The Art of Public Speaking 11th Edition by Stephen Lucas – Test Bank

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The Art of Public Speaking  11th Edition by Stephen Lucas – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

 

 

  6

 

Analyzing the Audience

 

 

 

 

T

he questions for each chapter are organized according to type: true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay. Within each of these categories, questions are clustered by topic, roughly following the order of topics in the textbook.

To provide as much flexibility as possible in constructing examinations, there is deliberate overlap among the questions, both within and across question types. This enables you to choose the wording and question type that best fits your testing objectives. In deciding which questions to use, take care to avoid items such as a multiple-choice question that gives away the answer to a true-false or short-answer question, or an essay question that covers essentially the same ground as a true-false, short-answer, or multiple-choice question.

Each type of question—true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay—has an automatic numbering system, which means you can copy and paste items from within a question type, and they will automatically number themselves consecutively, beginning with “1.” The five answer choices for each multiple-choice question are also ordered automatically, and so you can add, change, or reorder answer choices without rearranging the lettering.

If you would like to preserve the fonts, indents, and tabs of the original questions, you can substitute questions for those in the sample final exams or copy and paste questions into the Exam Master provided in the final Word file of the Test Bank. In the Exam Master, spaces for your course name, exam type, and the student’s name and section are followed by headings and instructions for true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. You can add elements unique to your exams and delete elements you don’t want to use. After you customize the Exam Master, you can save it with your changes. Then, each time you open it, click “Save As” to give it the name of the exam you are currently constructing.

 

True-False Questions

  1. T F      The primary purpose of speechmaking is to demonstrate your command of the topic.
  2. T F      According to your textbook, public speakers need to be audience-centered.
  3. T F      Being audience-centered means that your primary purpose as a speaker is to gain a desired response from the audience.
  4. T F      The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners by any means necessary.
  5. T F      The need to adapt to the audience means that speechmakers must  usually compromise their own beliefs or values.
  6. T F      The aim of successful speechmaking is to gain a desired response from listeners even if the speaker must compromise his or her beliefs to do so.
  7. T F      Being audience-centered means a speaker must sacrifice what she or he really believes to get a favorable response from the audience.
  8. T F      Adapting to audiences is one of the easiest tasks facing beginning speakers.
  9. T F      The need for audience analysis and adaptation is one of the major differences between public speaking and everyday conversation.
  10. T F      The classroom is an artificial speaking situation in which you can overlook the attitudes and interests of your audience.
  11. T F      You are most likely to be successful in your classroom speeches if you think of your classmates as a real audience.
  12. T F      An audience’s response to a message is invariably colored by its perception of the speaker.
  13. T F      Unlike beginning speakers, experienced speakers have little need for audience analysis.
  14. T F      Audience analysis and adaptation affect all aspects of speechmaking except for the delivery of the speech itself.
  15. T F      The process of audience analysis and adaptation affects every aspect of speech preparation from choosing a topic to delivering the speech.
  16. T F      Public speaking is essentially like acting because once you learn a speech, you can give it over and over without adapting to the different audiences you address.
  17. T F      Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a speech topic.
  18. T F      Audience analysis first comes into play after a speaker has chosen a specific purpose.
  19. T F      Audience analysis is only important after a speaker has completed research for a speech.
  20. T F      Audience analysis is only important after a speaker has prepared an outline for the speech.
  21. T F      The process of audience adaptation is over by the time a speaker starts delivering the speech.
  22. T F      Although most of the process of audience adaptation occurs as part of preparing a speech, a speaker may still need to adapt her or his remarks to the audience during the presentation of the speech.
  23. T F      Even when listeners pay close attention, they don’t process a speaker’s message exactly as the speaker intended.
  24. T F      As your textbook explains, a speaker’s frame of reference is usually the same as that of his or her listeners.
  25. T F      Every speech contains two messages—the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the listener.
  26. T F      Egocentrism is the belief that one’s culture is superior to all others.
  27. T F      Egocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking “Why is this important for me?”
  28. T F      Ethnocentrism means that audiences typically approach speeches by asking, “Why is this important to me?”
  29. T F      Listeners typically approach a speech with one question uppermost in their minds: “Why is this important to the speaker?”
  30. T F      Communication scholars use the term “identification” to refer to the process by which speakers seek to create a bond with audiences by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.
  31. T F      Communication scholars use the term “identification” to refer to the way speakers use stereotypes to analyze the demographic traits of their audience.
  32. T F      Any characteristic of a given audience is potentially important to a speaker analyzing that audience.
  33. T F      One of the major demographic traits of audiences is interest in the speaker’s topic.
  34. T F      Gender, sexual orientation, age, race, ethnicity, and group membership are all factors to consider when conducting a demographic audience analysis.
  35. T F      Recognizing that some of your listeners may have racial, ethnic, cultural, or sexual orientations that bear upon your topic is part of demographic audience analysis.
  36. T F      Audience size, the physical setting for the speech, and the audience’s disposition toward the topic are all elements of demographic audience analysis.
  37. T F      Stereotyping is an effective way to use demographic audience analysis in a speech.
  38. T F      Although the differences between women and men have diminished in recent years, the gender of listeners is still a major factor in audience analysis.
  39. T F      Because men and women in the United States share a much broader range of experiences than they once did, gender is no longer a significant factor in demographic audience analysis.
  40. T F      Because religion is private and personal for most people, it is seldom an important element in demographic audience analysis.
  41. T F      A public speaker can safely assume that all members of a religious denomination share the same beliefs and values.
  42. T F      According to your textbook, sexual orientation is one factor to be considered in situational audience analysis.
  43. T F      According to your textbook, sexual orientation is one factor to be considered in demographic audience analysis.
  44. T F      Employers are looking for college graduates who can communicate effectively with people of different cultural backgrounds.
  45. T F      As the United States becomes more diverse, speakers no longer need to be sensitive to issues of race, ethnicity, and cultural background in public speaking.
  46. T F      The group membership of an audience can provide excellent clues about their interests and attitudes.
  47. T F      Audience size, the physical setting for the speech, and the audience’s disposition toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion are all elements of situational audience analysis.
  48. T F      The size of the audience is one of the factors to be considered in situational audience analysis.
  49. T F      As a general rule, the larger your audience, the more formal your speech presentation should be.
  50. T F      Knowing how the physical setting might affect your listeners’ receptivity to your ideas is an important factor in demographic audience analysis.
  51. T F      Knowing how the physical setting might affect your listeners’ receptivity to your ideas is an important factor in situational audience analysis.
  52. T F      Interest, knowledge, and attitude are the three most important factors to consider when determining an audience’s disposition toward a speaker’s topic.
  53. T F      The more people know about a topic, the more likely they are to be interested in it.
  54. T F      No matter what the occasion, listeners will have fairly definite expectations about the kinds of speeches appropriate for the occasion.
  55. T F      Keeping speeches within strict time limits is an artificial constraint of classroom speeches and is less important for speeches outside the classroom.
  56. T F      When you construct an audience analysis questionnaire, fixed-alternative questions are especially useful for getting at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes.
  57. T F      When you construct an audience analysis questionnaire, scale questions are especially useful for getting at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes.
  58. T F      When you construct an audience analysis questionnaire, scale questions give respondents the maximum leeway in responding.
  59. T F      When you construct an audience-analysis questionnaire, open-ended questions are especially valuable because they usually generate clear, unambiguous responses.

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions    (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.)

  1. As your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to
    1. gain a desired response from listeners.
    2. learn more about the speech topic.
    3. gain experience as a speaker.
    4. try out new ideas with an audience.
    5. display the speaker’s knowledge.
  2. As your textbook explains, the primary purpose of speechmaking is to
    1. display the speaker’s skills as a speaker.
    2. use language to manipulate people.
    3. gain a desired response from listeners.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  3. Audience-centeredness means that public speakers should
    1. keep the audience foremost in mind throughout the speechmaking process.
    2. use any means necessary to gain the assent of the audience.
    3. avoid choosing topics that are controversial.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  4. Audience analysis is an important factor in which of the following?
    1. selecting a topic
    2. organizing the speech
    3. choosing supporting materials
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  5. Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following?
    1. choosing the speech topic
    2. preparing the speech
    3. presenting the speech
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  6. Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following steps of the speechmaking process?
    1. formulating a specific purpose
    2. writing an introduction and conclusion
    3. choosing visual aids
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  7. The process by which a speaker seeks to create a bond with listeners by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences is referred to as ___________ by communication scholars.
    1. framing
    2. identification
    3. egocentrism
    4. structuring
    5. affiliation
  8. In her speech introduction, Kailyn asked, “Have you ever looked through old family photo albums and laughed at what people were wearing? Have you ever been amused by the bright colors, huge lapels, and crazy ties worn by characters in old TV shows? Like many of you, I’ve noticed the changes in fashion and feared that my effort to look stylish today may eventually be a source of amusement to my future children.” According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common experiences and fears, Kailyn was engaging in
  9. In her speech introduction, Suya said, “Though we are all very different, we are all students here at this university and are all working toward the completion of a degree. Unfortunately, because of rising tuition, some of us may lose the ability to continue in school.” According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common goals and experiences, Suya was engaging in
  10. To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
  11. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
    1. listeners interpret what you say on the basis of what they know and believe.
    2. listeners believe that their cultural group is superior to all other groups.
    3. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker’s frame of reference.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  12. The fact that audiences are egocentric means that
    1. listeners believe their cultural group is superior to all other groups.
    2. listeners are concerned above all with how a speech will affect them.
    3. listeners interpret the speech through the speaker’s frame of reference.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and b only.
  13. What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
    1. demographic and situational
    2. personal and impersonal
    3. occupational and educational
    4. psychological and sociological
    5. descriptive and analytical
  14. One of the ways speakers analyze audiences is by looking at traits such as age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic and cultural background. According to your textbook, what is this called?
    1. demographic audience analysis
    2. psychological audience analysis
    3. background audience analysis
    4. situational audience analysis
    5. descriptive audience analysis
  15. As Amanda analyzed the audience for her speech about organic foods, she focused on such things as their gender, age, and cultural background. In doing so, she was engaging in __________ audience analysis.
    1. situational
    2. psychological
    3. demographic
    4. preliminary
    5. descriptive
  16. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. knowledge about the subject
    2. attitude toward the speaker
    3. interest in the topic
    4. physical setting
    5. cultural background
  17. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. their size
    2. their sexual orientation
    3. their attitude toward the speaker
    4. their knowledge about the subject
    5. their attitude toward the occasion
  18. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. age
    2. interest
    3. size
    4. attitude
    5. knowledge
  19. According to your textbook, which of the following is a demographic characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. interest
    2. attitude
    3. size
    4. gender
    5. knowledge
  20. According to your textbook, when analyzing demographic information about your audience, it is essential that you avoid
  21. Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people or assuming that all members of the group are alike is called
  22. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the subject of mandatory retirement, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. economic standing.
    2. group membership.
  23. If you were giving a persuasive speech on Medicare to members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. age of the audience.
    2. gender of the audience.
    3. audience’s attitude toward the speaker.
    4. physical setting of the speech.
    5. size of the audience.
  24. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience on the presidency of John F. Kennedy, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. economic standing.
    2. group membership.
  25. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about the war in Vietnam, the most important demographic factor to consider in analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. sexual orientation of the audience.
    2. economic standing of the audience.
    3. gender of the audience.
    4. age of the audience.
    5. education of the audience.
  26. As part of his economics seminar, Geraldo has been invited to give a persuasive speech to a community audience on the subject of Social Security. The most important factor for Geraldo to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. sexual orientation.
  27. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the issue of illegal immigration, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. ethnic background.
    2. sexual orientation.
  28. If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience arguing that all children should be required to use standard English in the public schools, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be
    1. the age of the audience.
    2. the physical setting for the speech.
    3. the ethnic background of the audience.
    4. the time of day for the speech.
    5. the size of the audience.
  29. If you were giving a persuasive speech on gun control to members of the National Rifle Association, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be the
    1. size of your audience.
    2. group membership of your audience.
    3. economic standing of your audience.
    4. education of your audience.
    5. knowledge of your audience.
  30. Ramona is preparing a persuasive speech on environmental issues to present to members of the National Wildlife Federation. The most important factor Ramona should consider when analyzing her audience is probably its
    1. group membership.
    2. ethnic background.
    3. knowledge of the topic.
  31. According to your textbook, you should always combine demographic audience analysis with __________ audience analysis.
    1. scientific
    2. educational
    3. informational
    4. situational
    5. occupational
  32. As explained in your textbook, __________ audience analysis usually builds on demographic audience analysis.
    1. psychological
    2. descriptive
    3. occupational
    4. background
    5. situational
  33. According to your textbook, which of the following is a situational characteristic of a speech audience?
    1. gender
    2. size
    3. religion
    4. group membership
    5. age
  34. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor in situational audience analysis?
    1. the audience’s cultural background
    2. the audience’s religious beliefs
    3. the audience’s group membership
    4. the audience’s gender
    5. the audience’s attitude toward the topic
  35. Which of the following is a factor to consider in situational audience analysis?
    1. gender
    2. group membership
    3. attitude toward the topic
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  36. As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more
  37. You are giving a speech on a community building project to a local service organization at its monthly luncheon. Dessert dishes are being cleared away as you walk into the overcrowded, overheated room. The most important situational factor to consider when adapting to your audience would probably be the
    1. age of your audience.
    2. audience’s attitude toward you.
    3. physical setting for your speech.
    4. education of your audience.
    5. gender of your audience.
  38. According to your textbook, what are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience’s disposition toward a speech topic?
    1. gender, knowledge, and opinions
    2. interest, background, and age
    3. size, occasion, and group membership
    4. knowledge, interest, and attitude
    5. background, situation, and gender
  39. Dimitri plans to give a speech to his classmates about the principles of physics behind the design of hybrid automobiles. The most important factor for Dimitri to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. group membership.
    2. attitude toward the speaker.
    3. knowledge about the topic.
  40. If you were giving an informative speech to your public speaking class about recent developments in planetary astronomy, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
    1. knowledge about the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. ethnic background.
    4. physical setting.
  41. Fran Breit, the golf pro at a local municipal course, has been asked by a social club to give a talk about how to play golf. What is probably the most important factor for Fran to consider in preparing her presentation?
    1. the age of the audience
    2. the racial background of the audience
    3. the time of day the talk will be given
    4. the audience’s knowledge of the topic
    5. the audience’s disposition toward the speaker
  42. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience on Global Positioning Systems technology, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. group membership of the audience.
    2. size of the audience.
    3. knowledge of the audience about the topic.
    4. gender of the audience.
    5. physical setting for the speech.
  43. If you were giving an informative speech to a general audience about digital encryption, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be the
    1. physical setting for the speech.
    2. knowledge of the audience about the topic.
    3. size of the audience.
    4. occupation of the audience.
    5. group membership of the audience.
  44. Michael is preparing a persuasive speech for class in opposition to gun control. The most important factor for Michael to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. cultural background.
    4. religious beliefs.
    5. attitude toward the topic.
  45. Gemma wants to persuade her classmates to become vegans. The most important factor for Gemma to consider when analyzing her audience is probably its
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. attitude toward the topic.
    4. disposition toward the occasion.
    5. racial composition.
  46. A landlord with a bad reputation among students for her high rent, deceptive advertising, and refusal to return security deposits is speaking to a campus group about how the city’s new zoning law will affect students. The most important factor the landlord should consider in her situational audience analysis is probably her listeners’
    1. knowledge of the topic.
    2. disposition toward the speaker.
    3. interest in the topic.
    4. cultural background.
  47. The __________ will usually dictate how long a speech should be.
    1. size of the audience
    2. speech occasion
    3. physical setting
    4. general purpose
    5. topic
  48. Which of the following elements usually has the greatest impact on the length a speech should be?
    1. the audience’s disposition toward the topic
    2. the physical setting for the speech
    3. the audience’s attitudes toward the speaker
    4. the occasion for the speech
    5. the group membership of the audience
  49. The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they
    1. enhance the credibility of the questionnaire.
    2. get below the surface of respondents’ beliefs.
    3. produce clear, unambiguous answers.
    4. give respondents maximum leeway in answering.
    5. require that respondents give truthful answers.
  50. If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn how many of your listeners had ever heard of the Salem witch trials, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
    1. demographic question
    2. open-ended question
    3. leading question
    4. scale question
    5. fixed-alternative question
  51. According to your textbook, the following question from a student audience-analysis questionnaire is an example of what type of question?

The percent of the U.S. population who speak Spanish in their homes is closest to

___        5%

___        10%

___        20%

___        30%

  1. leading question
  2. open-ended question
  3. demographic question
  4. fixed-alternative question
  5. scale question
  1. When making up an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use __________ questions to get at the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings.
    1. scale
    2. fixed-alternative
    3. leading
    4. open-ended
    5. interview
  2. If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn the strength of your listeners’ attitudes for or against animal research, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
    1. demographic question
    2. open-ended question
    3. leading question
    4. scale question
    5. fixed-alternative question
  3. According to your textbook, the following question from a student audience-analysis questionnaire is an example of which kind of question?

Draw an “X” below to indicate how you feel about steroid use in sports.

Strongly                                                                                      Strongly
disapprove                                                                                 approve

  1. fixed-alternative question
  2. attitudinal question
  3. open-ended question
  4. scale question
  5. degree question
  1. According to your textbook, the following is an example of which type of audience-analysis question?

“Explain why you believe that capital punishment is moral or immoral.”

  1. short-answer question
  2. scale question
  3. informal question
  4. free-response question
  5. open-ended question
  1. As your textbook explains, a questionnaire item that gives the respondent the widest freedom in answering is called a(n)
    1. free-response question.
    2. open-ended question.
    3. short-answer question.
    4. scale question.
    5. informal question.
  2. If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn why some of your listeners do not fasten their seatbelts every time they ride in a motor vehicle, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
    1. scale question
    2. leading question
    3. fixed-alternative question
    4. demographic question
    5. open-ended question
  3. If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn why some of your listeners had not signed organ donor cards, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
    1. demographic question
    2. open-ended question
    3. leading question
    4. scale question
    5. fixed-alternative question

 

 

Short-Answer Questions

  1. Because listeners are _______________ , they typically approach speeches by asking “Why is this important to me?”

egocentric

 

  1. Communication scholars use the term _______________ to refer to the process by which speakers seek to create a bond with their audiences by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences.

identification

 

  1. Age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, group membership, and racial, ethnic or cultural background are among the factors to be considered in _______________ audience analysis.

demographic

 

  1. _______________ is the error of creating an oversimplified image of a group or people or assuming that all members of the group are alike.

Stereotyping

 

  1. If you were giving a speech to a general audience about the early days of rock and roll, the _______________ of your listeners would probably be the most important factor to consider in your demographic audience analysis.

age

 

  1. If you were giving a speech to a general audience about the role of women in combat, the _______________ of your listeners would probably be the most important factor to consider in your demographic audience analysis.

gender

 

  1. If you were giving a speech to a general audience about mythology in the Bible, the _______________ of your listeners would probably be the most important factor to consider in demographic audience analysis.

religion

 

  1. If you were giving a speech to a general audience on the history of the Vietnam War, the _______________ of your listeners would probably be the most important factor to consider in demographic audience analysis.

age

 

  1. As a general rule, the larger your audience, the more _______________ your presentation should be.

formal

 

  1. The three most important factors to consider when determining an audience’s disposition toward a speaker’s topic are the audience’s _______________ , _______________ , and _______________ .

interest

knowledge

attitude

 

  1. _______________ audience analysis identifies the traits of the audience unique to a particular speaking occasion.

Situational

 

  1. According to your textbook, the five major factors to consider in situational audience analysis are:

the size of the audience

the physical setting of the speech

the audience’s disposition toward the topic

the audience’s disposition toward the speaker

the audience’s disposition toward the occasion

 

  1. When used in an audience-analysis questionnaire, _______________ questions are valuable because they produce clear, unambiguous answers.

fixed-alternative

 

  1. The major advantage of using _______________ questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they help reveal the strength of a respondent’s attitudes or feelings.

scale

 

  1. In constructing an audience analysis questionnaire, you should use ______________ questions when you want to give respondents maximum leeway in answering.

open-ended

Essay Questions

  1. What does it mean to say that a public speaker should be “audience-centered”? At what stages in speech preparation should a speaker be concerned about being audience-centered?

 

  1. Briefly explain the following statement: “To step outside your own frame of reference and see things from another person’s point of view is a real achievement. Yet this is exactly what you must learn to do if you are to become a successful speaker.”

 

  1. Explain the following statement: “Every speech situation contains two messages—the one sent by the speaker and the one received by the audience.”

 

  1. What does it mean to say that people are “egocentric”? What implications does the egocentrism of audiences have for you as a speaker?

 

  1. Explain why each of the following is an important factor in demographic audience analysis: age; gender; sexual orientation; religion; group membership; racial, ethnic, or cultural background.

 

  1. Imagine that you are preparing a classroom persuasive speech in favor of abolishing intercollegiate athletics. According to your textbook, what are the three factors to consider in analyzing your audience’s disposition toward the topic? In a well-developed essay, explain how differences in each of the three factors might influence your preparation of this speech.

 

  1. What are the three types of questions for audience analysis questionnaires discussed in your text? Give an example of each type and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.

 

  1. As your textbook states, “There are two major stages in the process of audience adaptation. The first occurs before the speech, as part of your preparation and rehearsal. The second occurs during the presentation of the speech itself.” In a well-developed essay, discuss the steps a speaker might take in adapting her or his speech to the audience in each of these stages.

 

  1. As a university professor, your research, writing, and teaching in the area of gender-communication has attracted media attention. It seems that nearly everyone is interested in the differences between the communication styles of men and women. You have been asked to address the managers of a large local manufacturing company on the topic of gender communication in the workplace.

To prepare for your speech, you have arranged a meeting with the company’s human resource director—the person who contacted you about giving the speech—in order to learn more about the audience and situation you will be facing. Write an essay in which you discuss (1) the three most important questions you want to ask the resource director about the demographics of your audience, and (2) the three most important questions you want to ask about the situational traits of your audience. Be specific in your questions and explain why each of them is important.

 

 

  7

 

Gathering Materials

 

 

 

 

T

he questions for each chapter are organized according to type: true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay. Within each of these categories, questions are clustered by topic, roughly following the order of topics in the textbook.

To provide as much flexibility as possible in constructing examinations, there is deliberate overlap among the questions, both within and across question types. This enables you to choose the wording and question type that best fits your testing objectives. In deciding which questions to use, take care to avoid items such as a multiple-choice question that gives away the answer to a true-false or short-answer question, or an essay question that covers essentially the same ground as a true-false, short-answer, or multiple-choice question.

Each type of question—true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay—has an automatic numbering system, which means you can copy and paste items from within a question type, and they will automatically number themselves consecutively, beginning with “1.” The five answer choices for each multiple-choice question are also ordered automatically, and so you can add, change, or reorder answer choices without rearranging the lettering.

If you would like to preserve the fonts, indents, and tabs of the original questions, you can substitute questions for those in the sample final exams or copy and paste questions into the Exam Master provided in the final Word file of the Test Bank. In the Exam Master, spaces for your course name, exam type, and the student’s name and section are followed by headings and instructions for true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. You can add elements unique to your exams and delete elements you don’t want to use. After you customize the Exam Master, you can save it with your changes. Then, each time you open it, click “Save As” to give it the name of the exam you are currently constructing.

 

True-False Questions

  1. T F      Using your own knowledge and experience in a speech can help bring the speech to life.
  2. T F      Most library catalogues allow a researcher to look for books by author, title, subject, or keyword.
  3. T F      Reference works include such items as encyclopedias, yearbooks, quotation books, and biographical aids.
  4. T F      The best known collection of quotations is Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations.
  5. T F      Yearbooks are reference works whose primary purpose is to help you find information about people.
  6. T F      Newspaper and periodical databases help you locate magazine, journal, and newspaper articles.
  7. T F      As your textbook explains, academic databases are particularly useful for finding articles in scholarly journals.
  8. T F      InfoTrac Onefile is an example of an academic database.
  9. T F      According to your textbook, in the absence of a full magazine or journal article, you should cite the abstract of the article instead.
  10. T F      As your textbook explains, when you locate an abstract of a magazine article, you should feel free to cite the article in your speech on the basis of the abstract alone.
  11. T F      Newspaper and periodical databases are good places to find articles in scholarly journals.
  12. T F      Experts advise that you use Internet research to supplement, not to replace, library research.
  13. T F      You can find a great deal of information on the Internet, but you cannot always find the same depth of research materials as in a good library.
  14. T F      You can almost always count on the reliability of Internet research materials found through major search engines such as Google and Yahoo.
  15. T F      A virtual library is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.
  16. T F      One advantage of using virtual libraries for speech research is that they contain only material that has been screened for quality and reliability.
  17. T F      Yahoo is an example of a virtual library.
  18. T F      One of the strengths of the Internet as a research tool is the access it provides to government documents and publications.
  19. T F      Statistical Abstract is the standard reference source for numerical information on the social, political, and economic aspects of American life.
  20. T F      Like magazine and journal articles, most documents posted on the Internet have been subjected to close editorial review.
  21. T F      As your textbook explains, Wikipedia is usually the only source you need when researching your speeches.
  22. T F      As your textbook explains, Wikipedia can be a good place to start your research, but you need to consult other sources in addition to Wikipedia.
  23. T F      According to your textbook, the three major criteria against which to test documents that you locate on the Internet are authorship, graphics, and interactivity.
  24. T F      According to your textbook, the three major criteria against which to test documents that you locate on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and recency.
  25. T F      If you cannot identify the author of a document on the Web, you should try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document.
  26. T F      Because the Internet can be updated quickly, you can almost always assume that facts and figures on the Internet are accurate.
  27. T F      If you can’t find the date on which a Web document was created or last modified, you are better off looking for a different source.
  28. T F      An interview is an effective way to gather speech materials because it frees you of the need to do any other research.
  29. T F      If you use a tape recorder or a digital recorder in a research interview, you should keep it secret from the person being interviewed.
  30. T F      If you want to record a research interview, you should be sure to get the permission of the person being interviewed.
  31. T F      Your most important task before conducting a research interview is to work out the questions you will ask during the interview.
  32. T F      You should avoid asking tough questions during a research interview.
  33. T F      As your textbook indicates, you should avoid asking probing questions during a research interview.
  34. T F      According to your textbook, the best time to ask tough questions is at the beginning of an interview.
  35. T F      According to your textbook, the best time to ask tough questions is at the end of an interview.
  36. T F      After conducting an interview you should usually wait a couple of days before reviewing your notes.
  37. T F      A preliminary bibliography for research on a speech should usually contain a maximum of three or four sources.
  38. T F      If possible, you should write all your research notes from a single book or article on a single index card or sheet of paper.
  39. T F      When taking research notes, it is important to distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas.

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions    (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.)

  1. The __________ is the key to finding information in the library.
    1. general index
    2. catalogue
    3. periodicals guide
    4. encyclopedia
    5. browser
  2. The library’s catalogue allows you to search for books by
    1. all of the above.
    2. a and b only.
  3. The library catalogue
    1. lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library.
    2. provides abstracts of magazine and newspaper articles.
    3. allows a researcher to look for books by author, title, or subject.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  4. Encyclopedias, yearbooks, biographical aids, and quotation books are all examples of
    1. special indexes.
    2. reference works.
    3. bibliographical aids.
    4. research guides.
    5. general indexes.
  5. Who’s Who Among Asian Americans is an example of a(n)
    1. special dictionary.
    2. periodical index.
    3. biographical aid.
  6. As part of the research for his informative speech, Malik needs brief life and career facts about United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. The best kind of library reference source for him to consult would be a(n)
    1. periodical index.
    2. special dictionary.
    3. biographical aid.
  7. If you needed a quotation to use in your speech conclusion, which of the following would be the best reference source to consult?
    1. Sayings of the Famous
    2. International Who’s Who
    3. World Almanac and Book of Facts
    4. Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary
    5. Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations
  8. Newspaper and periodical databases
    1. catalog articles from a large number of newspapers, journals, and magazines.
    2. are valuable for locating materials in encyclopedias and other reference works.
    3. often provide abstracts and full texts of articles.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  9. A(n) __________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of scholarly journals.
    1. abstract
    2. biographical aid
    3. reference work
    4. academic database
    5. keyword index
  10. Academic databases are the best place to look for
    1. high-quality Web resources.
    2. articles in scholarly journals.
    3. statistics about colleges and universities.
    4. encyclopedias and other reference works.
    5. numerical data about life in the United States.
  11. As part of the research for her informative speech on the Chinese workplace, Dana needs to find recent articles published in scholarly journals. The best resource for her is a(n)
    1. academic database such as JSTOR or Google Scholar.
    2. yearbook such as Facts on File or World Almanac.
    3. government resource such as the World Factbook.
    4. all of the above.
    5. b and c only.
  12. Colin wants to find scholarly research on eating disorders. The best place for him to look is in
    1. government resources.
    2. newspaper and periodical databases.
    3. academic databases.
    4. biographical aids.
  13. A(n) __________ is a summary of a magazine or research article, written by someone other than the original author.
    1. citation
    2. abstract
    3. overview
    4. paraphrase
    5. reference
  14. According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article?
    1. never
    2. when the article is more than five years old
    3. when the article is not available on a computerized database
    4. when the only copy of the article is on the bookshelves
    5. when the article is short enough to be summarized in one paragraph
  15. According to your textbook, you can make a Google search more precise by
    1. developing a search strategy.
    2. putting phrases in quotation marks.
    3. joining search terms with plus signs.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  16. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for narrowing a Google search to make it more effective?
    1. Develop a strategy to search for specific terms you want to find.
    2. Put phrases in quotation marks and connect them with plus signs.
    3. Explore specialized Google resources such as news, books, and
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  17. The search engine that makes it easy to find high-quality Web resources by combining Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data is known as a(n)
    1. abstract index.
    2. virtual library.
    3. periodical database.
    4. digital reference.
    5. electronic catalogue.
  18. A __________ is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.
    1. cybercatalogue
    2. metasearch engine
    3. virtual library
    4. reference locator
    5. Web crawler
  19. As your textbook explains, virtual libraries are valuable for speech research because they
    1. focus attention on factual material such as statistics.
    2. contain higher quality information than do regular search engines.
    3. allow a researcher to locate more sources than do regular search engines.
    4. all of the above.
    5. b and c only.
  20. As explained in your textbook, a virtual library is
    1. essentially the same as a bibliography.
    2. a search engine that screens resources for quality and reliability.
    3. another name for the Internet, with its vast quantity of resources.
    4. a term for all the books that have been scanned by Google.
    5. a collection of resources available for e-readers such as Kindle or Nook.
  21. The best source of information about federal, state, local, and tribal governments in the United States is
    1. gov.
    2. Who’s Who.
  22. The best source for numerical data about the social, political, and economic aspects of American life is
    1. Bibliography Express.
    2. Encyclopedia Americana.
    3. International Almanac.
    4. New York Times Index.
    5. Statistical Abstract.
  23. If you were giving a speech and needed to know the number of people who die each year in the United States from accidental drowning, which of the following would be the best source to consult?
    1. Current Biography
    2. Bibliography Express
    3. Statistical Abstract
    4. Webster’s Geographical Dictionary
    5. Encyclopaedia Britannica
  24. If you needed to learn the number of Americans who own cell phones, which of the following would be the best source to consult?
    1. Encyclopedia Americana
    2. S. News and World Report
    3. Statistical Abstract
    4. Who’s Who in America
    5. World News Connection
  25. According to your textbook, Wikipedia is
    1. now considered as reliable as print encyclopedias.
    2. relied upon by journalists as their sole source of information.
    3. the largest source of government documents on the Internet.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  26. As your textbook explains, one advantage of Wikipedia is that
    1. it is the largest source of government documents available on the Internet.
    2. many articles have footnotes, reference lists, and links to other resources.
    3. it contains so much information that you don’t need any other sources.
    4. all of the above.
    5. b and c only.
  27. What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?
    1. length, accuracy, and graphics
    2. interactivity, objectivity, and authorship
    3. graphics, sponsorship, and accuracy
    4. creativity, reliability, and length
    5. authorship, sponsorship, and recency
  28. According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of research documents located on the Internet are authorship, sponsorship, and
  29. According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of documents located on the Internet are recency, authorship, and
  30. If you can’t identify the author of a document on the Internet, your textbook recommends that you
    1. look up the year the document was published.
    2. bookmark the document and return to it later.
    3. try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document.
    4. double check the accuracy of the document’s URL.
    5. search for the document in the library.
  31. While doing research for his speech, Aaron was not able to identify the author of an Internet document titled “What Can and Cannot Be Patented.” According to your textbook, what should Aaron do next to assess the credibility of the document?
    1. Search for the document in the library.
    2. Look up the year the document was published.
    3. Try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document.
    4. Double-check the accuracy of the document’s URL.
    5. Make sure the document is on a news site.
  32. The __________ is the group that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the Internet.
    1. webmaster
    2. virtual author
    3. sponsoring organization
    4. electronic patron
    5. ghostwriter
  33. Which of the following questions should you ask about the sponsoring organization of an Internet document?
    1. Is the organization economically unbiased with respect to the issue?
    2. Is the organization objective in its research and fair-minded in its statements?
    3. Does the organization have a history of accuracy and nonpartisanship?
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  34. Which of the following would lead you to doubt the objectivity of a sponsoring organization for an Internet document?
    1. The organization has expressed similar opinions in the past.
    2. The organization benefits financially by promoting its position on the issue.
    3. The organization is known for positions that are politically unpopular.
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  35. As explained in your textbook, which of the following should lead you to question the objectivity of a sponsoring organization for an Internet document?
    1. The organization’s homepage doesn’t contain an “About” link explaining its founders, purpose, and philosophy.
    2. The organization benefits financially by promoting its stance on the issue.
    3. The organization often expresses positions that are known to be politically controversial.
    4. all of the above
    5. a and b only
  36. You have found statistics on the Internet that you would like to use in your speech. Before you do, you need to make sure that
    1. they come from a credible author or sponsoring organization.
    2. you can find the date on which they were published, posted, or updated.
    3. the statistics are recent enough to make them reliable for your speech.
    4. all of the above.
    5. b and c only.
  37. The most important task when preparing to conduct a research interview is
    1. devising questions to ask during the interview.
    2. deciding whether or not to record the interview.
    3. choosing what to wear during the interview.
    4. selecting an appropriate interviewing style.
    5. deciding whether to take notes during the interview.
  38. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for conducting a research interview?
    1. Show up on time.
    2. Keep the interview on track.
    3. Keep to the agreed time limit.
    4. all of the above
    5. a and c only
  39. According to your textbook, when preparing questions for a research interview, you should
    1. avoid questions you can answer without the interview.
    2. organize questions alphabetically by subject.
    3. arrange questions in the order you want to ask them.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  40. According to your textbook, which of the following is a guideline for preparing a preliminary bibliography?
    1. Write a brief note on why the source may be valuable for your speech.
    2. Include only those sources that you are certain to use in your speech.
    3. Try to get as many sources as possible on each index card or sheet of paper.
    4. all of the above
    5. b and c only
  41. The preliminary bibliography
    1. is based on the speaker’s personal knowledge about the topic.
    2. lists each source that looks as if it might be helpful in speech.
    3. should be prepared after the speaker has finished researching the speech.
    4. should contain a maximum of three or four sources.
    5. identifies sources that the speaker is sure will be used in the speech.
  42. When taking research notes, you should
    1. take only a few notes so you do not get too much information.
    2. put all the notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper.
    3. distinguish among quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas.
    4. record notes only when you’re sure you’ll use the information in your speech.
    5. all of the above.
  43. When taking research notes, you should
    1. put all notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper.
    2. record notes only when you’re sure you’ll use the information in your speech.
    3. take all notes as direct quotations.
    4. all of the above.
    5. none of the above.
  44. Which of the following is most likely to help you take research notes efficiently?
    1. Put all your notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper.
    2. Use a subject heading on each note to indicate what the note is about.
    3. Take plenty of notes, even if you are not sure you will need all the information.
    4. all of the above
    5. b and c only
  45. Ivan has decided to give his persuasive speech on stem cell research. Which of the following tips for doing research discussed in your textbook should he keep in mind as he works on the speech?
    1. include a subject heading on each note.
    2. put all the information from each source on a single note.
    3. use a different format for notes from Internet sources and library documents.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  46. Antonio is researching his speech on West Nile Virus. According to your textbook, Antonio should
    1. make a preliminary bibliography.
    2. think about his research materials as he is gathering them.
    3. distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and his own ideas.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.
  47. Claudia is researching her speech on the use of hydrogen fuel cells as an energy source. According to your textbook, Claudia should
    1. make a separate entry for each note.
    2. take notes only from sources she knows she will cite in the speech.
    3. distinguish in her notes between paraphrases and direct quotations.
    4. all of the above.
    5. a and c only.

 

Short-Answer Questions

  1. A(n) _______________ is a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author.

abstract

 

  1. According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article?

One should never cite an article in a speech on the basis of the abstract alone.

 

  1. A _______________ is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.

virtual library

 

  1. The _______________ is the group that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the Internet.

sponsoring organization

 

  1. What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?

 

authorship

sponsorship

recency

 

  1. What two things does your textbook advise you to do after you conduct a research interview?

 

Review your notes as soon as possible.

Transcribe your notes in the same format as the rest of your research.

 

  1. What are three guidelines explained in your textbook for taking research notes efficiently?

 

Options include:

Take plenty of notes.

Record notes in a consistent format.

Make a separate entry for each note.

Distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas.

 

  1. When doing research, you should prepare a _______________ that includes all the books or articles you find that look as if they might be useful in your speech.

preliminary bibliography

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. What is a reference work? Identify and explain three of the kinds of reference works discussed in your textbook.

 

  1. Identify and explain the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet.

 

  1. When is an interview an effective means of gathering information for a speech?

 

  1. Your textbook describes six steps an interviewer should take during a research interview to help make the interview process go smoothly. In a well-developed essay, identify and explain four of these steps.

 

  1. Once an interview is over, the interviewer still has two major tasks to complete the interview process. What are they and why are they important?

 

  1. What is a preliminary bibliography? Why is preparing a preliminary bibliography an important step in researching a speech?

 

  1. Your textbook calls Wikipedia a “special case.” Explain what makes this research resource unique and discuss how researchers can use it responsibly.

 

  1. Identify and explain the four guidelines presented in your textbook for taking research notes efficiently. 

    11

     

    Outlining the Speech

     

     

     

     

    T

    he questions for each chapter are organized according to type: true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay. Within each of these categories, questions are clustered by topic, roughly following the order of topics in the textbook.

    To provide as much flexibility as possible in constructing examinations, there is deliberate overlap among the questions, both within and across question types. This enables you to choose the wording and question type that best fits your testing objectives. In deciding which questions to use, take care to avoid items such as a multiple-choice question that gives away the answer to a true-false or short-answer question, or an essay question that covers essentially the same ground as a true-false, short-answer, or multiple-choice question.

    Each type of question—true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay—has an automatic numbering system, which means you can copy and paste items from within a question type, and they will automatically number themselves consecutively, beginning with “1.” The five answer choices for each multiple-choice question are also ordered automatically, and so you can add, change, or reorder answer choices without rearranging the lettering.

    If you would like to preserve the fonts, indents, and tabs of the original questions, you can substitute questions for those in the sample final exams or copy and paste questions into the Exam Master provided in the final Word file of the Test Bank. In the Exam Master, spaces for your course name, exam type, and the student’s name and section are followed by headings and instructions for true-false, multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions. You can add elements unique to your exams and delete elements you don’t want to use. After you customize the Exam Master, you can save it with your changes. Then, each time you open it, click “Save As” to give it the name of the exam you are currently constructing.

     

    True-False Questions

    1. T F      The visual framework of a preparation outline shows the relationships among the speaker’s ideas.
    2. T F      The preparation outline should be drawn up before a speaker begins research for a speech.
    3. T F      You should include your specific purpose statement with your preparation outline.
    4. T F      Including the specific purpose with your preparation outline makes it easier to assess how well you have constructed the speech to accomplish your purpose.
    5. T F      In a preparation outline, the specific purpose is usually stated before the introduction.
    6. T F      In a preparation outline, the specific purpose is usually stated as part of the introduction.
    7. T F      In a preparation outline, the specific purpose and central idea are identified by Roman numerals.
    8. T F      According to your textbook, the introduction, body, and conclusion should all be labeled in a speech preparation outline.
    9. T F      When making a preparation outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully.
    10. T F      When making an outline, you should place the main points farthest to the left and less important ideas progressively farther to the right.
    11. T F      In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters.
    12. T F      In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by capital letters.
    13. T F      Stating main points in a word or two is usually sufficient for a preparation outline.
    14. T F      A preparation outline should include transitions and internal summaries.
    15. T F      According to your textbook, transitions and other connectives should be identified with Roman numerals on a speech preparation outline.
    16. T F      According to your textbook, connectives are given symbols and indentation like the other parts of the speech preparation outline.
    17. T F      A preparation outline should include your bibliography.
    18. T F      It is seldom necessary to include a formal bibliography in the preparation outline for a classroom speech.
    19. T F      According to your textbook, the two major bibliographic formats are those developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA).
    20. T F      “Dogs” would be an appropriate title for a speech to inform an audience about the major breeds of show dogs.
    21. T F      “Are Our Bridges Safe?” would be an appropriate title for a speech on bridge safety.
    22. T F      As your textbook explains, phrasing your speech title as a question can be highly effective.
    23. T F      “Money” would be an appropriate title for a speech about new security measures to stop counterfeiting.
    24. T F      Main points must be written out in full sentences in both the preparation outline and the speaking outline.
    25. T F      A speaking outline is usually longer and more detailed than a preparation outline.
    26. T F      The speaking outline is a more complete version of the preparation outline.
    27. T F      When making a speaking outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences so you won’t forget them.
    28. T F      The speaking outline is essentially a manuscript of your speech.
    29. T F      You should keep your speaking outline as brief as possible.
    30. T F      The speaking outline follows a different pattern of symbolization and indentation from the preparation outline.
    31. T F      The visual framework of a speech is based on the speaker’s plan for using visual aids.
    32. T F      In the speaking outline, main points are indicated by Roman numerals.
    33. T F      It is acceptable to write quotations out in full on a speaking outline.
    34. T F      It is seldom necessary to write out quotations in full in a speaking outline.
    35. T F      Delivery cues should be included on both the preparation and speaking outlines.
    36. T F      Delivery cues on a speaking outline remind a speaker how to say something, rather than what to say.
    37. T F      A speaking outline should be written on both sides of an index card or sheet of paper.
    38. T F      A bibliography is usually included as part of the speaking outline.
    39. T F      A speaking outline should usually include directions for delivering the speech.

     

     

    Multiple-Choice Questions    (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.)

    1. Outlining is an important part of public speaking because
      1. an outline helps the speaker compile an organized preliminary bibliography.
      2. an outline helps ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another.
      3. an outline helps the speaker choose an interesting, sharply focused topic.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.
    2. Outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps a speaker
      1. judge whether each part of the speech is fully developed.
      2. ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another.
      3. solidify the structure of a speech.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    3. According to your textbook, outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps you judge whether
      1. your main points are properly balanced.
      2. your speech will be interesting to the audience.
      3. you have adequate supporting materials for your main points.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and c only.
    4. Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are the
      1. preparation outline and the delivery outline.
      2. rough draft outline and the polished outline.
      3. preparation outline and the speaking outline.
      4. speaking outline and the audience outline.
      5. audience outline and the preparation outline.
    5. Both a preparation outline and a speaking outline should
      1. include delivery cues.
      2. briefly sketch the speaker’s ideas.
      3. use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation.
      4. be written entirely in full sentences.
      5. contain a bibliography.
    6. Which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
      1. the bibliography
      2. a specific purpose statement
      3. transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries
      4. the central idea
      5. all of the above
    7. According to your textbook, Raul should include which of the following in his preparation outline?
      1. transitions
      2. the central idea
      3. a bibliography
      4. all of the above
      5. b and c only
    8. According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
      1. a bibliography
      2. a specific purpose statement
      3. directions for delivering the speech
      4. all of the above
      5. a and b only
    9. According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
      1. research notes
      2. transitions
      3. a bibliography
      4. all of the above
      5. b and c only
    10. All of the following are necessary in a preparation outline except
      1. labels for the introduction, body, and conclusion.
      2. directions for delivering the speech.
      3. transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries.
      4. a consistent pattern of indentation and symbolization.
      5. a specific purpose statement.
    11. According to your textbook, as Bekah prepares her preparation outline for her speech on spiders, she should remember to include all of the following except
      1. a specific purpose statement.
      2. labels for the introduction, body, and conclusion.
      3. transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries.
      4. directions for delivering the speech.
      5. a bibliography.
    12. Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for a preparation outline?
      1. Label the introduction, body, and conclusion.
      2. Identify the specific purpose with a Roman numeral.
      3. Position the title so it appears immediately before the central idea.
      4. Include a startling statement in the introduction to get attention.
      5. Use parallel wording for subpoints and sub-subpoints.
    13. According to your textbook, when making a preparation outline, you should
      1. label transitions and internal summaries.
      2. indicate the introduction, body, and conclusion with Roman numerals.
      3. state the specific purpose as a separate unit before the outline itself.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and c only.
    14. Ryo is working on the preparation outline for his informative speech. According to your textbook, her outline should
      1. be as brief as possible.
      2. state main points and subpoints in full sentences.
      3. contain a bibliography.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    15. According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written
      1. in capital letters.
      2. at the end of the introduction.
      3. immediately before the first main point.
      4. after the preview statement.
      5. before the text of the outline itself.
    16. According to your textbook, transitions, internal summaries, and other connectives should be
      1. included in the preparation outline.
      2. labeled as a transition, internal summary, etc.
      3. identified by capital letters.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.
    17. In a preparation outline, main points should be
      1. positioned farthest to the left.
      2. indicated by Arabic numerals.
      3. written in key words to jog the memory.
      4. listed after subpoints.
      5. stated as questions.
    18. The main points in a preparation outline are
      1. identified by capital letters.
      2. located farthest to the left.
      3. listed immediately after the specific purpose.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.
    19. The main points in a preparation outline are
      1. identified by Roman numerals.
      2. identified by capital letters.
      3. located farther to the right than subpoints.
      4. identified by Arabic numbers.
      5. written in phrases, not full sentences.
    20. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. What are the major types of leadership?
      2. Two major types of leadership.
      3. There are two major types of leadership.
      4. Leadership: major types.
    21. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. The danger of smallpox in the United States.
      2. What is the danger of smallpox in the United States?
      3. Smallpox poses a real danger to the United States.
      4. Smallpox: a genuine danger to the United States.
    22. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. The human eye as a means of identification.
      2. Researchers are working on ways to use the iris as a means of identification.
      3. Did you know that each person’s iris has a unique pattern?
      4. Using the human eye as a means of identification.
      5. Through your eyes only.
    23. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. Myths about day care.
      2. Is day care good for children?
      3. The pros and cons of day care: research results.
      4. Research shows that there are both advantages and disadvantages to day care.
      5. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of day care for your child.
    24. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. Did you know that all domestic dogs are descended from the wolf?
      2. The ancestry of the domestic dog can be directly traced to the wolf.
      3. The place of the wolf in the ancestry of the domestic dog.
      4. Wolves and the domestic dog.
    25. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. Computer-generated graphics as special effects.
      2. Many movie special effects are created with computer-generated graphics.
      3. How are special effects created with computer-generated graphics?
      4. The use of computer-generated graphics to create special effects in movies.
      5. Computer-generated graphics.
    26. Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
      1. Migraine headaches and their causes.
      2. Causes of migraine headaches.
      3. There are three major causes of migraine headaches.
      4. Why people get migraine headaches.
    27. As explained in your textbook, subpoints in a preparation outline should be
      1. listed just before the conclusion.
      2. written in key words to jog the memory.
      3. indicated by Roman numerals.
      4. indented farther to the left than main points.
      5. written in full sentences.
    28. Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
      1. Melanoma is the least common but most deadly form of skin cancer.
      2. Each year about 7,400 people die from melanoma in the U.S.
      3. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer.
      4. Two types of skin cancer are melanoma and basal cell carcinoma.
      5. Of all skin cancers diagnosed in the U.S., only 4 percent are melanoma.
    29. Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
      1. One example of this kind of phobia is the child who is bitten by a dog and who remains fearful of dogs thereafter.
      2. Most phobias begin in childhood, usually after a frightening experience.
      3. Phobias can develop either in childhood or adulthood.
      4. Another example is the child who develops a fear of heights after falling off a ladder.
      5. Some phobias seem to develop suddenly in adulthood without any apparent cause.
    30. Arranged below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the second subpoint?
      1. Meteorologica was written around 340 c.
      2. After Thales, Aristotle was the major figure in ancient meteorology.
      3. The science of meteorology first developed in ancient Greece.
      4. Aristotle presented his theories in a book called Meteorologica.
      5. In 640 c., Thales identified the winter and summer solstices.
    31. Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the first subpoint?
      1. The purpose of a manager interview is to evaluate those people who survive the screening interview.
      2. The 20 percent who do pass the screening interview get invited back for a manager interview.
      3. The two types of job interviews used by most companies are the screening interview and the manager interview.
      4. Usually about 80 percent of job applicants do not pass the screening interview.
      5. The purpose of a screening interview is just what the name implies—to screen out people the company doesn’t want to hire.
    32. Arranged in random order below are a main point, one subpoint, and three sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
      1. Included among those remedies are some highly bizarre—and even dangerous—practices.
      2. A third remedy was wrapping the patient’s neck with a piece of flannel soaked in foul-smelling salve.
      3. One remedy was bleeding the patient by taking out a pint or two of blood.
      4. Over the years, people have tried many remedies to combat the common cold.
      5. Another remedy was soaking the patient with huge quantities of baking soda dissolved in water.
    33. According to your textbook, a speech title should
      1. include a catchy quotation.
      2. attract the audience’s attention.
      3. be stated as a full sentence.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    34. A speech title should
      1. attract the attention of the audience.
      2. be brief.
      3. suggest the main thrust of the speech.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and c only.
    35. A catchy speech title is fine as long as it is
      1. phrased as a question.
      2. relevant to the speech.
      3. written as a full sentence.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    36. “Adventures in the Grand Canyon” is an appropriately worded
      1. speech title.
      2. general purpose statement.
      3. main point for a preparation outline.
      4. specific purpose statement.
      5. central idea.
    37. “What’s Your Learning Style?” is an appropriately worded
      1. speech title.
      2. general purpose statement.
      3. main point for a preparation outline.
      4. specific purpose statement.
      5. central idea.
    38. According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a speaking
      outline?

      1. key words or phrases to jog the speaker’s memory
      2. cues for delivering the speech
      3. statistics and quotations that might be easily forgotten
      4. all of the above
      5. a and b only
    39. When preparing a speaking outline, you should
      1. follow the visual framework of the preparation outline.
      2. make sure the outline is plainly legible.
      3. keep the outline as brief as possible.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    40. According to your textbook, the main reason to keep a speaking outline brief is to
      1. help the speaker feel more confident and secure.
      2. make the speech clearer for the audience.
      3. ensure that the outline fits on a single note card.
      4. make it easier for the speaker to gesture.
      5. help the speaker maintain eye contact with the audience.
    41. According to your textbook, the speaking outline
      1. is created from the titles of a speaker’s PowerPoint slides.
      2. is used to jog a speaker’s memory during the speech.
      3. includes a full bibliography.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    42. Alexus has completed her final preparation outline and is preparing her speaking outline for her speech on macrobiotic foods. According to your textbook, as Alexus prepares her speaking outline, she should remember to
      1. include a bibliography.
      2. make sure the outline is plainly legible.
      3. keep the outline as brief as possible.
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    43. According to your textbook, a speaking outline usually
      1. includes a preliminary bibliography.
      2. fills more than five note cards.
      3. includes the speech introduction written out word-for-word.
      4. contains mostly complete sentences.
      5. includes the quotations a speaker plans to use.
    44. As discussed in your textbook, delivery cues on a speaking outline may include
      1. bibliographic citations.
      2. highlighting of key phrases.
      3. words such as “pause.”
      4. all of the above.
      5. b and c only.
    45. When Cody creates a speaking outline for his informative speech on hockey, he should
      1. include cues for delivering the speech.
      2. write out quotations he plans to use in the speech.
      3. follow the visual framework of the preparation outline.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.
    46. In a speaking outline, subpoints are
      1. set off in parentheses.
      2. written in full sentences.
      3. identified by capital letters.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.
    47. According to your textbook, in a speaking outline, the conclusion should be
      1. written out word for word.
      2. labeled as a separate part of the speech.
      3. set off in parentheses.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and c only.
    48. According to your textbook, a speaking outline
      1. includes the bibliography.
      2. states the specific purpose at the start of the outline.
      3. contains delivery cues for the speaker.
      4. all of the above.
      5. a and b only.

    Short-Answer Questions

    1. A detailed outline for the planning stage of a speech is called a _______________ outline.

    preparation

     

    1. When making a _______________ outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully.

    preparation

     

    1. A bibliography is often included as part of the _______________ outline.

    preparation

     

    1. A _______________ outline should include cues for delivering the speech.

    speaking

     

    1. A _______________ outline should be kept as brief as possible.

    speaking

     

    1. In a speech outline, main points are identified by _______________ , while subpoints are identified by _______________ .

    Roman numerals; capital letters

     

    1. The textbook gives four guidelines for a speaking outline. They are:

     

    Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline.

    Make sure the outline is plainly legible.

    Keep the outline as brief as possible.

    Include cues for delivering the speech.

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a blank portion of a preparation outline for an informative speech on diamonds. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints. Use them to fill in the outline.

     

    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.

    A.

    1.

    2.

    B.

    A carat is equal to 0.2 grams.

    Usually the greater the carat weight, the more valuable the diamond.

    The carat is a unit of weight, not size.

    One way to judge the quality of a diamond is by its carat weight.

    This is about the weight of a carob seed, from which the word “carat” is derived.

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

     

    1. One way to judge the quality of a diamond is by its carat weight.
    2. The carat is a unit of weight, not size.
    3. A carat is equal to 0.2 grams.
    4. This is about the weight of a carob seed, from which the word “carat” is derived.
    5. Usually the greater the carat weight, the more valuable the diamond.

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a blank portion of a preparation outline for an informative speech on skin cancer. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are a main point, a subpoint, and three sub-subpoints. Use them to fill in the outline.
    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.

     

    A.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    B.

    The amount of ultraviolet radiation you are exposed to depends in part on where you live.

    Certain health and skin conditions can also cause skin cancer.

    There are several causes of skin cancer.

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the most common cause of skin cancer.

    The amount of ultraviolet radiation you are exposed to also depends on the time of day you are in the sun.

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

    1. There are several causes of skin cancer.
    2. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the most common cause of skin cancer.
    3. The amount of ultraviolet radiation you are exposed to depends in part on where you live.
    4. The amount of ultraviolet radiation you are exposed to also depends on the time of day you are in the sun.
    5. Certain health and skin conditions can also cause skin cancer.

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a blank portion of a preparation outline for an informative speech on maple syrup. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints. Use them to fill in the outline.
    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.

     

    A.

     

    B.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    It also requires less time and labor.

    In the modern method, sap is collected through a system of pipelines.

    The pipeline method yields more sap than the bucket method.

    In the traditional method, sap is collected in buckets.

    There are two major methods of collecting sap from maple trees.

     

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

     

    1. There are two major methods of collecting sap from maple trees.
    2. In the traditional method, sap is collected in buckets.
    3. In the modern method, sap is collected through a system of pipelines.
    4. The pipeline method yields more sap than the traditional method.
    5. It also requires less time and labor.

     

     

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a blank portion of a preparation outline for an informative speech about diabetes. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are a main point, a subpoint, and three sub-subpoints. Use them to fill in the outline.
    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.

     

    A.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    3.

     

    Insulin injections are literally a lifesaver for millions of people with diabetes.

    In the future, it may be possible to take insulin orally, without the discomfort of injections.

    Before insulin was developed in 1921, diabetes was usually a fatal disease.

    Diabetes can be combated by injections of insulin and by control of diet.

    Today, daily injections of insulin allow even severe diabetics to live normal lives.

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

     

    1. Diabetes can be combated by injections of insulin and by control of diet.
    2. Insulin injections are literally a life-saver for millions of people with diabetes.
    3. Before insulin was developed in 1921, diabetes was usually a fatal disease.
    4. Today daily injections of insulin allow even severe diabetics to live normal lives.
    5. In the future it may be possible to take insulin orally, without the discomfort of injections.

     

     

    Essay Questions

    1. Explain the following statement: “As plans and blueprints are essential to architecture, so are outlines essential for effective public speaking.”

     

     

     

    1. What does it mean to say that a speech outline has a “visual framework”? Why is that framework important to a speaker?

     

     

     

    1. What should a preparation outline include in addition to the main points, subpoints, and sub-subpoints?

     

     

     

    1. When making a preparation outline, why is it important to state main points and subpoints in full sentences?

     

     

     

    1. What are the criteria for an effective speech title? Explain the three kinds of titles discussed in your text.

     

     

     

    1. In a well-developed essay, explain the similarities and differences between a preparation outline and a speaking outline. Be sure to consider what a preparation outline includes that is not part of a speaking outline.

     

     

     

    1. Explain the four guidelines presented in your textbook for an effective speaking outline.

     

     

     

    1. Explain why it is important to keep a speaking outline as brief as possible.

     

     

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a partially blank outline from a speech about child abuse. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are the subpoints and sub-subpoints to fill in the outline. Choose the appropriate subpoint or sub-subpoint for each blank in the outline.
    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.     Child abuse continues to be a serious problem in the United States.

     

    A.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    B.

     

     

    II.   The consequences of child abuse are tragic in both the short run and the long run.

     

    A.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    B.

     

    1.

     

    a.

     

    b.

     

    2.

    There is an unusually high rate of criminal activity among adults who were abused as children.

    In the short run, children suffer serious injuries and even death.

    This averages out to almost 3,500 cases per day.

    These statistics are even more alarming once we recognize that for every reported case of child abuse, five more go unreported.

    One study showed that abused children are ten times more likely to be arrested for violent crimes as adults than are non-abused children.

    In addition to these injuries, some 2,000 children die each year from severe abuse.

    Last year alone there were more than 1.3 million reported cases of child abuse.

    Victims of child abuse often grow up to become child abusers themselves as adults.

    Injuries to abused children include bruises, burns, cuts, broken bones, internal bleeding, and damage to organs such as the kidneys and the liver.

    Another study revealed that 90 percent of the inmates at San Quentin prison were abused as children.

    This figure breaks down further to 146 cases per hour.

    In the long run, victims of child abuse often continue to be affected by it as adults.

     

     

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

     

    1. Child abuse continues to be a serious problem in the United States.
    2. Last year alone there were more than 1.3 million reported cases of child abuse.
    3. This averages out to almost 3,500 cases per day.
    4. This figure breaks down further to 146 cases per hour.
    5. These statistics are even more alarming once we recognize that for every reported case of child abuse, five more go unreported.
    6. The consequences of child abuse are tragic in both the short run and the long run.
    7. In the short run, children suffer serious injuries and even death.
    8. Injuries to abused children include bruises, burns, cuts, broken bones, internal bleeding, and damage to organs such as the kidneys and the liver.
    9. In addition to these injuries, some 2,000 children die each year from severe abuse.
    10. In the long run, victims of child abuse often continue to be affected by it as adults.
    11. There is an unusually high rate of criminal activity among adults who were abused as children.
    12. One study showed that abused children are ten times more likely to be arrested for violent crimes as adults than are non-abused children.
    13. Another study revealed that 90 percent of the inmates at San Quentin prison were abused as children.
    14. Victims of child abuse often grow up to become child abusers themselves as adults.

     

    1. In the left-hand column below is a partially blank outline from a speech about the symptoms and treatment of frostbite. In the right-hand column, arranged in random order, are the subpoints and sub-subpoints to fill in the outline. Choose the appropriate subpoint or sub-subpoint for each blank in the outline.
    Outline Main Point and Subpoints
    I.     There are several symptoms of frostbite.

     

    A.

     

    B.

     

    C.

     

    II.   The key to treating frostbite is knowing what to do and what not to do.

     

    A.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    a.

     

    b.

     

    3.

     

    B.

     

    1.

     

    2.

     

    3.

    Another method of warming is to lightly cover the affected areas with warm towels.

    If you take the wrong steps in treating frostbite, you can cause permanent damage to the affected areas.

    As frostbite develops, the skin first changes to a grayish-yellow color.

    First, get the victim indoors as quickly as possible.

    When the affected areas become flushed, discontinue warming and have the victim gently exercise them to stimulate circulation.

    Second, do not rub or massage the affected areas.

    Once the victim is indoors, warm the affected areas until they become flushed.

    As frostbite intensifies, the affected areas feel extremely cold, turn numb, and may turn from a grayish-yellow to a bluish color.

    If you take the right steps in treating frostbite, you can usually prevent permanent damage to the affected areas.

    Third, do not break any blisters that may have formed.

    One method of warming is to immerse the affected areas in warm water.

    In severe cases, the frostbite victim may experience mental confusion and impaired judgment.

    First, do not apply hot water or strong heat.

    Discussion: When filled in, the outline should look like this:

     

    1. There are several symptoms of frostbite.
    2. As frostbite develops, the skin first changes to a grayish-yellow color.
    3. As frostbite intensifies, the affected areas feel extremely cold, turn numb, and may turn from a grayish-yellow to a bluish color.
    4. In severe cases, the frostbite victim may experience mental confusion and impaired judgment.
    5. The key to treating frostbite is knowing what to do and what not to do.
    6. If you take the right steps in treating frostbite, you can usually prevent permanent damage to the affected areas.
    7. First, get the victim indoors as quickly as possible.
    8. Once the victim is indoors, warm the affected areas until they become flushed.
    9. One method of warming is to immerse the affected areas in warm water.
    10. Another method of warming is to lightly cover the affected areas with warm towels or blankets.
    11. When the affected areas become flushed, discontinue warming and have the victim gently exercise them to stimulate circulation.
    12. If you take the wrong steps in treating frostbite, you can cause permanent damage to the affected areas.
    13. First, do not apply hot water or strong heat.
    14. Second, do not rub or massage the affected areas.
    15. Third, do not break any blisters that may have formed.