Test bank of Experience Psychology 2nd Edition By King

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Experience Psychology 2nd Edition By King

Chapter 06

Memory

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 202)_____ involves retaining information over time.
    A. Learning
    B. Memory
    C. Priming
    D. Amnesia

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nature of Memory

  1. (p. 203)_____ refers to the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.
    A. Storage
    B. Retrieval
    C. Decay
    D. Encoding

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 203)Attention, deep processing, elaboration, and the use of mental imagery are _____ processes.
    A. encoding
    B. storage
    C. retrieval
    D. chunking

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 203)_____ is the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
    A. Divided attention
    B. Elaboration
    C. Multitasking
    D. Sustained attention

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 203)Multitasking is an example of _____.
    A. mental imagery
    B. divided attention
    C. priming
    D. rehearsal

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 204)Elsa is studying for her psychology exam with the TV on in the background. Research on the effects of divided attention suggests that watching TV while studying will _____ Elsa’s exam performance.
    A. slightly increase
    B. strongly increase
    C. decrease
    D. have no effect on

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 204)Fifteen-year-old Matt and his father are in an electronics store looking at video game systems. Matt gives his father a complete breakdown of the pros and cons of each of the different video game systems on display. According to research on encoding processes, Matt is able to accurately recall all this information because he _____.
    A. has shallowly processed this information
    B. has deeply processed this information
    C. has processed this information at an intermediate level
    D. used non-linguistic encoding processes

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 204)_____ refers to the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding.
    A. Imagery
    B. Elaboration
    C. Divided attention
    D. Sustained attention

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 204)Your roommate Chuck is having difficulty in his chemistry class. He asks you for advice on how to improve his memory of the material. You suggest that rather than trying to memorize the definitions, he should learn the concept by coming up with real-world examples. You tell Chuck to work on making links between new information and everything he already knows. Which of the following memory strategies are you recommending to Chuck?
    A. Elaboration
    B. Imagery
    C. Chunking
    D. Selective attention

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 205)According to research, which of the following is an effective elaboration technique?
    A. Thinking of physical characteristics
    B. Thinking of smells
    C. Thinking of self-references
    D. Thinking of sounds

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 205)_____ of information is linked with neural activity, especially in the brain’s left frontal lobe.
    A. Self-reference
    B. Forgetting
    C. Chunking
    D. Elaboration

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 206)According to _____, memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures, at least those that can be named, are stored as both image codes and verbal codes.
    A. Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting
    B. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
    C. the dual-code hypothesis
    D. parallel distributed processing (PDP)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 207)_____ states that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
    A. The dual-code hypothesis
    B. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
    C. Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting
    D. Parallel distributed processing (PDP)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 207)How long does information last in sensory memory?
    A. A fraction of a second to several seconds
    B. 30-60 seconds
    C. 2-3 minutes
    D. 5 minutes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 207)Which of the following memory systems has a time frame of up to 30 seconds?
    A. Sensory memory
    B. Short-term memory
    C. Long-term memory
    D. Schemas

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 207)Information can last up to a lifetime in _____.
    A. sensory memory
    B. short-term memory
    C. long-term memory
    D. working memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 207)According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems?
    A. Attentive memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
    B. Sensory memory, selective memory, and long-term memory
    C. Sensory memory, selective memory, and exhaustive memory
    D. Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 207)Although _____ is rich and detailed, we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies that transfer it into other memory systems.
    A. sensory memory
    B. selective memory
    C. long-term memory
    D. declarative memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 207)Sensory memory _____.
    A. holds information acquired through our senses for a brief amount of time
    B. is a form of short-term memory
    C. transfers information directly to long-term memory
    D. is very vague and unclear

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 207)When you are asked to recall your first day of kindergarten, you rely on _____, whereas when you are asked to recall the name of a person you just met a few seconds ago, you rely on _____.
    A. sensory memory/long-term memory
    B. long-term memory/short-term or working memory
    C. long-term memory/procedural memory
    D. semantic memory/long-term memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 208)_____ refers to auditory sensory memory, whereas _____ refers to visual sensory memory.
    A. Iconic memory/echoic memory
    B. Declarative memory/nondeclarative memory
    C. Echoic memory/iconic memory
    D. Nondeclarative memory/declarative memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 208)Short-term memory has a _____ capacity than sensory memory and a _____ duration.
    A. more limited/longer
    B. less limited/longer
    C. larger/shorter
    D. more limited/shorter

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 208-209)George Miller’s classic research showed that the average capacity of short-term or working memory is between _____ units of information.
    A. 2 and 7
    B. 5 and 9
    C. 7 and 12
    D. 9 and 12

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 209)Chunking involves _____.
    A. quickly scanning information for relevant details
    B. immediately forgetting relevant information
    C. using Miller’s framework for memory retrieval
    D. reorganizing information that exceeds the 7 plus or minus 2 rule into smaller meaningful units

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 209)When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of _____.
    A. mental structuring
    B. visual structuring
    C. chunking
    D. cueing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 209)Shannon is an excellent student. She rewrites her class notes after each class. Rewriting her notes is a form of _____.
    A. rehearsal
    B. priming
    C. chunking
    D. imagery

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 209)If all of the information on the hard drive of your computer is like long-term memory, then _____, like RAM, is comparable to what you actually have open and active at any given moment.
    A. semantic memory
    B. working memory
    C. declarative memory
    D. procedural memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 210)Working memory _____.
    A. has an unlimited capacity
    B. is the same as short-term memory
    C. is a passive memory system
    D. is an active memory system

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 210-211)According to Baddeley’s view of the three components of working memory, the _____ acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves our attention and which we should ignore.
    A. visuospatial working memory
    B. central executive
    C. phonological loop
    D. amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 211)According to Baddeley, the _____ is specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language.
    A. visuo-spatial sketchpad
    B. central executive
    C. phonological loop
    D. amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 211)According to Baddeley’s view of the three components of working memory, which of the following contains two separate components: an acoustic code and rehearsal?
    A. Phonological loop
    B. Central executive
    C. Visuo-spatial sketchpad
    D. Amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 211)Which of the following is true of the visual spatial sketchpad?
    A. When there are many items in the visuo-spatial sketchpad, one can represent them accurately enough to retrieve them successfully.
    B. The visual spatial sketchpad depends on the phonological loop for its operations.
    C. The visuo-spatial sketchpad acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves attention and which should be ignored.
    D. The capacity of the visuo-spatial sketchpad is limited.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 211)_____ includes the systems involved in procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming.
    A. Explicit memory
    B. Implicit memory
    C. Episodic memory
    D. Semantic memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 211)Which of the following can be further subdivided into episodic and semantic memory?
    A. Sensory memory
    B. Implicit memory
    C. Explicit memory
    D. Working memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 211)_____ has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why. _____ has to do with remembering how.
    A. Semantic memory/episodic memory
    B. Episodic memory/semantic memory
    C. Implicit memory/explicit memory
    D. Explicit memory/implicit memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 212)Based on the famous case study of H.M., a patient who had severe epilepsy, H.M. underwent surgery that involved removing the hippocampus and a portion of the temporal lobes of both hemispheres in his brain. After the surgery, his epilepsy was cured but his memory was impaired. Which of the following best describes the effect that surgery had on H.M.’s memory?
    A. H.M. developed an inability to form new memories that outlive working memory.
    B. H.M. showed major deficits in sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.
    C. H.M.’s procedural memory suffered the most damage.
    D. H.M. could not learn new physical tasks.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 212, 214)_____ memory involves the conscious recollection of facts and events whereas, _____ memory involves non-conscious knowledge derived from past experience.
    A. Explicit/implicit
    B. Implicit/explicit
    C. Short-term/long-term
    D. Long-term/short-term

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 212)Which of the following involves being able to consciously recall information from the past and recite it?
    A. Sensory memory
    B. Short-term memory
    C. Declarative memory
    D. Nondeclarative memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 212)A person’s knowledge about the world is known as _____ memory.
    A. episodic
    B. autobiographical
    C. procedural
    D. semantic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 213)Which of the following structures of memory is autobiographical?
    A. Sensory memory
    B. Implicit memory
    C. Nondeclarative memory
    D. Episodic memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 213)You go to a hypnotist to help you quit smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember and describe things that you did differently before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use most to comply with this request?
    A. Your procedural memory system
    B. Your permastore memory system
    C. Your episodic memory system
    D. Your nondeclarative memory system

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 213)Recollections of John’s first family vacation to Disneyland are part of John’s _____.
    A. implicit memory
    B. nondeclarative memory
    C. episodic memory
    D. procedural memory

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 213)Your knowledge of the alphabet and multiplication tables is stored in your _____ memory.
    A. episodic
    B. semantic
    C. autobiographical
    D. implicit

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 213)Jillian was in a car accident and sustained a serious head trauma. Since the surgery, she has forgotten her name, career, and other vital information about herself. Yet, she is still able to talk, know what words mean, and have general knowledge about the world, such as what day it is or who currently is the president of the U.S. This behavior suggests that Jillian’s _____ is impaired, but her _____ is still functioning.
    A. episodic memory/semantic memory
    B. semantic memory/episodic memory
    C. sensory memory/long-term memory
    D. declarative memory/nondeclarative memory

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 214)In which subsystem of long-term memory is your knowledge of how to drive a car and how to ride a bike stored?
    A. Episodic memory
    B. Semantic memory
    C. Nondeclarative (implicit) memory
    D. Declarative (explicit) memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 214)Implicit memory, procedural memory, and priming are all part of _____.
    A. declarative memory
    B. nondeclarative memory
    C. episodic memory
    D. working memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 215, 219)Vince suffered serious brain injury to his cerebellum in a motorcycle accident. What effect will this have on Vince’s life?
    A. He probably won’t remember his name.
    B. He probably won’t remember how to ride his motorcycle.
    C. He probably won’t recognize his wife.
    D. He probably won’t remember where he lives.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 215)Which of the following involves memory for skills?
    A. Semantic memory
    B. Working memory
    C. Procedural memory
    D. Schema

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

 

  1. (p. 215)_____ is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
    A. Priming
    B. Procedural memory
    C. Classical conditioning
    D. Skill memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 215)Priming is a phenomenon that has been found to result in _____.
    A. impaired explicit memory
    B. enhanced memory retrieval
    C. enhanced working memory
    D. impaired semantic memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 216)Although you had never been to the Fancy Foods Restaurant in your town, you weren’t at all surprised when the hostess seated you, handed you the menu, and informed you that your server would soon be there to take your order. Shortly after, a man in a tuxedo came to your table. You knew exactly what was going to happen because you _____.
    A. are a certified psychic
    B. have a script for what happens in a restaurant
    C. have been to similar Fancy Foods Restaurants in other towns
    D. have a friend who works there

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 216)People very quickly adapt to the procedures and behaviors appropriate at a birthday party. General knowledge of what to expect and how to behave at a birthday is called a(n)_____.
    A. script
    B. implicit memory
    C. discovered memory
    D. working memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 217)The connectionist view of memory _____.
    A. suggests that memories are large knowledge structures
    B. advocates that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember
    C. proposes that memories are organized only to the extent that neurons, the connections among them, and their activity are organized
    D. states that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 217)The locations of neural activity, called _____, are interconnected.
    A. scripts
    B. phonological loops
    C. chunks
    D. nodes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 218)Some of the answers to complex questions about neural mechanics of memory come from experimental studies of which animal?
    A. Chimpanzee
    B. Sea slug
    C. Cat
    D. Dog

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 218)Long-term potentiation is a concept that explains _____.
    A. how people can remember material for several months
    B. how memory functions at the neuron level
    C. how cannibalized worms can pass on skills they had learned to the cannibals
    D. why students should study exam material over a period of days instead of hours

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 219)The hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system play a very important role in _____ memory.
    A. repressed
    B. implicit
    C. explicit
    D. sensory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 219)The cerebellum and _____ play an important role in implicit memory.
    A. cerebral cortex
    B. frontal lobes
    C. corpus callosum
    D. hypothalamus

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 219)Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to have now?
    A. Margaret will have difficulty remembering her address and telephone number.
    B. Margaret will have difficulty adding numbers.
    C. Margaret will have difficulty with emotional memories.
    D. Margaret will have difficulty with short-term memories.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 220)Retrieval is the process of _____.
    A. transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
    B. bringing information to mind whenever needed
    C. storing information so that it can be retained over time
    D. detecting information from the world without receiving concrete sensory input.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

 

  1. (p. 220)The _____ is the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.
    A. halo effect
    B. ambiguity effect
    C. serial position effect
    D. framing effect

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 220)Having a better memory for items at the beginning of a list demonstrates the _____, whereas having a better memory for items at the end of a list demonstrates the _____.
    A. recency effect/primacy effect
    B. primacy effect/recency effect
    C. flashbulb memory effect/metamemory effect
    D. metamemory effect/flashbulb memory effect

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 220)George has just graduated from college and is going on his first big job interview. He has learned that there are 10 other applicants for the job. On account of information on the serial position effect that he learned in his psychology class, George asks to be either the first or the last candidate interviewed. Why?
    A. The serial position effect predicts that either the first or the last job applicant interviewed will be remembered better than the applicant interviewed second.
    B. The serial position effect predicts that the candidate interviewed in the “middle” position will be viewed less favorably than the other two applicants.
    C. Research has shown that the serial position effect is used often by management to arbitrarily hire job applicants.
    D. Research has shown that people interviewed either early or late in the day are evaluated most positively.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

 

  1. (p. 220)According to the serial position effect, if you are a waiter trying to remember all the orders for a table of 7, you should pay particular attention to the _____ orders, because these are the ones you are most likely to forget.
    A. first and second
    B. sixth and seventh
    C. third, fourth, and fifth
    D. first, third, and seventh

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 222)Multiple choice exams involve testing a student’s _____ abilities, whereas essay exams involve testing _____ abilities.
    A. episodic memory/semantic memory
    B. semantic memory/episodic memory
    C. recall/recognition
    D. recognition/recall

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 222)Asking an eyewitness to describe a suspect’s physical appearance to a sketch artist would be an example of a _____ task, whereas asking an eyewitness to identify a suspect on the basis of a lineup of five possible assailants is an example of a _____ task.
    A. recognition/recall
    B. recall/recognition
    C. rehearsal/elaboration
    D. chunking/rehearsal

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

 

  1. (p. 222)Samantha prides herself on “never forgetting a face,” although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific “face.” Samantha is really saying that she _____.
    A. is better at recognition than at recall
    B. is better at recall than at recognition
    C. is better at memory retrieval than at memory reconstruction
    D. is better at memory reconstruction than at memory recall

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 224)The memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events is known as _____.
    A. precognition
    B. working memory
    C. procedural memory
    D. flashbulb memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 224)Elaine is writing a paper about reactions to the tragedy that occurred at the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001. She interviews ten of her classmates and asks them to remember that day. She is surprised to learn that nearly all of the students she interviewed offer very detailed, vivid accounts of where they were and what they were doing when they first learned of the terrorist attacks. Elaine has discovered that most of her classmates have _____ of September 11, 2001.
    A. a repressed memory
    B. a flashbulb memory
    C. implicit but not explicit memories
    D. extrasensory perception

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

 

  1. (p. 225)Motivated forgetting and repressed memories are usually associated with what type of memories?
    A. Factual information from studying
    B. Traumatic memories
    C. Sensory memories
    D. Flashbulb memory

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 225)Janel was sexually abused by her uncle when she was 5 years old. This experience was so devastating and traumatic that she removed the memory from her conscious awareness. This is an example of a(n) _____.
    A. implicit memory
    B. schema
    C. repressed memory
    D. elaboration

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 225)According to, _____ repression’s main function is to protect the individual from threatening information.
    A. psychodynamic theory
    B. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
    C. connectionism
    D. interference theory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

 

  1. (p. 226)Aaron went to school one day with his zipper down. He considers it his most embarrassing moment ever and would rather forget that the event ever occurred. Aaron is exhibiting _____.
    A. emotional memory syndrome
    B. displacement
    C. memory decay
    D. motivated forgetting

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 226)Cognitive psychologist Jonathan Schooler has suggested that the term recovered memories be replaced with the term discovered memories. Why?
    A. Individuals with “discovered” memories experience them as real, whether or not the memories are accurate.
    B. “Discovered” memories are more accurate and detailed than “recovered” memories.
    C. The term discovered memories avoids the negative connotations of the term recovered memories.
    D. Individuals with “discovered” memories realize that the memories may be inaccurate.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 230)According to Hermann Ebbinghaus, _____.
    A. most forgetting occurs long after we originally learned something
    B. most forgetting occurs soon after we originally learned something
    C. motivated forgetting is a good treatment for overcoming traumatic events
    D. motivated forgetting is a poor treatment for overcoming traumatic events

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

  1. (p. 231)An encoding failure occurs when _____.
    A. information fails to be stored into long-term memory
    B. newly learned information interferes with pre-existing knowledge
    C. pre-existing knowledge interferes with newly learned information
    D. the number of neural connections decreases over time

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 232)Proactive and retroactive interference are examples of _____.
    A. encoding failures
    B. storage failures
    C. retrieval failures
    D. brain damage

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 232)Which of the following occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later?
    A. Elaboration
    B. Proactive interference
    C. Transference
    D. Motivated forgetting

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

  1. (p. 232)A few years ago, Sally had a boyfriend named Steve. Now, she has a new boyfriend named Stephen. Due to _____, she sometimes calls Stephen by Steve’s name.
    A. retroactive interference
    B. the Ebbinghaus effect
    C. latent forgetting
    D. proactive interference

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 232)_____ is a situation in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier.
    A. Retroactive interference
    B. Motivated forgetting
    C. Transience
    D. Transference

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 232)You are taking both a Spanish and a French course this semester. As you study the vocabulary words for your French test, you realize that the French words are disrupting the memory of the Spanish vocabulary words you studied last week. This is an example of _____.
    A. retroactive interference
    B. proactive interference
    C. transience
    D. transference

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

  1. (p. 233)According to _____, when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates.
    A. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
    B. decay theory
    C. interference theory
    D. psychodynamic theory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 233)According to decay theory, why do memories fade?
    A. There is a limited amount of storage available for long-term memories, so older memories must decay and make room for new memories.
    B. The cerebellum cannot hold on to information long-term.
    C. Synaptic connections become broken.
    D. A neurochemical “memory trace” disintegrates over time.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 233)The type of effortful retrieval associated with a person’s feeling that he or she knows something (say, a word or a name) but cannot quite pull it out of memory is known as _____.
    A. decay phenomenon
    B. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
    C. retroactive interference
    D. proactive interference

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

  1. (p. 234)Lucy sustained a brain injury in a car accident. Although Lucy’s memories of her life before the accident are intact, she is no longer able to form new, long-term memories. Every night when she goes to bed, her memories of what she had done that day are lost. Lucy suffers from _____.
    A. retrograde amnesia
    B. anterograde amnesia
    C. infantile amnesia
    D. displacement

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 234)A person suffering from retrograde amnesia will _____.
    A. lose past memories but be able to make new ones
    B. lose past memories and be unable to make new ones
    C. recall past memories but not be able to make new ones
    D. lose some past memories but have only the sporadic ability to make new memories

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

  1. (p. 237)An individual’s autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual’s _____.
    A. cognitive system
    B. emotional system
    C. personal identity
    D. brain

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Tips from the Science of Memory—for Studying and for Life

 

  1. (p. 237)The adage most appropriate to memory function and aging is _____.
    A. “Use it or lose it”
    B. “Better late than never”
    C. “A little goes a long way”
    D. “Seize the moment”

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Tips from the Science of Memory—for Studying and for Life

  1. (p. 238)Research has shown that individuals who are _____ tend to cope better with a variety of assaults to the brain, including Alzheimer disease, stroke, head injury, and even poisoning with neurotoxins.
    A. optimists and who go through life smiling and helping others to feel good about themselves
    B. physically fit, aggressive, competitive, and law-abiding
    C. educated, have high IQs, and remain mentally engaged in complex tasks
    D. physically attractive, physically fit, easy-going, and interested in reading and yoga

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Tips from the Science of Memory—for Studying and for Life

  1. (p. 238)_____ leads to the accumulation of a “cognitive store,” an emergency stash of mental capacity that allows individuals to avoid the negative effects of harm to the brain.
    A. An active physical life
    B. An active mental life
    C. Singing
    D. Praying

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Tips from the Science of Memory—for Studying and for Life

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 203-206)Your friend Jane is having difficulty “taking in” the information in her history class so she asks you to use your expertise in psychology to offer some suggestions on how to improve her memory performance. Discuss how attention, deep processing, elaboration, and the use of mental imagery can affect the encoding process.

Being able to engage in selective perception and focus on the subject matter improves encoding. Deep-level processing, or thinking about the meaning of the stimulus as opposed to merely noticing the physical features of the stimulus, also improves memory. Elaboration involves making a number of different connections between new information and information we already know. Typically, higher levels of elaboration are linked with better memory performance. Finally, using visual imagery is one of the most powerful ways to make memories distinctive. Pavio’s dual-code hypothesis claims that memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures—at least those that can be named—are stored as both image codes and verbal codes. Thus, when we use imagery to remember, we have two potential avenues by which we can retrieve information. Given these results, you tell Jane that she should: (1) not multitask or divide her attention when studying, (2) engage in deep-level processing by going above and beyond the rote memorization of historical names and dates, (3) elaborate about how the historical figures and events she’s learning about relate to her own life, and (4) create a visual picture of every historical figure or event she needs to remember.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Encoding

  1. (p. 207)Describe the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory.

The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that memory storage involves three separate systems:

▪ Sensory memory: time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds
▪ Short-term memory: time frames up to 30 seconds
▪ Long-term memory: time frames up to a lifetime

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nature of Memory

 

  1. (p. 208-210)Compare and contrast the short-term memory system with the working memory system.

Short-term memory is passive, whereas working is an active memory system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks. Working memory is a kind of mental “workbench” on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions, and solve problems. Both short-term and working memories have limited capacities.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 211)Describe Baddeley’s view of the three components of working memory.

(1) The phonological loop is specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language. The phonological loop contains two separate components: an acoustic code (the sounds we heard), which decays in a few seconds, and rehearsal, which allows us to repeat the words in the phonological store. (2) The visuo-spatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery. As in the case of the phonological loop, the capacity of the visuo-spatial sketchpad is limited. If we try to put too many items in the visuo-spatial sketchpad, we cannot represent them accurately enough to retrieve them successfully. The phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad function independently. (3) The central executive integrates information not only from the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad but also from long-term memory. In Baddeley’s view, the central executive plays important roles in attention, planning, and organizing. The central executive acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves our attention and which we should ignore. It also selects which strategies to use to process information and solve problems. Like the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad, the central executive has a limited capacity.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 216)What are schemas and how are they relevant to memory?

A schema is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. Schemas from prior encounters with the environment influence the way we encode, make inferences about, and retrieve information.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 217)Describe the working of the connectionist process.

A neural activity involving memory, such as remembering your dog’s name, is spread across a number of areas of the cerebral cortex. The locations of neural activity, called nodes, are interconnected. When a node reaches a critical level of activation, it can affect another node across synapses. We know that the human cerebral cortex contains millions of neurons that are richly interconnected through hundreds of millions of synapses. Because of these synaptic connections, the activity of one neuron can be influenced by many other neurons. Owing to these simple reactions, the connectionist view argues that changes in the strength of synaptic connections are the fundamental bases of memory. From the connectionist network perspective, memories are organized sets of neurons that are routinely activated together.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

  1. (p. 218)What is long-term potentiation and why is it important to the process of memory?

Long-term potentiation explains how memory functions at the neuron level. In line with connectionist theory, this concept states that if two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them—and thus the memory—may be strengthened.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Storage

 

  1. (p. 222)Describe the distinction between recall and recognition, and give an example of each. Which process typically yields better memory performance?

Recall is a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information. Recognition is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items. Multiple choice tests assess recognition (the student only has to recognize the answer with a given set of possible options), whereas essay tests assess recall (the student has to retrieve the information “from scratch”). Recognition typically yields better memory performance. For example, a witness who has to identify a suspect in a police lineup (recognition task) may find it easier to point out the correct suspect than a witness who has to describe the characteristics of the suspect to a police sketch artist (recall task).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Memory Retrieval

  1. (p. 232)Define the distinction between proactive and retroactive interference.

According to interference theory, people forget, not because memories are lost from storage, but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember. There are two kinds of interference: proactive and retroactive. Proactive interference occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. Retroactive interference occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

  1. (p. 234)Emily and Samantha were in a boating accident and both now suffer from amnesia. Emily has been diagnosed with retrograde amnesia, whereas Samantha has been diagnosed with. Describe what Emily and Samantha will likely forget.

Amnesia involves a loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events. Retrograde amnesia involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events. Emily will lose memories that were formed before the boating accident (e.g., her name or phone number), but will still have the ability to remember things that occurred after the accident. Samantha’s memories of her life before the accident will remain intact. However, Samantha will not be able to remember things that happened after the accident. Like H.M., Samantha will lose the ability to form new long-term memories.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Forgetting

 

Chapter 07

Thinking, Intelligence, and Language

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 243)Cognitive psychology is the study of _____.
    A. motivation and emotion
    B. mental processes
    C. abnormal functioning
    D. social relationships

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Introduction

  1. (p. 243)Cognitive psychology studies all of the following except _____.
    A. problem solving
    B. reasoning
    C. telepathy
    D. decision making

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Introduction

  1. (p. 243)When using the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer’s _____ and cognition is described as its _____.
    A. hardware/software
    B. software/hardware
    C. hardware/hard drive
    D. software/RAM

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

 

  1. (p. 244)Why are computers considered to be an oversimplified model of the mind’s processing of information?
    A. Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing.
    B. Computer information is far too complex for such a comparison to be accurate.
    C. Computer information is too mathematically based for such a comparison to be accurate.
    D. Computers are currently unable to perform tasks better than humans.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

  1. (p. 243)Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument with the mention of _____, a task that only humans can perform.
    A. developing new learning goals
    B. prescribing medical treatments
    C. evaluating loan applications
    D. diagnosing medical illnesses

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

  1. (p. 245)_____ are mental categories used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
    A. Algorithms
    B. Concepts
    C. Semantics
    D. Heuristics

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 246)Basketball, football, baseball, and soccer all fit into the _____ of sports.
    A. heuristic
    B. morphemes
    C. concept
    D. algorithm

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 246)Which of the following is true of concepts?
    A. Concepts prevent us from generalizing.
    B. Concepts are independent of experiences and objects.
    C. Concepts complicate the memory process.
    D. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 246)According to _____, when people evaluate whether a particular object reflects a certain concept, they compare the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item’s properties.
    A. the prototype model
    B. the availability heuristic
    C. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
    D. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 246)A prototype is a _____.
    A. strategy that guarantees a solution to a problem
    B. representation of the average or ideal member of a concept
    C. tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
    D. the way in which information is processed and manipulated in the decision making process

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 246)_____ may help us to generalize, whereas _____ may help us accomplish a goal.
    A. Problem solving/concepts
    B. Concepts/problem solving
    C. Algorithms/artificial intelligence (AI)
    D. Artificial intelligence (AI)/algorithms

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 246)Which of the following is the first step in the problem-solving process?
    A. Evaluate solutions
    B. Find and frame problems
    C. Develop good problem-solving strategies
    D. Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 246-247)In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because many real-life problems _____.
    A. are vague and/or ill defined
    B. suggest obvious operations
    C. provide clear definitions
    D. are beyond the average person’s ability to solve

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 246)According to the textbook, _____ is the first step in the problem-solving process.
    A. developing good problem-solving strategies
    B. evaluating solutions
    C. rethinking and redefining problems and solutions over time
    D. finding and framing the problem

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)Recognizing problems involves _____.
    A. being aware of and open to experiences
    B. functional fixedness
    C. artificial intelligence
    D. using heuristics

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 247)You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the problem-solving strategy of subgoaling, you would do which of the following?
    A. You would cram the night before the test.
    B. You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence.
    C. You would decide who should be your study partner.
    D. You would study the learning objectives for each chapter instead of reading the chapters.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)You have to cook dinner for 30 people on Saturday. Your apartment is a mess and you have nothing to wear. You decide to do your laundry Thursday night, buy the groceries on Friday, clean the apartment Saturday morning, and cook the dinner Saturday evening. Preparing for the dinner party in this way is an example of _____.
    A. subgoaling
    B. using algorithms
    C. using heuristics
    D. prototype

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)The good strategy for subgoaling is to _____.
    A. work forward in your planning, first creating a subgoal closest to the start and finally creating a subgoal close to the final goal
    B. not create more than two subgoals
    C. not create fewer than ten subgoals
    D. work backward in your planning; first creating a subgoal that is closest to the final goal, and then work backward to the subgoal that is closest to the beginning of the problem-solving effort

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 247)A(n) _____ is a strategy that guarantees a solution to a problem.
    A. subgoal
    B. algorithm
    C. heuristic
    D. fixation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)Claudia is trying to cook her mother’s famous lasagna. She carefully follows her mother’s recipe to ensure that the dish turns out correctly. Claudia is using a(n) _____.
    A. heuristic
    B. subgoal
    C. algorithm
    D. category

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)Heuristics and algorithms differ in terms of their _____.
    A. speed of processing
    B. information processing capacity
    C. creativity
    D. scope

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 247)What is the primary disadvantage of using algorithms?
    A. They only work for large problems.
    B. They are very similar to trial-and-error.
    C. Correct solutions are not guaranteed.
    D. Solutions may take a long time.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is the advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems?
    A. Speed and efficiency
    B. Mental set
    C. Accuracy
    D. Precision

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 247)Developing a criterion for determining the effectiveness of the solution occurs during which step of the problem-solving process?
    A. Finding and framing the problem.
    B. Developing problem-solving strategies
    C. Evaluation of solutions
    D. Redefining problems over time

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 248)_____ is a characteristic of good problem solvers.
    A. Pessimism
    B. Humility
    C. Egocentrism
    D. Self awareness

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 248)Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her junk mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper, which she then just throws away. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective styrofoam packing material. Suddenly Monique gets the idea to empty her shredder and use the shredded junk mail confetti for packing material. Monique has _____.
    A. overcome functional fixedness
    B. used a heuristic to solve her packing problem
    C. used an algorithm to solve her packing problem
    D. used subgoaling to obtain the appropriate packing materials

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 248)Carla is a first-semester freshman at State University. She succeeded in high school by cramming for exams and relying on parental pressure to get homework done. Now, however, she is finding that these strategies are no longer viable ways to succeed. According to the text, Carla should _____.
    A. “think outside the box” in order to succeed in college
    B. move back home with her parents and commute to college
    C. drop out of college
    D. should indulge in fixations

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 249)People often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is known as _____.
    A. deductive reasoning
    B. subgoaling
    C. inductive reasoning
    D. problem spacing

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 249)Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using _____.
    A. inductive reasoning
    B. deductive reasoning
    C. critical thinking
    D. descriptive reasoning

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 249)Psychological research involves studying a sample of participants in order to draw conclusions about the population from which the sample is drawn. This is an example of _____.
    A. inductive reasoning
    B. deductive reasoning
    C. algorithms
    D. artificial intelligence

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 249)Carlos believes that all of the people from another part of his town are snobs. He believes that the students from this area are rich and drive expensive sports cars to school. He is scheduled to perform with a few of these students in an all-county musical presentation. If he assumes that these particular students will also be rich and snobby, he is using _____.
    A. inductive reasoning
    B. deductive reasoning
    C. critical thinking
    D. artificial intelligence

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 249)_____ involves reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance.
    A. Inductive reasoning
    B. Deductive reasoning
    C. Algorithms
    D. Heuristics

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 249-250)_____ uses established rules to draw conclusions, whereas in _____, such rules are not established, and we may not know the consequences of the decisions.
    A. Reasoning/decision making
    B. Heuristics/algorithms
    C. Creativity/reasoning
    D. Heuristics/reasoning

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 251)The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them is known as _____.
    A. hindsight bias
    B. confirmation bias
    C. intervention bias
    D. selection bias

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 251)Cathy just got transferred to a new department, but she has long believed that her new supervisor is a cranky, disagreeable, critical person. According to the confirmation bias, what will Cathy most likely do on her first day in the new supervisor’s department?
    A. She will forget about the things she has thought about her new supervisor.
    B. She will look for positive behaviors on the part of her supervisor.
    C. She will tell the new supervisor what she has thought.
    D. She will look for negative behaviors on the part of the supervisor.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 251)Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?
    A. She will read both the editorials that she agrees with and those that she doesn’t to get a balanced view of issues.
    B. She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with.
    C. She will read the editorials that she disagrees with to get an idea of what the other perspectives on issues may be.
    D. She will not read any of the editorials.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 251)_____ is the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome. It is sometimes referred to as the “I knew it all along effect.”
    A. Hindsight bias
    B. Confirmation bias
    C. Selection bias
    D. Intervention bias

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 251)Every week during football season, Fred and his friends have fun following the local high school teams. Before the games, Fred never really talks too much about how the games will turn out. On Monday, however, it is a different scenario altogether. Fred is more than happy to share with his friends that the games came out exactly as he thought they would and why. Fred seems to be demonstrating _____.
    A. overconfidence bias
    B. hindsight bias
    C. selection bias
    D. deductive reasoning

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 252)If you spend the day imagining the outcome of the upcoming football game, and then a friend asks you what your favorite sport is and you say “football” even though before today basketball was actually your favorite, you have used and/or experienced _____.
    A. confirmation bias
    B. the availability heuristic
    C. hindsight bias
    D. timing bias

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 252)The fact that we hear about airplane crashes on the news more often than we hear about automobile crashes may lead us to believe that we are more likely to die in a plane than a car. This is an example of a(n) _____.
    A. attention bias
    B. simulation heuristic
    C. availability heuristic
    D. representativeness heuristic

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 252)The tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information is known as _____.
    A. Bonferroni inequalities
    B. false discovery rate
    C. Boole’s inequality
    D. base rate fallacy

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 252)_____ is the tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one’s stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information.
    A. Hindsight bias
    B. Confirmation bias
    C. The availability heuristic
    D. The representativeness heuristic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 253-254)Which of the following characteristics is essential to the process of critical thinking?
    A. Mindfulness and open-mindedness
    B. Fixedness and divergent thinking
    C. Heuristics and creativity
    D. Inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 253)_____ is a characteristic of good critical thinkers.
    A. Pessimism
    B. Humility
    C. Egocentrism
    D. Rigidity

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 253)Mindfulness involves _____.
    A. being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities
    B. being receptive to other ways of looking at things
    C. having a strong ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways
    D. the tendency to ignore information about general principles

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 254)Open-mindedness involves _____.
    A. being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities
    B. being receptive to other ways of looking at things
    C. the tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very ­specific but vivid information
    D. the tendency to ignore information about general principles

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)_____ involves the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems.
    A. An algorithm
    B. Creativity
    C. A heuristic
    D. Fixedness

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)_____ produces many solutions to the same problem.
    A. Deductive reasoning
    B. Convergent thinking
    C. Divergent thinking
    D. Inductive reasoning

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 254)Lionel is a CEO of a company that is in financial crisis. He asks his employees to brainstorm and create a list of all possible solutions to keeping the company in business. Lionel is asking his employees to engage in _____.
    A. convergent thinking
    B. divergent thinking
    C. heuristic thinking
    D. functional fixedness

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)_____ produces the single best solution to a problem.
    A. Deductive reasoning
    B. Convergent thinking
    C. Divergent thinking
    D. Inductive reasoning

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)Creative people engage in _____.
    A. divergent thinking but not in convergent thinking
    B. deductive thinking
    C. both convergent thinking and divergent thinking
    D. functional fixedness

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 254)Brainstorming is an example of _____.
    A. convergent thinking
    B. divergent thinking
    C. deductive reasoning
    D. functional fixedness

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)_____ occurs when a group of people openly throw out a range of possible solutions to a problem, even some that might seem crazy.
    A. Lateral thinking
    B. Brainstorming
    C. Semantic networking
    D. Mind mapping

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)Jessica has been searching for a new apartment. She has looked at several different possibilities and now must select which apartment best suits her needs. Choosing which apartment is best is an example of _____.
    A. convergent thinking
    B. divergent thinking
    C. inductive reasoning
    D. functional fixedness

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 254)Which of the following is true of individuals who think creatively?
    A. Creative people make fewer mistakes than their less imaginative counterparts.
    B. Creative thinkers are flexible and play with problems.
    C. Creative thinkers tend to be more inspired than less creative people by grades, money, or favorable feedback from others.
    D. Creative thinkers feel that being wrong is a failure.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)Which of the following is true of creative thinkers?
    A. They may use established criteria to make judgments.
    B. They make fewer mistakes than their less imaginative counterparts.
    C. They strive to evaluate their work subjectively.
    D. They are motivated more externally than internally.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)Flexibility, inner motivation, willingness to face risk, and objective evaluation of work are characteristics of people who _____.
    A. use algorithms
    B. prefer to use convergent thinking rather than divergent thinking
    C. think creatively
    D. are mindful

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 256)In the U.S., intelligence is defined as _____.
    A. a trait that is shaped entirely by genetics
    B. an all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience
    C. the ability to know what to do and follow through with appropriate action, under most circumstances
    D. the ability to participate responsibly in family and social life

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 256)When the scores on a measure relate to important outcomes, we say the test has high _____.
    A. reliability
    B. criterion validity
    C. standardization
    D. distribution

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 257)If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but it doesn’t accurately measure intelligence, then the test is _____ but not _____.
    A. reliable; valid
    B. valid; reliable
    C. inductive; deductive
    D. divergent; convergent

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 257)A high school football coach decides to use the time taken to run up 100 stairs as a test for running endurance. He tests every team member on 3 consecutive days and finds that the times for each person are very much the same on all three trials. His test for endurance appears to have good _____.
    A. validity
    B. generalization
    C. reliability
    D. standardization

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 257)Standardization _____.
    A. refers to the ability to yield a consistent result to what it is intended to measure
    B. refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure
    C. is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
    D. involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the test

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 257)_____ is an individual’s level of mental development relative to that of others.
    A. Chronological age
    B. Mental age
    C. Psychological quotient
    D. Cerebral quotient

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 257)If a child’s mental age is higher than her chronological age, this means that _____.
    A. the child’s IQ is above average
    B. the child’s IQ is average
    C. the child’s IQ is lower than average
    D. a mistake has occurred

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 257)A 6-year-old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of _____.
    A. 90
    B. 100
    C. 110
    D. 60

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 257)A child with a mental age of 9 and a chronological age of 12 has an IQ of _____.
    A. 120
    B. 75
    C. 100
    D. 90

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 258)Dr. Ambrose is administering an intelligence test, and one question asks, “During what month of the year does the NCAA basketball championship games start?” Students from various groups within the U.S., as well as students from countries outside of the United States may have problems with this question because it is probably _____.
    A. not valid
    B. culturally biased
    C. unreliable
    D. generalized

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 258)You have been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors want to eliminate all items that contain any possible culture bias. With this task in mind, which of the following questions would you eliminate first?
    A. In what ways are boats and trains the same?
    B. What would you wear if it were very cold outside?
    C. What is the name of the main character in the Wizard of Oz?
    D. What is the color of the sun?

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 259)_____ is the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group’s members.
    A. Familiarity
    B. Accountability
    C. Heritability
    D. Cognizance

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 259)It has commonly been reported that the heritability of intelligence is approximately _____ percent.
    A. 10
    B. 25
    C. 50
    D. 75

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 261)Malcom has an IQ of 140. He has skipped three grades and is a straight A student with superior verbal and mathematical talent. Psychologists would consider Malcom to be _____.
    A. gifted
    B. autistic
    C. socially maladjusted
    D. an introvert

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 261)People who are gifted have an IQ of _____.
    A. 110-120
    B. 90
    C. 70 or lower
    D. 130 or higher

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 261)Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) is a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has an IQ of ____ and has difficulty adapting to everyday life.
    A. 150
    B. 120
    C. 90-100
    D. below 70

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 263)Which of the following would not be a case of mental retardation?
    A. An adult who, after 30 years of normal intellectual functioning, is involved in an automobile accident and has suffered brain damage that has severely limited mental functioning
    B. An adult who was born with Down syndrome and lives in a group home because of cognitive deficits
    C. A 7-year-old child with an IQ of 40 who was born with brain damage and needs constant attention from caregivers
    D. A 12-year-old child with an IQ score of 55 who has grown up in a severely deprived environment and who struggles in school

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 263)_____ is caused by a genetic disorder.
    A. Organic intellectual disability
    B. Cultural-familial retardation
    C. Vitamin deficiency retardation
    D. Functional fixedness

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 264)Sophia is in the fifth grade and lives in one of the most impoverished areas in the state. She has a history of academic failure, although she is very sensitive to teacher expectations. Her teachers have noticed that she responds best when candy is offered as an incentive instead of verbal praise. Sophia’s IQ is 65. She is most likely a victim of _____.
    A. organic retardation
    B. cultural-familial retardation
    C. vitamin deficiency retardation
    D. profound mental retardation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 265)The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast are characteristics of _____ intelligence.
    A. algorithmic
    B. analytical
    C. creative
    D. practical

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 265)According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, _____ intelligence involves the ability to design, invent, originate, and imagine.
    A. intrapersonal
    B. analytical
    C. creative
    D. naturalist

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 265)Hudson works in the product development department of a large toy company. His job is to take abstract theories of child development and implement them in functional ways so that they can be used to create a toy. According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, Hudson would likely score high on a measure of _____ intelligence.
    A. spatial
    B. naturalist
    C. intrapersonal
    D. practical

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 265)According to _____ there are three forms of intelligence, whereas according to _____ there are nine types of intelligences.
    A. Sternberg’s triarchic theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
    B. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences/Sternberg’s triarchic theory
    C. Sternberg’s triarchic theory/artificial intelligence (AI) theory
    D. artificial intelligence (AI) theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 266)Infinite generativity refers to _____.
    A. the ability to learn more than one language
    B. the ability to make unlimited decisions
    C. the ability to produce an unlimited number of rules
    D. the ability to create unlimited numbers of meaningful sentences

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

 

  1. (p. 266)_____ is a language’s sound system.
    A. Phonology
    B. Semantics
    C. Morphemes
    D. Syntax

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 267)_____ refers to a language’s rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
    A. Phonology
    B. Semantics
    C. Morphemes
    D. Syntax

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 267)_____ refers to a language’s rules for word formation, whereas _____ refer to the meaning of words and sentences.
    A. Phonology/semantics
    B. Morphology/semantics
    C. Semantics/pragmatics
    D. Pragmatics/phonology

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

 

  1. (p. 267)If one were to translate “white house” to Spanish from English, it would be “casa blanca,” or “house white.” This demonstrates a difference in _____ between the two languages.
    A. phonology
    B. morphology
    C. syntax
    D. pragmatics

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 267)The useful character of language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is said are known as _____.
    A. pragmatics
    B. semantics
    C. syntaxes
    D. morphemes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 267)Critics of the work of Benjamin Whorf maintain that _____.
    A. linguistic predispositions are universal
    B. all cultures essentially share the same linguistic experiences
    C. language determines how we think about our world
    D. words merely reflect rather than cause the way we think

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

 

  1. (p. 268)Which of the following is true of babbling?
    A. Babbling begins at the age of about 2-3.
    B. Deaf babies are unable to babble.
    C. It is determined by biological readiness.
    D. It is determined by the amount of reinforcement or the ability to hear.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 271)The textbook describes a case study of a young girl named Genie who was isolated and severely abused. Because her parents never communicated with her in words, Genie lacked exposure to language during her early childhood years. Although she was able to make some language advances while in extensive rehabilitation, as an adult Genie still speaks in short mangled two- or three-word sentences. This case study suggests that language development _____.
    A. can occur rapidly in adulthood, despite childhood deficiencies
    B. is entirely shaped by biology and genetics
    C. is influenced by the environment
    D. ceases during adulthood

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language

  1. (p. 272)Most individuals develop a clear understanding of their language’s structure, as well as a large vocabulary, during _____.
    A. the prenatal period
    B. childhood
    C. early adulthood
    D. late adulthood

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Language

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 244)Discuss the similarities and differences between the human brain and a computer.

Both brains and computers perform operations on incoming information. Both have methods of output (e.g., printing and screen displays versus inner thoughts and outward behaviors). Both also require the storage of information. However, there are also important differences between computers and the human brain. Information going into computers has been processed by humans and thus much of the ambiguity is removed prior to input. Computers are better at complex numerical calculations and can apply rules more consistently and with fewer errors. The brain is more capable of dealing with ambiguity and generalizing information to new situations.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

  1. (p. 246-247)What four steps are involved in the process of problem solving?

The first step is finding and framing the problem. Recognizing problems involves being aware of and open to new experiences. The second step is to develop a good problem-solving strategy. Subgoals, algorithms, and heuristics are examples of effective problem-solving strategies. The third step involves evaluating the solutions in terms of a clear criterion for assessing effectiveness. The final step in the problem-solving process involves rethinking and redefining problems and solutions over time.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 249-250)Discuss the distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning and give an example of each.

Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations. Scientific research relies on inductive reasoning. For example, scientists often study a sample of participants in order to draw conclusions about the population from which the sample is drawn. Deductive reasoning involves reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance. For example, when psychologists develop a hypothesis from a theory, they are using deductive reasoning.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)How does convergent thinking differ from divergent thinking?

Divergent thinking produces many solutions to the same problem. Brainstorming is one example of divergent thinking. Convergent thinking produces the single best solution to a problem. This type of thinking involves selecting the best solution from a set of possible options.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

  1. (p. 254)Describe the characteristics of creative people.

Creative people engage in both divergent and convergent thinking. Research shows that individuals who think creatively tend to show the following characteristics: flexibility and playful thinking, inner motivation, willingness to face risk, and a desire for objective evaluation of their work.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Thinking

 

  1. (p. 256-257)You are working on a class project where you are asked to develop a new test of intelligence. In your psychology class you have learned that there are several criteria for a good test of intelligence. Define the concepts of validity, reliability, and standardization and then discuss their relevance to intelligence testing.

A good test of Intelligence should be reliable, valid, and standardized. Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. A valid measure is an accurate measure. If a test is supposed to measure Intelligence, it should measure Intelligence, and not some other characteristic, such as anxiety. If the scores on the new Intelligence test correlate with important outcomes, such as job performance, then the test has high criterion validity. Reliability is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance. Thus, if a person scored 100 on an IQ test the first time they take it, he or she should have similar scores upon repeated testing. Standardization involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms or performance standards. Standardization allows for a comparison of individual scores to population norms. Standardization allows one to understand if their individual score is below average, average, or above average.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 259)Define the concept of heritability and explain how it relates to the study of intelligence.

Heritability is the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group’s members. For intelligence, that means that heritability tells us how much of the differences we observe in intelligence is attributable to differences in genes. Because heritability is a proportion, the highest degree of heritability is 100 percent. It has commonly been reported that the heritability of intelligence is approximately 50 percent, which clearly allows for a considerable influence of the environment.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 263-264)How do psychologists define mental retardation? What is the distinction between organic retardation and cultural-familial retardation?

Mental retardation is a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, and has difficulty adapting to everyday life. Mental retardation may have an organic cause, or it may be social and cultural in origin. Organic retardation is mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage. Thus, organic retardation involves physical damage or abnormality. Most people who suffer from organic retardation have IQs between 0 and 50. Cultural-familial retardation is characterized by a mental deficit with no evidence of organic brain damage. Individuals with this type of retardation have IQs between 55 and 70. Psychologists suspect that such mental deficits result, at least in part, from growing up in a below-average intellectual environment.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

 

  1. (p. 265-266)Compare and contrast Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. What are the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches to intelligence?

Sternberg’s and Gardner’s approaches have stimulated teachers to think broadly about what makes up children’s competencies. They have motivated educators to develop programs that instruct students in multiple domains. These theories have also contributed to interest in assessing intelligence and classroom learning in innovative ways, such as by evaluating student portfolios (Woolfolk, 2013).
Doubts about multiple-intelligences approaches persist, however. A number of psychologists think that the proponents of multiple intelligences have taken the concept of specific intelligences too far (Reeve & Charles, 2008). Some critics argue that a research base to support the three intelligences of Sternberg or the nine intelligences of Gardner has not yet emerged. One expert on intelligence, Nathan Brody (2007), observes that people who excel at one type of intellectual task are likely to excel in others. Thus, individuals who do well at memorizing lists of digits are also likely to be good at solving verbal problems and spatial layout problems. Other critics ask; if musical skill, for example, reflects a distinct type of intelligence, why not also label the skills of outstanding chess players, prize fighters, painters, and poets as types of intelligence? In sum, controversy still characterizes whether it is more accurate to conceptualize intelligence as a general ability, specific abilities, or both (Brody, 2007; Nisbett & others, 2012; Sternberg, 2012).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Intelligence

  1. (p. 266-267)Define the five basic components of language.

There are five components to language: phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Phonemes refer to the sound component of language. They are the smallest unit of sound in a spoken language. Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning in a language. Syntax involves a language’s rules for arranging words (grammar). Semantics refers to the meaning of words, sentences, and paragraphs. Pragmatics has to do with using language in certain ways to communicate. Changes in pitch or emotional expression can influence the meaning of language.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Language