.
d. percentage of children who die before their first birthday.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   174                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. The Human Development Index includes measures of:
a. life expectancy. c. gender-related development.
b. obesity rates. d. gross domestic product (GDP)

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   174                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. Which theory sees development as the natural unfolding of an evolutionary process in which a society goes from simple to complex institutional structures?
a. world system theory c. modernization theory
b. evolutionary theory d. expectation states theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which macrosociological view of social change is based on evolutionary and functional theory?
a. modernization theory c. industrialization theory
b. world system theory d. resource depletion theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. The assumption that developing nations can follow the Western path to wealth through industrialization is basic to:
a. world system theory. c. third world development theory.
b. conflict theory. d. modernization theory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. World-systems theory argues that the world economic system is dominated by:
a. capitalism. c. the proletariat.
b. socialism. d. the petit bourgeois.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. In world-systems theory, the chief actors in the global free market system are:
a. McDonald’s and Pepsi.
b. the First and Second Worlds.
c. Europe and the U.S.
d. nation-states and transnational corporations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   177                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. In the terminology of world-systems theory, the rich, powerful, economically diversified, and relatively autonomous nations comprise the:
a. peripheral societies. c. nation-states.
b. core societies. d. capitalist societies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   177                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. According to world-systems theory, the prosperity of the _____ is based on the poverty of _____.
a. the core societies / the peripheral societies
b. the peripheral societies / the core societies
c. the First World countries / the Second world countries
d. the Second World countries / the First world countries

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   178                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. Sociologists find that war reflects changing relations:
a. between the government, the army, and the public.
b. within a country.
c. between countries.
d. All of these are possible changing conditions reflected in war.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   179                OBJ:   7.15

 

  1. To scholars of global relations, terrorism:
a. refers to foreigners who commit unlawful acts against a democratic population.
b. is always a social construction.
c. is only committed by the poor people within a society.
d. is an Islamic phenomenon only.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   179                OBJ:   7.15

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Inequality becomes stratification when it is institutionalized and based upon membership in a particular status.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. The primary difference between class and caste systems is that caste systems have far more inequality.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   153                OBJ:   7.2

 

  1. The U.S. has far more income inequality than most other industrialized nations.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.5

 

  1. In the United States, when people are asked what social class to which they belong, most people say they are working class or middle class.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4|7.5

 

  1. Conflict theory offers a supply-and-demand explanation for occupational rewards.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. In the U.S. most people are a social class that is the same or similar to that of their parents.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9|7.10

 

  1. The best single predictor of one’s social class in the U.S. is one’s ambition and willingness to work.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   161                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Every social stratification system has an ideology that justifies it and motivates people to accept it.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.1|7.7

 

  1. In the U.S. there is much more downward mobility than upward mobility.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   163                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Sociologists find that the best explanation for persistent poverty is the different value system and lack of motivation among the poor.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   167                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. Working-class people in the U.S. are defined by the lower salaries they make than middle-class people.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   169                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. Many people in the U.S. with the highest incomes would still be considered middle-class.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   170                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. The U.S. ranks highest on the Human Development Index among industrialized countries.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   175                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. Modernization theory assumes that developing nations can follow the Western path to wealth through industrialization.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. How terrorism is defined depends on the context of the country that is defining it.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   179                OBJ:   7.15

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is stratification?

 

ANS:

Stratification is an institutionalized pattern of inequality in which social statuses are ranked on the basis of their access to scare resources.

 

REF:   152                OBJ:   7.1

 

  1. What is false consciousness?

 

ANS:

False consciousness is a lack of awareness of one’s real position in the class structure.

 

REF:   154                OBJ:   7.3

 

  1. How does social class differ from class?

 

ANS:

Social class differs from class in two ways.  Social class recognizes the importance of status and power as well as that of class and it includes the element of self-awareness.

 

REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. What does socioeconomic status include?

 

ANS:

It is a measure that includes income, education, occupation, or some combination of these.

 

REF:   155                OBJ:   7.4

 

  1. According to structural-functional theory, a society needs to offer high rewards as an incentive to make sure that people are willing to perform essential tasks.  What three factors drive the size of the rewards?

 

ANS:

The size of the incentives is related to the importance of the task, the pleasantness of the task, and the scarcity of the talent and ability necessary to perform the task.

 

REF:   158                OBJ:   7.7

 

  1. What is meant by the concept of “culture of poverty”?

 

ANS:

Culture of poverty is a set of values that emphasizes living for the moment rather than thrift, investment in the future, or hard work.

 

REF:   166                OBJ:   7.9

 

  1. In the U.S. who are the true upper class?

 

ANS:

The upper class is composed of two overlapping groups: those whose families have had high incomes and statuses for more than a generation and those who themselves earn very high incomes.

 

REF:   171                OBJ:   7.10

 

  1. What are the basic dimensions of the human development index?

 

ANS:

Longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living.

 

REF:   174                OBJ:   7.12

 

  1. What is the basic foundation of modernization theory?

 

ANS:

Modernization theory sees development as the natural unfolding of an evolutionary process in which societies go from simple to complex institutional structures and from primary to secondary and tertiary production.

 

REF:   176                OBJ:   7.14

 

  1. What is the difference between core societies and peripheral societies within world-systems theory?

 

ANS:

Core societies are rich, powerful nations that are economically diversified and relatively free of outside control.  Peripheral societies are poor and weak with highly specialized economies over which they have relatively little control.  In world systems theory, the core societies are said to profit from the exploitation of the peripheral ones.

 

REF:   177                OBJ:   7.14

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Given the extent of social mobility in the U.S., discuss to what extent the social class system might resemble a caste system.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   153|161

 

  1. Outline the major assumptions of the structural-functional theory of stratification (Davis and Moore) and critically evaluate this explanation of structured social inequality.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   158

 

  1. Describe how the indirect inheritance model of social mobility works, identifying and describing each of the specific factors.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   161-162

 

  1. What is “the American Dream?”  How is it related to social inequality?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   163-164

 

  1. What are the causes of poverty in America and why does poverty continue to persist in our society?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   165-167

 

  1. Explain what the text means by the title of the inset on media and culture, “Karaoke Class Wars.”

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   170

 

  1. What is modernization theory? What would a conflict theorist say about it?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   176-177

 

  1. What role do transnational corporations and nation states play in global inequality?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   177

 

  1. Discuss how water both reflects and reinforces inequality within and between the least and most developed societies.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   178

 

  1. What role did international inequality play in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   180-181