The Challenge of Democracy, 12th Edition, Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry -Test Bank

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The Challenge of Democracy, 12th Edition, Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry -Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 6: The Media

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Please define the following term.mass media

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.attentive policy elites

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.two-step flow of communication

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.blog

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.newsworthiness

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.market-driven journalism

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.infotainment

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.gatekeepers

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.horse race journalism

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.media event

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.television hypothesis

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.soft news

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.political agenda

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.going public

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.watchdog journalism

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In 2011, President Obama announced his candidacy for reelection
    A. in a two-minute YouTube video.
    B. on the front lawn of the White House.
    C. in a cable news channel interview.
    D. in a Twitter message.
    E. on his campaign Facebook page.

 

  1. Defenders of traditional news reporting make all but which of the following criticisms of the new technological journalism era?
    A. The media no longer play a critical role in the democratic process.
    B. It will not invest heavily in investigative reporting.
    C. It will not maintain the same norms of objectivity.
    D. Democratic accountability will be threatened.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Supporters of the new technological journalism make all but the following defense of the new era?
    A. Readers will still want investigative, local, and international reporting.
    B. In 2011, a non-profit online news site won a Pulitzer for its Wall Street coverage.
    C. The spread of mobile technology allows information to reach bigger audiences.
    D. Traditional media, such as newspapers, are successfully reinventing themselves as online ventures.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. In the United States today, the mass media
    A. are manipulated by an elite for his/her own purposes.
    B. channel information from the government to the people.
    C. provide a two-way channel of communication between the people and the government.
    D. channel information from the people to the government.
    E. play favorites.

 

  1. The traditional division of mass media into _________ has been made problematic by the Internet.
    A. print and broadcast
    B. audio and visual
    C. linkage and reception
    D. radio and television
    E. words and pictures

 

  1. A poll of Americans who had seen or heard of Michael Moore’s 2007 documentary Sicko found that _________ changed their mind and said health-care reform was more necessary.
    A. relatively few
    B. about one-quarter
    C. nearly half
    D. over three-quarters
    E. almost all

 

  1. The first newspapers in the United States were
    A. farmers’ almanacs.
    B. literary gazettes.
    C. financed by political parties that advocated party causes.
    D. official government publications.
    E. published by British tabloids.

 

  1. Newspapers did not move toward independent ownership and large circulation until
    A. the 1790s.
    B. 1800.
    C. the 1830s.
    D. the 1870s.
    E. 1900.

 

  1. In 2010, the largest circulation by a daily paper in America was about
    A. 1 million copies.
    B. 2 million copies.
    C. 3 million copies.
    D. 5 million copies.
    E. 7 million copies.

 

  1. So far, the only major paper with a long-standing successful practice of charging its online readers for content is
    A. the New York Times.
    B. USA TODAY.
    C. the Washington Post.
    D. the Wall Street Journal.
    E. the Los Angeles Times.

 

  1. As scholars originally viewed the two-step flow of communication, it conformed to the _________ of democracy.
    A. majoritarian model
    B. procedural theory
    C. republican theory
    D. pluralist model
    E. populist theory

 

  1. _________ occurs when a magazine informs a relatively small number of group leaders who follow news in a specific area, and those leaders in turn mobilize their followers to put pressure on public officials.
    A. Indirect democracy
    B. Majoritarian democracy
    C. The two-step flow of communication
    D. Elite dominance of American politics
    E. Multimedia convergence

 

  1. Since 2009, most prominent weekly news magazines
    A. have seen a resurgence in readership circulation.
    B. have declined in recent years as much as newspaper circulation has declined.
    C. have reinvented themselves as online publications.
    D. have formed content-distribution partnerships with radio and television stations.
    E. have gone out of business.

 

  1. The first media technology to make broadcast journalists into household names was
    A. the newspaper.
    B. the telegraph.
    C. radio.
    D. television.
    E. cable.

 

  1. The Internet was started
    A. in 1989, by Bill Gates for Microsoft’s Windows products.
    B. in 1972, by a group of thirty-seven universities.
    C. in 1983, by IBM for use on its mainframes.
    D. in 1920, after the Great Depression.
    E. in 1969, with support from the U.S. Department of Defense.

 

  1. __________ percent of surveyed adults indicated that they learned about the 2008 political campaign from comedy shows like The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, or Saturday Night Live.
    A. Five percent
    B. Thirty percent
    C. Ten percent
    D. Twenty percent
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. The opportunities for genuine two-way flows of information between citizens and government
    A. are being undermined by the Internet.
    B. have been largely unchanged by the Internet.
    C. are shifting in the direction of citizens over government.
    D. are shifting in the direction of government over citizens.
    E. are being made possible by the Internet.

 

  1. Which statement tends not to be true about Internet users?
    A. They live in large cities and suburbs.
    B. They are under the age of sixty-five.
    C. They have at least a high school diploma.
    D. They are more likely to be white or African American than Latino.
    E. They make up about 80 percent of Americans.

 

  1. One major influence of political blogs on American politics is
    A. impacting the types of stories that get picked up by the “mainstream media.”
    B. impacting one-third of Americans who say they read political blogs.
    C. a renewed focus on investigative journalism of party platforms.
    D. bringing Americans with different ideologies into greater contact with each other.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. Private ownership of the media in the United States makes the American news industry
    A. dependent on government subsidies.
    B. dependent on advertising revenues.
    C. less free to cover stories that are of interest to the audience.
    D. less concerned about ratings than media in other countries.
    E. a product of popular trends.

 

  1. A country where the government heavily censors Internet news and search engines is
    A. Germany.
    B. China.
    C. South Africa.
    D. Argentina.
    E. Italy.

 

  1. A 2011 news analysis found that cable TV was particularly devoted to __________ whereas online news sites and newspapers provided more coverage of __________.
    A. local news; election coverage
    B. economic news; foreign affairs
    C. foreign affairs; local news
    D. election coverage; foreign affairs
    E. local news; economic news

 

  1. A feature story that is aired to a targeted listening audience by a media source that supports a specific advertiser of the network is an example of
    A. media-based targeting.
    B. management advertising.
    C. marketing-driven advertising.
    D. target-driven journalism.
    E. market-driven journalism.

 

  1. More and more, cable news seems analogous to
    A. weekly news magazines.
    B. broadcast networks.
    C. radio.
    D. early partisan newspapers.
    E. YouTube.

 

  1. A story that contains no policy content and is not related to the day’s events but that commonly discusses popular personalities and is designed to draw greater viewer interest is
    A. market-driven journalism.
    B. the Fox effect.
    C. attentive policy elitism.
    D. biased media coverage.
    E. infotainment.

 

  1. Which statement about media concentration is not correct?
    A. ABC is owned by the Walt Disney Company.
    B. Media concentration has put greater pressure on networks to provide “infotainment.”
    C. The number of independent newspapers has declined in America.
    D. NBC has merged with cable company Comcast.
    E. The major networks increasingly own their local affiliated TV stations.

 

  1. Early regulation of broadcast media in the United States resulted from
    A. print media owners seeking to limit the competition they would have to face.
    B. radio station owners seeking to impose order on the use of the airwaves.
    C. the efforts of executive branch bureaucrats to increase their power.
    D. congressional efforts to control monopolistic economic activities.
    E. corruption in media ownership.

 

  1. The five members of the Federal Communications Commission
    A. are appointed by the president.
    B. are chosen by Congress.
    C. serve life terms.
    D. are selected by a council chosen by the broadcast industry.
    E. are elected by media owners.

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is incorrect?
    A. It has five members.
    B. Its members are nominated by the president.
    C. Its members serve five-year terms.
    D. No more than three of its members can be from the same political party.
    E. None of the above is incorrect.

 

  1. Regarding the Internet, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    A. has issued an increasing number of fines for indecent material posted online.
    B. has cracked down since 1999 on reposted copyrighted material.
    C. has focused most of its energy monitoring the activities of hate groups.
    D. does not have jurisdiction to regulate Internet content.
    E. has issued contradictory opinions over recent years.

 

  1. The Telecommunications Act of 1996
    A. attempted to tighten national control over media ownership and product content.
    B. attempted to deregulate all privately owned media.
    C. encouraged restrictions on web pages.
    D. relaxed the rules governing media ownership.
    E. led to an increase in government-owned media outlets.

 

  1. The current debate about “net neutrality” concerns whether
    A. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should be allowed to censor web content for indecency.
    B. Internet content disproportionately favors liberals or conservatives.
    C. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) should be allowed to regulate web content for indecency.
    D. ISPs should be allowed to charge people more if they consume a large amount of bandwidth.
    E. limits should be placed on the number of Internet websites any media corporation can own.

 

  1. The _________ prohibits Congress from abridging freedom of the press.
    A. First Amendment
    B. Second Amendment
    C. Fourth Amendment
    D. Fifth Amendment
    E. Ninth Amendment

 

  1. The equal opportunities rule did not allow
    A. a TV station to accept advertising only from the owner’s favorite candidates.
    B. a newspaper to accept advertising only from the owner’s favorite candidates.
    C. a TV station to cover a political story and present only one side of the issue.
    D. a large corporation to own more than twelve television stations.
    E. All of the above is true.

 

  1. The reasonable access rule required
    A. broadcasters to make facilities available to all responsible parties in a community wishing to express conflicting views on issues.
    B. the press to refrain from publishing strategic information during wartime.
    C. broadcast stations to provide fair coverage of all views on public issues.
    D. broadcast stations to provide free air time to all candidates running for public office.
    E. all Internet service providers to use similar equipment.

 

  1. In what year did the FCC repeal the Fairness Doctrine?
    A. 1937
    B. 1945
    C. 1954
    D. 1973
    E. 1987

 

  1. The now-abolished __________ obligated broadcasters to discuss public issues and to provide equal coverage of all opinions on those issues.
    A. fairness doctrine
    B. reasonable access rule
    C. equal opportunities rule
    D. free exercise rule
    E. equal time rule

 

  1. Which president first provided space in the White House for reporters?
    A. Abraham Lincoln
    B. Chester Arthur
    C. William McKinley
    D. Theodore Roosevelt
    E. Woodrow Wilson

 

  1. The televised presidential news conference has developed into an event in which
    A. the media dominate the president and force him to answer difficult questions.
    B. selected members of Congress cross-examine the president and other executive branch officials.
    C. Internet coverage has dominated live coverage.
    D. very little communication takes place.
    E. the president and other high-level officials deliver carefully rehearsed answers to anticipated questions.

 

  1. The phrase “on background” means that media are permitted to
    A. override FCC rules for ownership.
    B. engage in liberal, biased reporting methods.
    C. correct an incorrectly-identified source.
    D. issue a correction and apology for inaccurate reporting.
    E. anonymously quote material without identifying the source.

 

  1. Most news printed about Congress comes from
    A. congressional press releases and prepared reports.
    B. independent investigations researched by congressional reporters.
    C. information provided by congressional staff and executive officials who regularly deal with Congress.
    D. nightly news briefings from congressional party leaders.
    E. Internet sources.

 

  1. Officials send out __________ when they intentionally leak news to gauge the reaction of the public or other political leaders.
    A. trial balloons
    B. air memos
    C. opinion hounds
    D. ghost polls
    E. debate whistles

 

  1. The term __________ refers to the tendency of journalists to adopt similar viewpoints toward news simply because they hang around together.
    A. snippet journalism
    B. retreat reporting
    C. pack journalism
    D. commonplace coverage
    E. peer beat coverage

 

  1. The phrase “off the record” means that media
    A. are not allowed to identify the source of information.
    B. are banned from attending an event.
    C. are not allowed to compare a source’s present and past statements in their reporting.
    D. are only allowed to take photographs with short captions.
    E. are not allowed to print the information.

 

  1. In 2009, Representative Alan Grayson described on C-SPAN the Republican health-care plan as “stay healthy or die quickly” and swiftly raised over $150,000 from one website alone. The phenomenon of a fiery quote generating fundraising is known as
    A. a money blurt.
    B. donor fishing.
    C. a PR bomb.
    D. a passion appeal.
    E. YouTube fundraising.

 

  1. The media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who decide which events to report and how to report them are known as
    A. horse race journalists.
    B. pack journalists.
    C. news sophisticates.
    D. gatekeepers.
    E. journalistic recorders.

 

  1. Content analysis of network news suggests that most coverage focuses on
    A. the president.
    B. the Supreme Court.
    C. the House of Representatives.
    D. the Senate.
    E. Options C and D are true.

 

  1. During a presidential election, the tendency of journalists to limit coverage of campaign events to coverage of the candidate who leads in the polls at the time is known as
    A. pack journalism.
    B. pool coverage.
    C. horse race journalism.
    D. gatekeeping.
    E. media sophistication.

 

  1. A media event is
    A. coverage of who’s ahead in the latest polls.
    B. a situation that is too newsworthy for the media to ignore.
    C. a carefully crafted segment or series on a complex and abstract topic that is tremendously important to viewers or readers.
    D. Options A, B, and C are true.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. Until the early 1960s, most Americans cited __________ as the source from which they got most of their news.
    A. news magazines
    B. local tabloids
    C. television
    D. radio
    E. newspapers

 

  1. One difference between media habits of men and women is that
    A. women are more likely to get their news from radio.
    B. women are more interested in programming about the economy.
    C. women are more likely to get their news from the Internet.
    D. women listen to more sources of news than men do.
    E. women are more likely to get their news from television.

 

  1. The “television hypothesis” is the belief that television
    A. should educate the public by aggressively investigating candidates’ personal lives.
    B. now routinely suppresses potentially harmful news about large corporations that own TV stations.
    C. should be fair and equal in covering all candidates.
    D. is to blame for the low level of citizens’ knowledge about public affairs.
    E. causes political apathy among viewers.

 

  1. General entertainment programming that often includes discussions of political affairs, such as The Daily Show, The Today Show and The View is called
    A. news lite.
    B. soft news.
    C. micro journalism.
    D. new news.
    E. New Wave journalism.

 

  1. Evidence suggests that lower-income, lower-educated Americans learn more from news when
    A. it emphasizes more visual information.
    B. it features more open, lengthy interviews with experts.
    C. it downplays politics and focuses on human interest stories.
    D. it includes interactive features where the audience can respond with questions.
    E. it includes information on the historical and factual background of issues.

 

  1. Research on the impact of soft news finds it
    A. can improve people’s levels of political knowledge.
    B. helps citizens identify which politician best matches their own political preferences.
    C. can lead people to be more cynical about politicians.
    D. can benefit attitudes and engagements when candidates appear for interviews.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. When the media regularly focus public attention on violent crime, political corruption, or economic woes, they are engaged in
    A. biased reporting.
    B. political socialization.
    C. agenda setting.
    D. changing public opinion.
    E. apathy management.

 

  1. Most politicians and many scholars believe that the media’s greatest influence on politics is its ability to
    A. report the news.
    B. socialize children.
    C. set the political agenda.
    D. ruin political careers.
    E. investigate.

 

  1. Crime rates have fallen in every major category (rape, burglary, robbery, assault, and murder) since the 1980s, but as one journalist said, “Crime coverage is not editorially driven; it’s_________.”
    A. ideologically driven
    B. politically driven
    C. racially driven
    D. economically driven
    E. Options A and C are true.

 

  1. When the president travels around the country speaking to Americans directly about his policy agenda, the president is attempting to generate media coverage of the speaking event and motivate citizens to pressure their representatives to support the president’s agenda. This is known as
    A. soap box campaigning.
    B. the horse race.
    C. spinning.
    D. gate keeping.
    E. going public.

 

  1. The average 8–18 year old in America consumes over _________ hours of media per day.
    A. two
    B. three
    C. five
    D. seven
    E. nine

 

  1. How do the mass media influence the socialization process?
    A. They reflect the government’s position on most important issues.
    B. They undermine popular support for the political system.
    C. They play contradictory roles, sometimes promoting popular support for government and sometimes eroding public confidence in it.
    D. They promote popular support for the political system.
    E. They cause confusion about political positions of officeholders.

 

  1. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are _________ among journalists and reporters.
    A. liberal leanings
    B. conservative leanings
    C. biases in favor of politicians
    D. no biases at all
    E. negative leanings

 

  1. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are __________ among editors and owners of the major news media.
    A. liberal leanings
    B. conservative leanings
    C. biases in favor of politicians
    D. no biases at all
    E. negative leanings

 

  1. The ___________ endorsed Barack Obama for president in 2008, the first Democrat for president the paper had ever endorsed in its 162-year history.
    A. the Los Angeles Times
    B. the New York Times
    C. the Atlanta Journal
    D. the Chicago Tribune
    E. the Biloxi Press.

 

  1. It is quite possible that campaign coverage is affected by a(n) __________ among journalists.
    A. anti-incumbent bias
    B. gender gap
    C. age gap
    D. income disparity
    E. pro-interest group bias

 

  1. By improving the quality of information transmitted to the people about their government, the mass media
    A. at various times serve both the majoritarian and the pluralist models of American politics.
    B. fit most comfortably into the pluralist model of American politics.
    C. fit most comfortably into the majoritarian model of American politics.
    D. tend to guarantee government responsiveness to popular demands.
    E. raise expectations of voters.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
    A. The mass media are not important to the majoritarian model of democracy.
    B. The mass media are not important to the pluralist model of democracy.
    C. The media in the United States have greatly enhanced the government’s efforts to maintain  order.
    D. The media in the United States have played an important role in advancing equality.
    E. The media represent an unofficial branch of government.

 

  1. Representatives of the mass media frequently defend the importance of freedom of the press, even if it comes at the expense of
    A. order.
    B. equality.
    C. profits.
    D. democracy.
    E. rights.

 

  1. Discuss two of the concerns and two of the promising developments that the new technological frontier in journalism poses.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Give three examples of how newspapers and magazines are struggling to be profitable in an era of free news on the Internet.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. How are political blogs influencing news reporting and politics?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the consequences of the large degree of private ownership of media that exists in the United States.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In what way are some of our modern media outlets a return to the earliest forms of news media in America?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the FCC in terms of its composition, the appointment process for its members, and its purpose.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe how Washington correspondents rely on the president’s staff and on Congress.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the media playing the role of gatekeeper.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the television hypothesis, and summarize what research tells us with respect to its validity.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is soft news, and what has the mixed research concerning its effects shown so far?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain how the media, in setting the agenda, play contradictory roles in the process of political socialization.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What does research show with respect to the political leanings of major news media reporters?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 6: The Media Key

  1. Please define the following term.mass media

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.attentive policy elites

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.two-step flow of communication

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.blog

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.newsworthiness

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.market-driven journalism

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.infotainment

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.gatekeepers

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.horse race journalism

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.media event

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.television hypothesis

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.soft news

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.political agenda

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.going public

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.watchdog journalism

Answers will vary.

 

  1. In 2011, President Obama announced his candidacy for reelection
    A.in a two-minute YouTube video.
    B. on the front lawn of the White House.
    C. in a cable news channel interview.
    D. in a Twitter message.
    E. on his campaign Facebook page.

 

  1. Defenders of traditional news reporting make all but which of the following criticisms of the new technological journalism era?
    A.The media no longer play a critical role in the democratic process.
    B. It will not invest heavily in investigative reporting.
    C. It will not maintain the same norms of objectivity.
    D. Democratic accountability will be threatened.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Supporters of the new technological journalism make all but the following defense of the new era?
    A.Readers will still want investigative, local, and international reporting.
    B. In 2011, a non-profit online news site won a Pulitzer for its Wall Street coverage.
    C. The spread of mobile technology allows information to reach bigger audiences.
    D. Traditional media, such as newspapers, are successfully reinventing themselves as online ventures.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. In the United States today, the mass media
    A.are manipulated by an elite for his/her own purposes.
    B. channel information from the government to the people.
    C. provide a two-way channel of communication between the people and the government.
    D. channel information from the people to the government.
    E. play favorites.

 

  1. The traditional division of mass media into _________ has been made problematic by the Internet.
    A.print and broadcast
    B. audio and visual
    C. linkage and reception
    D. radio and television
    E. words and pictures

 

  1. A poll of Americans who had seen or heard of Michael Moore’s 2007 documentary Sicko found that _________ changed their mind and said health-care reform was more necessary.
    A.relatively few
    B. about one-quarter
    C. nearly half
    D. over three-quarters
    E. almost all

 

  1. The first newspapers in the United States were
    A.farmers’ almanacs.
    B. literary gazettes.
    C. financed by political parties that advocated party causes.
    D. official government publications.
    E. published by British tabloids.

 

  1. Newspapers did not move toward independent ownership and large circulation until
    A.the 1790s.
    B. 1800.
    C. the 1830s.
    D. the 1870s.
    E. 1900.

 

  1. In 2010, the largest circulation by a daily paper in America was about
    A.1 million copies.
    B. 2 million copies.
    C. 3 million copies.
    D. 5 million copies.
    E. 7 million copies.

 

  1. So far, the only major paper with a long-standing successful practice of charging its online readers for content is
    A.the New York Times.
    B. USA TODAY.
    C. the Washington Post.
    D. the Wall Street Journal.
    E. the Los Angeles Times.

 

  1. As scholars originally viewed the two-step flow of communication, it conformed to the _________ of democracy.
    A.majoritarian model
    B. procedural theory
    C. republican theory
    D. pluralist model
    E. populist theory

 

  1. _________ occurs when a magazine informs a relatively small number of group leaders who follow news in a specific area, and those leaders in turn mobilize their followers to put pressure on public officials.
    A.Indirect democracy
    B. Majoritarian democracy
    C. The two-step flow of communication
    D. Elite dominance of American politics
    E. Multimedia convergence

 

  1. Since 2009, most prominent weekly news magazines
    A.have seen a resurgence in readership circulation.
    B. have declined in recent years as much as newspaper circulation has declined.
    C. have reinvented themselves as online publications.
    D. have formed content-distribution partnerships with radio and television stations.
    E. have gone out of business.

 

  1. The first media technology to make broadcast journalists into household names was
    A.the newspaper.
    B. the telegraph.
    C. radio.
    D. television.
    E. cable.

 

  1. The Internet was started
    A.in 1989, by Bill Gates for Microsoft’s Windows products.
    B. in 1972, by a group of thirty-seven universities.
    C. in 1983, by IBM for use on its mainframes.
    D. in 1920, after the Great Depression.
    E. in 1969, with support from the U.S. Department of Defense.

 

  1. __________ percent of surveyed adults indicated that they learned about the 2008 political campaign from comedy shows like The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, or Saturday Night Live.
    A. Five percent
    B. Thirty percent
    C. Ten percent
    D. Twenty percent
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. The opportunities for genuine two-way flows of information between citizens and government
    A.are being undermined by the Internet.
    B. have been largely unchanged by the Internet.
    C. are shifting in the direction of citizens over government.
    D. are shifting in the direction of government over citizens.
    E. are being made possible by the Internet.

 

  1. Which statement tends not to be true about Internet users?
    A.They live in large cities and suburbs.
    B. They are under the age of sixty-five.
    C. They have at least a high school diploma.
    D. They are more likely to be white or African American than Latino.
    E. They make up about 80 percent of Americans.

 

  1. One major influence of political blogs on American politics is
    A.impacting the types of stories that get picked up by the “mainstream media.”
    B. impacting one-third of Americans who say they read political blogs.
    C. a renewed focus on investigative journalism of party platforms.
    D. bringing Americans with different ideologies into greater contact with each other.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. Private ownership of the media in the United States makes the American news industry
    A.dependent on government subsidies.
    B. dependent on advertising revenues.
    C. less free to cover stories that are of interest to the audience.
    D. less concerned about ratings than media in other countries.
    E. a product of popular trends.

 

  1. A country where the government heavily censors Internet news and search engines is
    A.Germany.
    B. China.
    C. South Africa.
    D. Argentina.
    E. Italy.

 

  1. A 2011 news analysis found that cable TV was particularly devoted to __________ whereas online news sites and newspapers provided more coverage of __________.
    A.local news; election coverage
    B. economic news; foreign affairs
    C. foreign affairs; local news
    D. election coverage; foreign affairs
    E. local news; economic news

 

  1. A feature story that is aired to a targeted listening audience by a media source that supports a specific advertiser of the network is an example of
    A.media-based targeting.
    B. management advertising.
    C. marketing-driven advertising.
    D. target-driven journalism.
    E. market-driven journalism.

 

  1. More and more, cable news seems analogous to
    A.weekly news magazines.
    B. broadcast networks.
    C. radio.
    D. early partisan newspapers.
    E. YouTube.

 

  1. A story that contains no policy content and is not related to the day’s events but that commonly discusses popular personalities and is designed to draw greater viewer interest is
    A.market-driven journalism.
    B. the Fox effect.
    C. attentive policy elitism.
    D. biased media coverage.
    E. infotainment.

 

  1. Which statement about media concentration is not correct?
    A.ABC is owned by the Walt Disney Company.
    B. Media concentration has put greater pressure on networks to provide “infotainment.”
    C. The number of independent newspapers has declined in America.
    D. NBC has merged with cable company Comcast.
    E. The major networks increasingly own their local affiliated TV stations.

 

  1. Early regulation of broadcast media in the United States resulted from
    A.print media owners seeking to limit the competition they would have to face.
    B. radio station owners seeking to impose order on the use of the airwaves.
    C. the efforts of executive branch bureaucrats to increase their power.
    D. congressional efforts to control monopolistic economic activities.
    E. corruption in media ownership.

 

  1. The five members of the Federal Communications Commission
    A.are appointed by the president.
    B. are chosen by Congress.
    C. serve life terms.
    D. are selected by a council chosen by the broadcast industry.
    E. are elected by media owners.

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is incorrect?
    A.It has five members.
    B. Its members are nominated by the president.
    C. Its members serve five-year terms.
    D. No more than three of its members can be from the same political party.
    E. None of the above is incorrect.

 

  1. Regarding the Internet, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    A.has issued an increasing number of fines for indecent material posted online.
    B. has cracked down since 1999 on reposted copyrighted material.
    C. has focused most of its energy monitoring the activities of hate groups.
    D. does not have jurisdiction to regulate Internet content.
    E. has issued contradictory opinions over recent years.

 

  1. The Telecommunications Act of 1996
    A.attempted to tighten national control over media ownership and product content.
    B. attempted to deregulate all privately owned media.
    C. encouraged restrictions on web pages.
    D. relaxed the rules governing media ownership.
    E. led to an increase in government-owned media outlets.

 

  1. The current debate about “net neutrality” concerns whether
    A.Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should be allowed to censor web content for indecency.
    B. Internet content disproportionately favors liberals or conservatives.
    C. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) should be allowed to regulate web content for indecency.
    D. ISPs should be allowed to charge people more if they consume a large amount of bandwidth.
    E. limits should be placed on the number of Internet websites any media corporation can own.

 

  1. The _________ prohibits Congress from abridging freedom of the press.
    A.First Amendment
    B. Second Amendment
    C. Fourth Amendment
    D. Fifth Amendment
    E. Ninth Amendment

 

  1. The equal opportunities rule did not allow
    A.a TV station to accept advertising only from the owner’s favorite candidates.
    B. a newspaper to accept advertising only from the owner’s favorite candidates.
    C. a TV station to cover a political story and present only one side of the issue.
    D. a large corporation to own more than twelve television stations.
    E. All of the above is true.

 

  1. The reasonable access rule required
    A.broadcasters to make facilities available to all responsible parties in a community wishing to express conflicting views on issues.
    B. the press to refrain from publishing strategic information during wartime.
    C. broadcast stations to provide fair coverage of all views on public issues.
    D. broadcast stations to provide free air time to all candidates running for public office.
    E. all Internet service providers to use similar equipment.

 

  1. In what year did the FCC repeal the Fairness Doctrine?
    A.1937
    B. 1945
    C. 1954
    D. 1973
    E. 1987

 

  1. The now-abolished __________ obligated broadcasters to discuss public issues and to provide equal coverage of all opinions on those issues.
    A.fairness doctrine
    B. reasonable access rule
    C. equal opportunities rule
    D. free exercise rule
    E. equal time rule

 

  1. Which president first provided space in the White House for reporters?
    A.Abraham Lincoln
    B. Chester Arthur
    C. William McKinley
    D. Theodore Roosevelt
    E. Woodrow Wilson

 

  1. The televised presidential news conference has developed into an event in which
    A.the media dominate the president and force him to answer difficult questions.
    B. selected members of Congress cross-examine the president and other executive branch officials.
    C. Internet coverage has dominated live coverage.
    D. very little communication takes place.
    E. the president and other high-level officials deliver carefully rehearsed answers to anticipated questions.

 

  1. The phrase “on background” means that media are permitted to
    A.override FCC rules for ownership.
    B. engage in liberal, biased reporting methods.
    C. correct an incorrectly-identified source.
    D. issue a correction and apology for inaccurate reporting.
    E. anonymously quote material without identifying the source.

 

  1. Most news printed about Congress comes from
    A.congressional press releases and prepared reports.
    B. independent investigations researched by congressional reporters.
    C. information provided by congressional staff and executive officials who regularly deal with Congress.
    D. nightly news briefings from congressional party leaders.
    E. Internet sources.

 

  1. Officials send out __________ when they intentionally leak news to gauge the reaction of the public or other political leaders.
    A.trial balloons
    B. air memos
    C. opinion hounds
    D. ghost polls
    E. debate whistles

 

  1. The term __________ refers to the tendency of journalists to adopt similar viewpoints toward news simply because they hang around together.
    A.snippet journalism
    B. retreat reporting
    C. pack journalism
    D. commonplace coverage
    E. peer beat coverage

 

  1. The phrase “off the record” means that media
    A.are not allowed to identify the source of information.
    B. are banned from attending an event.
    C. are not allowed to compare a source’s present and past statements in their reporting.
    D. are only allowed to take photographs with short captions.
    E. are not allowed to print the information.

 

  1. In 2009, Representative Alan Grayson described on C-SPAN the Republican health-care plan as “stay healthy or die quickly” and swiftly raised over $150,000 from one website alone. The phenomenon of a fiery quote generating fundraising is known as
    A.a money blurt.
    B. donor fishing.
    C. a PR bomb.
    D. a passion appeal.
    E. YouTube fundraising.

 

  1. The media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who decide which events to report and how to report them are known as
    A.horse race journalists.
    B. pack journalists.
    C. news sophisticates.
    D. gatekeepers.
    E. journalistic recorders.

 

  1. Content analysis of network news suggests that most coverage focuses on
    A.the president.
    B. the Supreme Court.
    C. the House of Representatives.
    D. the Senate.
    E. Options C and D are true.

 

  1. During a presidential election, the tendency of journalists to limit coverage of campaign events to coverage of the candidate who leads in the polls at the time is known as
    A.pack journalism.
    B. pool coverage.
    C. horse race journalism.
    D. gatekeeping.
    E. media sophistication.

 

  1. A media event is
    A.coverage of who’s ahead in the latest polls.
    B. a situation that is too newsworthy for the media to ignore.
    C. a carefully crafted segment or series on a complex and abstract topic that is tremendously important to viewers or readers.
    D. Options A, B, and C are true.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. Until the early 1960s, most Americans cited __________ as the source from which they got most of their news.
    A.news magazines
    B. local tabloids
    C. television
    D. radio
    E. newspapers

 

  1. One difference between media habits of men and women is that
    A.women are more likely to get their news from radio.
    B. women are more interested in programming about the economy.
    C. women are more likely to get their news from the Internet.
    D. women listen to more sources of news than men do.
    E. women are more likely to get their news from television.

 

  1. The “television hypothesis” is the belief that television
    A.should educate the public by aggressively investigating candidates’ personal lives.
    B. now routinely suppresses potentially harmful news about large corporations that own TV stations.
    C. should be fair and equal in covering all candidates.
    D. is to blame for the low level of citizens’ knowledge about public affairs.
    E. causes political apathy among viewers.

 

  1. General entertainment programming that often includes discussions of political affairs, such as The Daily Show, The Today Show and The View is called
    A.news lite.
    B. soft news.
    C. micro journalism.
    D. new news.
    E. New Wave journalism.

 

  1. Evidence suggests that lower-income, lower-educated Americans learn more from news when
    A.it emphasizes more visual information.
    B. it features more open, lengthy interviews with experts.
    C. it downplays politics and focuses on human interest stories.
    D. it includes interactive features where the audience can respond with questions.
    E. it includes information on the historical and factual background of issues.

 

  1. Research on the impact of soft news finds it
    A.can improve people’s levels of political knowledge.
    B. helps citizens identify which politician best matches their own political preferences.
    C. can lead people to be more cynical about politicians.
    D. can benefit attitudes and engagements when candidates appear for interviews.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. When the media regularly focus public attention on violent crime, political corruption, or economic woes, they are engaged in
    A.biased reporting.
    B. political socialization.
    C. agenda setting.
    D. changing public opinion.
    E. apathy management.

 

  1. Most politicians and many scholars believe that the media’s greatest influence on politics is its ability to
    A.report the news.
    B. socialize children.
    C. set the political agenda.
    D. ruin political careers.
    E. investigate.

 

  1. Crime rates have fallen in every major category (rape, burglary, robbery, assault, and murder) since the 1980s, but as one journalist said, “Crime coverage is not editorially driven; it’s_________.”
    A.ideologically driven
    B. politically driven
    C. racially driven
    D. economically driven
    E. Options A and C are true.

 

  1. When the president travels around the country speaking to Americans directly about his policy agenda, the president is attempting to generate media coverage of the speaking event and motivate citizens to pressure their representatives to support the president’s agenda. This is known as
    A.soap box campaigning.
    B. the horse race.
    C. spinning.
    D. gate keeping.
    E. going public.

 

  1. The average 8–18 year old in America consumes over _________ hours of media per day.
    A.two
    B. three
    C. five
    D. seven
    E. nine

 

  1. How do the mass media influence the socialization process?
    A.They reflect the government’s position on most important issues.
    B. They undermine popular support for the political system.
    C. They play contradictory roles, sometimes promoting popular support for government and sometimes eroding public confidence in it.
    D. They promote popular support for the political system.
    E. They cause confusion about political positions of officeholders.

 

  1. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are _________ among journalists and reporters.
    A.liberal leanings
    B. conservative leanings
    C. biases in favor of politicians
    D. no biases at all
    E. negative leanings

 

  1. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are __________ among editors and owners of the major news media.
    A.liberal leanings
    B. conservative leanings
    C. biases in favor of politicians
    D. no biases at all
    E. negative leanings

 

  1. The ___________ endorsed Barack Obama for president in 2008, the first Democrat for president the paper had ever endorsed in its 162-year history.
    A.the Los Angeles Times
    B. the New York Times
    C. the Atlanta Journal
    D. the Chicago Tribune
    E. the Biloxi Press.

 

  1. It is quite possible that campaign coverage is affected by a(n) __________ among journalists.
    A.anti-incumbent bias
    B. gender gap
    C. age gap
    D. income disparity
    E. pro-interest group bias

 

  1. By improving the quality of information transmitted to the people about their government, the mass media
    A.at various times serve both the majoritarian and the pluralist models of American politics.
    B. fit most comfortably into the pluralist model of American politics.
    C. fit most comfortably into the majoritarian model of American politics.
    D. tend to guarantee government responsiveness to popular demands.
    E. raise expectations of voters.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
    A.The mass media are not important to the majoritarian model of democracy.
    B. The mass media are not important to the pluralist model of democracy.
    C. The media in the United States have greatly enhanced the government’s efforts to maintain  order.
    D. The media in the United States have played an important role in advancing equality.
    E. The media represent an unofficial branch of government.

 

  1. Representatives of the mass media frequently defend the importance of freedom of the press, even if it comes at the expense of
    A.order.
    B. equality.
    C. profits.
    D. democracy.
    E. rights.

 

  1. Discuss two of the concerns and two of the promising developments that the new technological frontier in journalism poses.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Give three examples of how newspapers and magazines are struggling to be profitable in an era of free news on the Internet.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. How are political blogs influencing news reporting and politics?

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain the consequences of the large degree of private ownership of media that exists in the United States.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. In what way are some of our modern media outlets a return to the earliest forms of news media in America?

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Discuss the FCC in terms of its composition, the appointment process for its members, and its purpose.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Describe how Washington correspondents rely on the president’s staff and on Congress.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the media playing the role of gatekeeper.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the television hypothesis, and summarize what research tells us with respect to its validity.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. What is soft news, and what has the mixed research concerning its effects shown so far?

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain how the media, in setting the agenda, play contradictory roles in the process of political socialization.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. What does research show with respect to the political leanings of major news media reporters?

Answers will vary.

 

CHAPTER 7: Participation and Voting

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Please define the following term.political participation

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.conventional participation

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.unconventional participation

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.terrorism

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.direct action

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.supportive behavior

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.influencing behavior

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.class action suit

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.voter turnout

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.suffrage

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.franchise

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.progressivism

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.direct primary

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.recall

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.referendum

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.initiative

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Please define the following term.standard socioeconomic model

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Public demonstrations by Egyptian women in December of 2011 were waged in order to protest
    A. their inability to vote.
    B. public beatings of women by Egyptian soldiers.
    C. their rights to congregate without men present.
    D. forced virginity tests on female prisoners.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. All of the following are regarded in the text as examples of unconventional participation except
    A. the 1965 Selma, Alabama civil rights march.
    B. the Boston Tea Party.
    C. the Montgomery bus boycott.
    D. the “occupy” camps in 2011 protesting income inequality.
    E. all of these are examples of unconventional participation.

 

  1. The text defines __________ as the actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or support government and politics.
    A. direct action
    B. political participation
    C. unconventional participation
    D. conventional participation
    E. conventional behavior

 

  1. Before the collapse of communism, the former Soviet Union did not function as a democracy because
    A. it did not regularly hold elections.
    B. it had no legislature.
    C. it permitted no acts of conventional participation.
    D. there was only one political party.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Which of the following is an unconventional form of political participation?
    A. Voting
    B. Writing letters to public officials
    C. Campaigning for candidates
    D. Displaying campaign posters in front yards
    E. Chanting slogans outside public officials’ windows

 

  1. Which of the following statements about unconventional participation is not true?
    A. It challenges existing government channels or institutions.
    B. It violates principles or beliefs of the dominant culture.
    C. It always involves working outside the rules of democratic politics.
    D. It may be effective for those who have been otherwise excluded from participation in a democratic polity.
    E. It is normally used by nonvoter groups.

 

  1. Although terrorism is an unconventional political action, it is generally not counted as unconventional political participation because
    A. terrorists do not seek to influence government but to destroy it.
    B. the acceptability of terrorism varies from culture to culture.
    C. terrorism uses fear, not persuasion, as its primary tactic.
    D. terrorist acts generally concern international politics, not domestic disputes.
    E. terrorism does not use the established institutions of representative government.

 

  1. Which of the following was the first known act of unconventional participation in America?
    A. The Revolutionary War
    B. The Declaration of Independence
    C. The civil rights marches of the 1960s
    D. Shays’s Rebellion
    E. The Boston Tea Party

 

  1. Political scientists know less about unconventional forms of political participation because
    A. conventional forms have greater impact.
    B. few people consider unconventional forms legitimate.
    C. it is easier to collect data on conventional practices.
    D. they are biased toward institutionalized, or conventional, politics.
    E. Options C and D are true.

 

  1. Direct action includes
    A. a contribution to a campaign.
    B. legislatures passing laws in response to public demands.
    C. increased voter turnout due to negative campaigning.
    D. a citizen’s group appearing before the city council seeking change in an ordinance.
    E. an interest group soliciting members.

 

  1. Some studies show that direct political action appeals most to those who __________ the political system and have a __________ sense of political efficacy.
    A. distrust; strong
    B. trust; weak
    C. trust; strong
    D. distrust; weak
    E. support; keen

 

  1. Americans are less likely to __________ than citizens of other countries.
    A. vote
    B. sign a petition
    C. boycott products
    D. be interested in politics.
    E. join demonstrations

 

  1. Flying the American flag on holidays is an example of __________ behavior.
    A. influencing
    B. contacting
    C. unconventional
    D. supportive
    E. modeling

 

  1. A practical test of whether or not a government is democratic is whether
    A. people can operate outside government institutions to influence policymaking.
    B. citizens can affect its policies by acting through its institutions.
    C. direct action is necessary for government to hear citizens’ views.
    D. conventional political action consists largely of influencing behaviors and not supportive behaviors.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Petitioning a local government council to rebuild a curb in front of your home is a(n)
    A. form of unconventional participation.
    B. form of supportive behavior.
    C. example of seeking particular benefits.
    D. example of seeking broad policy objectives.
    E. method of self-interested political behavior.

 

  1. Studies of Americans who engage in “contacting behavior” like complaining to city hall find
    A. they are not more likely to vote than other Americans.
    B. they tend to be of low socioeconomic status.
    C. they demand more of the national government than of local government.
    D. they are more focused on elected officials representing their views than on providing city services.
    E. they tend to have a lower favorable opinion about government.

 

  1. Americans contributing money to a candidate’s campaign is best defined as a form of
    A. unconventional participation.
    B. supportive behavior.
    C. influencing behavior.
    D. competitive behavior.
    E. elite behavior.

 

  1. A legal action brought by a person or group on behalf of a number of people in similar circumstances is also known as a(n)
    A. class action suit.
    B. initiative.
    C. supportive behavior.
    D. public act.
    E. referendum.

 

  1. Which of the following activities requires the most initiative?
    A. Voting
    B. Running for office
    C. Working on a campaign
    D. Contacting an elected official
    E. Signing a petition

 

  1. The text defines suffrage and franchise as the right to
    A. participate.
    B. speak.
    C. protest.
    D. vote.
    E. rally.

 

  1. Which country was the first to provide for the general election of representatives through mass suffrage?
    A. France
    B. Australia
    C. Canada
    D. Great Britain
    E. United States

 

  1. The framers of the Constitutionleft the issue of voter enfranchisement to
    A. Congress.
    B. the Supreme Court.
    C. the states.
    D. the Federalist papers.
    E. voting districts.

 

  1. Which of the following qualifications for voting was virtually eliminated in all states by the 1850s?
    A. Property ownership
    B. Age
    C. Race
    D. Gender
    E. Literacy requirement

 

  1. The __________ to the Constitutionprohibits states from denying the right to vote “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
    A. Tenth Amendment
    B. Fourteenth Amendment
    C. Fifteenth Amendment
    D. Twenty-second Amendment
    E. Eighteenth Amendment

 

  1. The purpose of the literacy tests that were used in the southern states after 1870 was to
    A. keep schoolteachers employed.
    B. keep illegal aliens from voting.
    C. void illegally-cast ballots.
    D. ensure that only well-informed people voted.
    E. discourage African Americans from voting.

 

  1. In Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court found _________ is(are) unconstitutional.
    A. preventing blacks from voting in primary elections
    B. state poll taxes
    C. literacy tests
    D. property requirements for voting
    E. Jim Crow laws

 

  1. Women were first given the right to vote in
    A. New York.
    B. Massachusetts.
    C. Ohio.
    D. Pennsylvania.
    E. Wyoming.

 

  1. The amendment granting women’s suffrage is the
    A. Eighteenth Amendment.
    B. Nineteenth Amendment.
    C. Twentieth Amendment.
    D. Twenty-first Amendment.
    E. Twenty-eighth Amendment.

 

  1. The amendment lowering the voting age to eighteen is the
    A. Eighteenth Amendment.
    B. Nineteenth Amendment.
    C. Twentieth Amendment.
    D. Twenty-sixth Amendment.
    E. Twenty-seventh Amendment.

 

  1. Compared with other nations in the world in granting suffrage to women, the United States
    A. was among the first.
    B. ranked about in the middle.
    C. lagged far behind.
    D. was unique in extending that right without being pressured to do so.
    E. was more selective in which women were extended the right.

 

  1. __________ did not extend the vote on equal terms with men until 1971.
    A. Norway
    B. The Netherlands
    C. Switzerland
    D. Kuwait
    E. Belgium

 

  1. A direct primary is a
    A. direct vote on a proposed law.
    B. preliminary election to choose party candidates.
    C. special election initiated by petition.
    D. procedure by which voters can propose a law to be considered by the legislature.
    E. recorded position on an issue by an interest group.

 

  1. Which statement concerning recall is incorrect?
    A. Twenty-one state governors have been unseated through recall.
    B. They are a direct vote by the people on either a proposed law or an amendment.
    C. Recall elections require petitions signed by a specified number of voters.
    D. Recall can only be used for federal elections.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. Most referenda are placed on the ballot by
    A. voters.
    B. governors.
    C. interest groups.
    D. judges.
    E. legislatures.

 

  1. The typical procedure for an initiative requires petitions to feature the signatures of _________ of the number of registered voters in a state.
    A. 5 to 10 percent
    B. 25 to 30 percent
    C. 45 to 50 percent
    D. more than 50 percent
    E. at least 60 percent

 

  1. The _________ states appear to have an affinity for democratic mechanisms such as referenda and initiatives.
    A. southern
    B. southeastern
    C. western
    D. mid-western
    E. north-eastern

 

  1. One recent criticism of referenda and initiatives is that
    A. they create an expensive “industry” designed around circulating petitions and spending millions.
    B. citizens cannot exercise great power over government policy through these mechanisms.
    C. controversial ballot measures tend to lower voter turnout.
    D. voters increasingly tend to reject all ballot measures.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. At the local level, voters elect about _________ of 15,300 school boards across the nation.
    A. 600
    B. 1,500
    C. 8,500
    D. 11,300
    E. 14,700

 

  1. Although the United States has a much lower voter turnout than do other democracies, Americans may actually work harder at being good citizens because
    A. political parties in the United States demand a high level of activity.
    B. people must pass a test of political knowledge to be eligible to vote in the United States.
    C. many American states still impose a poll tax.
    D. the United States has far more elections than do other countries.
    E. they break fewer laws overall.

 

  1. Voting in the United States decreased during the 1970s and 1980s. Other forms of participation
    A. increased or remained stable.
    B. also decreased.
    C. have not been extensively studied.
    D. rose and fell in no particular pattern.
    E. dramatically increased.

 

  1. The country with the lowest voter turnout among eligible voters in national elections is
    A. Belgium.
    B. Sweden.
    C. Germany.
    D. Spain.
    E. the United States.

 

  1. Characteristics frequently associated with nonvoters are
    A. low education, high income, and being middle-aged.
    B. low education, low income, and being relatively young.
    C. high education, low income, and being relatively old.
    D. low education, low income, and being middle-aged.
    E. low income and general apathy.

 

  1. In general today, women politically participate
    A. less than men.
    B. more than men.
    C. less than men if they are married, but more if they are not.
    D. about the same as men.
    E. There is no consistent pattern across different forms of participation.

 

  1. How does education affect voter turnout?
    A. Well-educated people are more likely to vote than are their less-educated counterparts.
    B. Educated people are less likely to vote than uneducated people because their education makes them more cynical about government.
    C. Educated and uneducated people vote at about the same rates.
    D. Educated people vote more than uneducated people, who are often unable to pass voter literacy tests.
    E. Educated people cast more split ballots on issues.

 

  1. The standard socioeconomic model of participation chiefly refers to
    A. age, race, and education.
    B. gender, ethnicity, and income.
    C. race, income, and religion.
    D. age, education, and political interest.
    E. education, income, and occupation.

 

  1. According to some economic models of rational behavior, voting
    A. is a low-initiative form of participation.
    B. satisfies three psychological motivations.
    C. is a rational means to obtain particularized benefits.
    D. is best pursued by those of low income and education.
    E. rarely has any payoff because one vote rarely decides an election.

 

  1. The effect of the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which enfranchised eighteen-to-twenty-year-olds, was to
    A. boost voter turnout in the United States above that of most other democratic nations.
    B. reduce the national voter turnout rate.
    C. increase the national voter turnout rate.
    D. decrease the percentage of the population that distrusts the American political system.
    E. counter the increasing social mobility of this group.

 

  1. Psychological explanations of turnout suggest that voting will rise if
    A. more Americans believe that government is responsive.
    B. party identification increases among the electorate.
    C. educational levels rise.
    D. a major war begins.
    E. satisfaction with government policies declines.

 

  1. By law, the U.S. presidential election occurs
    A. the last Wednesday in October.
    B. the first Thursday in November.
    C. the last Monday in November.
    D. the second Tuesday in November.
    E. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

 

  1. In nearly every other democratic country, the burden of registration is placed on
    A. the individual voters.
    B. political parties.
    C. community leaders.
    D. the government.
    E. private interest groups.

 

  1. Today, _________ states allow voters to both register and vote on the day of the election.
    A. two
    B. nine
    C. twenty-two
    D. thirty-one
    E. forty-six

 

  1. In Oregon, everyone votes by
    A. telephone.
    B. Internet.
    C. electronic devices.
    D. mail.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. If voter-turnout was computed on the basis of registered voters, about ________ of Americans vote.
    A. 45 percent
    B. 50 percent
    C. 60 percent
    D. 70 percent
    E. 80 percent

 

  1. Most new registrations for voting are done though
    A. mail.
    B. motor-voter provisions.
    C. the Internet.
    D. telephone.
    E. party registration drives.

 

  1. A 2009 study showed that half of all voters are unaware that they can
    A. switch political parties.
    B. vote by mail.
    C. register at motor vehicle offices.
    D. vote for U.S. Senators.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. The American emphasis on freedom over equality in political participation works to the benefit of
    A. union members.
    B. the poor.
    C. those with greater resources.
    D. no particular group.
    E. nonvoters.

 

  1. During the Vietnam War, protesting students on college campuses
    A. stopped traffic.
    B. destroyed property.
    C. occupied buildings.
    D. boycotted classes and disrupted lectures.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age to eighteen, because they
    A. recognized the justice of the student antiwar and civil rights movements.
    B. knew that student voter turnout would be low.
    C. expected the new voters to change the political balance of power drastically.
    D. hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.
    E. realized the unfairness of the discrepancy between the military draft age and the voting age.

 

  1. Which means of political participation serves the ideal of equality better than any other?
    A. Running for office
    B. Contributing to campaigns
    C. Contacting officials
    D. Voting in elections
    E. E-mailing concerns to elected officials

 

  1. Someone who asserts that elections “socialize political activity” is contending that elections are mechanisms that maintain
    A. freedom.
    B. majoritarianism.
    C. equality.
    D. order.
    E. independence.

 

  1. The majoritarian model of democracy favors
    A. both conventional and unconventional forms of participation.
    B. unconventional forms of participation.
    C. resourceful individuals seeking particularized benefits.
    D. better-educated, wealthier citizens.
    E. voting as the primary means of participation.

 

  1. Elections, as an institutional mechanism
    A. have no perceptible effect on policies and actions of governments.
    B. diminish the power and authority of the state.
    C. encourage the citizenry to engage in other kinds of political participation.
    D. bolster the power and authority of the state.
    E. equalize segments of the population.

 

  1. Other than voting, list four specific ways that Americans participate in politics. For each way listed, indicate whether it is a form of conventional or unconventional participation, and why.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain why the 1965 march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama, though an unconventional form of political participation that led to violence, proved beneficial to the Civil Rights movement.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between supportive and influencing behavior, and provide examples of each.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Summarize the expansion of voting rights by describing federal government actions that granted the franchise to those who had been denied suffrage.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between a referendum and an initiative, and give an example of each..

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What do we know about trends in voter turnout and other forms of political participation from 1946 to 2008?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss how Americans compare in terms of voter turnout with citizens of other democracies, and one reason your text offers for why this difference may exist.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe why people with a higher socioeconomic status engage in conventional political participation.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What explanations have researchers suggested for decreasing voter turnout in the United States?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss why patterns of American participation are more consistent with the pluralist model than the majoritarian model.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In addition to their being vehicles that implement democracy, describe the other important purposes of elections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 7: Participation and Voting Key

  1. Please define the following term.political participation

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.conventional participation

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.unconventional participation

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.terrorism

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.direct action

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.supportive behavior

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.influencing behavior

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.class action suit

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.voter turnout

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.suffrage

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.franchise

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.progressivism

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.direct primary

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.recall

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.referendum

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.initiative

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Please define the following term.standard socioeconomic model

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Public demonstrations by Egyptian women in December of 2011 were waged in order to protest
    A.their inability to vote.
    B. public beatings of women by Egyptian soldiers.
    C. their rights to congregate without men present.
    D. forced virginity tests on female prisoners.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. All of the following are regarded in the text as examples of unconventional participation except
    A. the 1965 Selma, Alabama civil rights march.
    B. the Boston Tea Party.
    C. the Montgomery bus boycott.
    D. the “occupy” camps in 2011 protesting income inequality.
    E. all of these are examples of unconventional participation.

 

  1. The text defines __________ as the actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or support government and politics.
    A.direct action
    B. political participation
    C. unconventional participation
    D. conventional participation
    E. conventional behavior

 

  1. Before the collapse of communism, the former Soviet Union did not function as a democracy because
    A.it did not regularly hold elections.
    B. it had no legislature.
    C. it permitted no acts of conventional participation.
    D. there was only one political party.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Which of the following is an unconventional form of political participation?
    A.Voting
    B. Writing letters to public officials
    C. Campaigning for candidates
    D. Displaying campaign posters in front yards
    E. Chanting slogans outside public officials’ windows

 

  1. Which of the following statements about unconventional participation is not true?
    A.It challenges existing government channels or institutions.
    B. It violates principles or beliefs of the dominant culture.
    C. It always involves working outside the rules of democratic politics.
    D. It may be effective for those who have been otherwise excluded from participation in a democratic polity.
    E. It is normally used by nonvoter groups.

 

  1. Although terrorism is an unconventional political action, it is generally not counted as unconventional political participation because
    A.terrorists do not seek to influence government but to destroy it.
    B. the acceptability of terrorism varies from culture to culture.
    C. terrorism uses fear, not persuasion, as its primary tactic.
    D. terrorist acts generally concern international politics, not domestic disputes.
    E. terrorism does not use the established institutions of representative government.

 

  1. Which of the following was the first known act of unconventional participation in America?
    A.The Revolutionary War
    B. The Declaration of Independence
    C. The civil rights marches of the 1960s
    D. Shays’s Rebellion
    E. The Boston Tea Party

 

  1. Political scientists know less about unconventional forms of political participation because
    A.conventional forms have greater impact.
    B. few people consider unconventional forms legitimate.
    C. it is easier to collect data on conventional practices.
    D. they are biased toward institutionalized, or conventional, politics.
    E. Options C and D are true.

 

  1. Direct action includes
    A.a contribution to a campaign.
    B. legislatures passing laws in response to public demands.
    C. increased voter turnout due to negative campaigning.
    D. a citizen’s group appearing before the city council seeking change in an ordinance.
    E. an interest group soliciting members.

 

  1. Some studies show that direct political action appeals most to those who __________ the political system and have a __________ sense of political efficacy.
    A.distrust; strong
    B. trust; weak
    C. trust; strong
    D. distrust; weak
    E. support; keen

 

  1. Americans are less likely to __________ than citizens of other countries.
    A.vote
    B. sign a petition
    C. boycott products
    D. be interested in politics.
    E. join demonstrations

 

  1. Flying the American flag on holidays is an example of __________ behavior.
    A.influencing
    B. contacting
    C. unconventional
    D. supportive
    E. modeling

 

  1. A practical test of whether or not a government is democratic is whether
    A.people can operate outside government institutions to influence policymaking.
    B. citizens can affect its policies by acting through its institutions.
    C. direct action is necessary for government to hear citizens’ views.
    D. conventional political action consists largely of influencing behaviors and not supportive behaviors.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Petitioning a local government council to rebuild a curb in front of your home is a(n)
    A.form of unconventional participation.
    B. form of supportive behavior.
    C. example of seeking particular benefits.
    D. example of seeking broad policy objectives.
    E. method of self-interested political behavior.

 

  1. Studies of Americans who engage in “contacting behavior” like complaining to city hall find
    A.they are not more likely to vote than other Americans.
    B. they tend to be of low socioeconomic status.
    C. they demand more of the national government than of local government.
    D. they are more focused on elected officials representing their views than on providing city services.
    E. they tend to have a lower favorable opinion about government.

 

  1. Americans contributing money to a candidate’s campaign is best defined as a form of
    A.unconventional participation.
    B. supportive behavior.
    C. influencing behavior.
    D. competitive behavior.
    E. elite behavior.

 

  1. A legal action brought by a person or group on behalf of a number of people in similar circumstances is also known as a(n)
    A.class action suit.
    B. initiative.
    C. supportive behavior.
    D. public act.
    E. referendum.

 

  1. Which of the following activities requires the most initiative?
    A.Voting
    B. Running for office
    C. Working on a campaign
    D. Contacting an elected official
    E. Signing a petition

 

  1. The text defines suffrage and franchise as the right to
    A.participate.
    B. speak.
    C. protest.
    D. vote.
    E. rally.

 

  1. Which country was the first to provide for the general election of representatives through mass suffrage?
    A.France
    B. Australia
    C. Canada
    D. Great Britain
    E. United States

 

  1. The framers of the Constitutionleft the issue of voter enfranchisement to
    A.Congress.
    B. the Supreme Court.
    C. the states.
    D. the Federalist papers.
    E. voting districts.

 

  1. Which of the following qualifications for voting was virtually eliminated in all states by the 1850s?
    A.Property ownership
    B. Age
    C. Race
    D. Gender
    E. Literacy requirement

 

  1. The __________ to the Constitutionprohibits states from denying the right to vote “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
    A.Tenth Amendment
    B. Fourteenth Amendment
    C. Fifteenth Amendment
    D. Twenty-second Amendment
    E. Eighteenth Amendment

 

  1. The purpose of the literacy tests that were used in the southern states after 1870 was to
    A.keep schoolteachers employed.
    B. keep illegal aliens from voting.
    C. void illegally-cast ballots.
    D. ensure that only well-informed people voted.
    E. discourage African Americans from voting.

 

  1. In Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court found _________ is(are) unconstitutional.
    A.preventing blacks from voting in primary elections
    B. state poll taxes
    C. literacy tests
    D. property requirements for voting
    E. Jim Crow laws

 

  1. Women were first given the right to vote in
    A.New York.
    B. Massachusetts.
    C. Ohio.
    D. Pennsylvania.
    E. Wyoming.

 

  1. The amendment granting women’s suffrage is the
    A.Eighteenth Amendment.
    B. Nineteenth Amendment.
    C. Twentieth Amendment.
    D. Twenty-first Amendment.
    E. Twenty-eighth Amendment.

 

  1. The amendment lowering the voting age to eighteen is the
    A.Eighteenth Amendment.
    B. Nineteenth Amendment.
    C. Twentieth Amendment.
    D. Twenty-sixth Amendment.
    E. Twenty-seventh Amendment.

 

  1. Compared with other nations in the world in granting suffrage to women, the United States
    A.was among the first.
    B. ranked about in the middle.
    C. lagged far behind.
    D. was unique in extending that right without being pressured to do so.
    E. was more selective in which women were extended the right.

 

  1. __________ did not extend the vote on equal terms with men until 1971.
    A.Norway
    B. The Netherlands
    C. Switzerland
    D. Kuwait
    E. Belgium

 

  1. A direct primary is a
    A.direct vote on a proposed law.
    B. preliminary election to choose party candidates.
    C. special election initiated by petition.
    D. procedure by which voters can propose a law to be considered by the legislature.
    E. recorded position on an issue by an interest group.

 

  1. Which statement concerning recall is incorrect?
    A.Twenty-one state governors have been unseated through recall.
    B. They are a direct vote by the people on either a proposed law or an amendment.
    C. Recall elections require petitions signed by a specified number of voters.
    D. Recall can only be used for federal elections.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. Most referenda are placed on the ballot by
    A.voters.
    B. governors.
    C. interest groups.
    D. judges.
    E. legislatures.

 

  1. The typical procedure for an initiative requires petitions to feature the signatures of _________ of the number of registered voters in a state.
    A.5 to 10 percent
    B. 25 to 30 percent
    C. 45 to 50 percent
    D. more than 50 percent
    E. at least 60 percent

 

  1. The _________ states appear to have an affinity for democratic mechanisms such as referenda and initiatives.
    A.southern
    B. southeastern
    C. western
    D. mid-western
    E. north-eastern

 

  1. One recent criticism of referenda and initiatives is that
    A.they create an expensive “industry” designed around circulating petitions and spending millions.
    B. citizens cannot exercise great power over government policy through these mechanisms.
    C. controversial ballot measures tend to lower voter turnout.
    D. voters increasingly tend to reject all ballot measures.
    E. Options B and D are true.

 

  1. At the local level, voters elect about _________ of 15,300 school boards across the nation.
    A.600
    B. 1,500
    C. 8,500
    D. 11,300
    E. 14,700

 

  1. Although the United States has a much lower voter turnout than do other democracies, Americans may actually work harder at being good citizens because
    A.political parties in the United States demand a high level of activity.
    B. people must pass a test of political knowledge to be eligible to vote in the United States.
    C. many American states still impose a poll tax.
    D. the United States has far more elections than do other countries.
    E. they break fewer laws overall.

 

  1. Voting in the United States decreased during the 1970s and 1980s. Other forms of participation
    A.increased or remained stable.
    B. also decreased.
    C. have not been extensively studied.
    D. rose and fell in no particular pattern.
    E. dramatically increased.

 

  1. The country with the lowest voter turnout among eligible voters in national elections is
    A.Belgium.
    B. Sweden.
    C. Germany.
    D. Spain.
    E. the United States.

 

  1. Characteristics frequently associated with nonvoters are
    A.low education, high income, and being middle-aged.
    B. low education, low income, and being relatively young.
    C. high education, low income, and being relatively old.
    D. low education, low income, and being middle-aged.
    E. low income and general apathy.

 

  1. In general today, women politically participate
    A.less than men.
    B. more than men.
    C. less than men if they are married, but more if they are not.
    D. about the same as men.
    E. There is no consistent pattern across different forms of participation.

 

  1. How does education affect voter turnout?
    A.Well-educated people are more likely to vote than are their less-educated counterparts.
    B. Educated people are less likely to vote than uneducated people because their education makes them more cynical about government.
    C. Educated and uneducated people vote at about the same rates.
    D. Educated people vote more than uneducated people, who are often unable to pass voter literacy tests.
    E. Educated people cast more split ballots on issues.

 

  1. The standard socioeconomic model of participation chiefly refers to
    A.age, race, and education.
    B. gender, ethnicity, and income.
    C. race, income, and religion.
    D. age, education, and political interest.
    E. education, income, and occupation.

 

  1. According to some economic models of rational behavior, voting
    A.is a low-initiative form of participation.
    B. satisfies three psychological motivations.
    C. is a rational means to obtain particularized benefits.
    D. is best pursued by those of low income and education.
    E. rarely has any payoff because one vote rarely decides an election.

 

  1. The effect of the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which enfranchised eighteen-to-twenty-year-olds, was to
    A.boost voter turnout in the United States above that of most other democratic nations.
    B. reduce the national voter turnout rate.
    C. increase the national voter turnout rate.
    D. decrease the percentage of the population that distrusts the American political system.
    E. counter the increasing social mobility of this group.

 

  1. Psychological explanations of turnout suggest that voting will rise if
    A.more Americans believe that government is responsive.
    B. party identification increases among the electorate.
    C. educational levels rise.
    D. a major war begins.
    E. satisfaction with government policies declines.

 

  1. By law, the U.S. presidential election occurs
    A.the last Wednesday in October.
    B. the first Thursday in November.
    C. the last Monday in November.
    D. the second Tuesday in November.
    E. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

 

  1. In nearly every other democratic country, the burden of registration is placed on
    A.the individual voters.
    B. political parties.
    C. community leaders.
    D. the government.
    E. private interest groups.

 

  1. Today, _________ states allow voters to both register and vote on the day of the election.
    A.two
    B. nine
    C. twenty-two
    D. thirty-one
    E. forty-six

 

  1. In Oregon, everyone votes by
    A.telephone.
    B. Internet.
    C. electronic devices.
    D. mail.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. If voter-turnout was computed on the basis of registered voters, about ________ of Americans vote.
    A.45 percent
    B. 50 percent
    C. 60 percent
    D. 70 percent
    E. 80 percent

 

  1. Most new registrations for voting are done though
    A.mail.
    B. motor-voter provisions.
    C. the Internet.
    D. telephone.
    E. party registration drives.

 

  1. A 2009 study showed that half of all voters are unaware that they can
    A.switch political parties.
    B. vote by mail.
    C. register at motor vehicle offices.
    D. vote for U.S. Senators.
    E. None of the above is true.

 

  1. The American emphasis on freedom over equality in political participation works to the benefit of
    A.union members.
    B. the poor.
    C. those with greater resources.
    D. no particular group.
    E. nonvoters.

 

  1. During the Vietnam War, protesting students on college campuses
    A.stopped traffic.
    B. destroyed property.
    C. occupied buildings.
    D. boycotted classes and disrupted lectures.
    E. All of the above are true.

 

  1. Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age to eighteen, because they
    A.recognized the justice of the student antiwar and civil rights movements.
    B. knew that student voter turnout would be low.
    C. expected the new voters to change the political balance of power drastically.
    D. hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.
    E. realized the unfairness of the discrepancy between the military draft age and the voting age.

 

  1. Which means of political participation serves the ideal of equality better than any other?
    A.Running for office
    B. Contributing to campaigns
    C. Contacting officials
    D. Voting in elections
    E. E-mailing concerns to elected officials

 

  1. Someone who asserts that elections “socialize political activity” is contending that elections are mechanisms that maintain
    A.freedom.
    B. majoritarianism.
    C. equality.
    D. order.
    E. independence.

 

  1. The majoritarian model of democracy favors
    A.both conventional and unconventional forms of participation.
    B. unconventional forms of participation.
    C. resourceful individuals seeking particularized benefits.
    D. better-educated, wealthier citizens.
    E. voting as the primary means of participation.

 

  1. Elections, as an institutional mechanism
    A.have no perceptible effect on policies and actions of governments.
    B. diminish the power and authority of the state.
    C. encourage the citizenry to engage in other kinds of political participation.
    D. bolster the power and authority of the state.
    E. equalize segments of the population.

 

  1. Other than voting, list four specific ways that Americans participate in politics. For each way listed, indicate whether it is a form of conventional or unconventional participation, and why.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain why the 1965 march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, Alabama, though an unconventional form of political participation that led to violence, proved beneficial to the Civil Rights movement.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain the difference between supportive and influencing behavior, and provide examples of each.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Summarize the expansion of voting rights by describing federal government actions that granted the franchise to those who had been denied suffrage.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Explain the difference between a referendum and an initiative, and give an example of each..

Answers will vary.

 

  1. What do we know about trends in voter turnout and other forms of political participation from 1946 to 2008?

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Discuss how Americans compare in terms of voter turnout with citizens of other democracies, and one reason your text offers for why this difference may exist.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Describe why people with a higher socioeconomic status engage in conventional political participation.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. What explanations have researchers suggested for decreasing voter turnout in the United States?

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Discuss why patterns of American participation are more consistent with the pluralist model than the majoritarian model.

Answers will vary.

 

  1. In addition to their being vehicles that implement democracy, describe the other important purposes of elections.

Answers will vary.