The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

$20.00

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

CHAPTER_6_The_Media

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. In the United States today, the mass media

a. are manipulated by the elite for their own purposes.
b. channel information from the government to the people.
c. provide a two-way channel of communication between the people and the government.
d. channel information from the people to the government.
e. play favorites.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   149
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

2. The traditional division of mass media into _________ has been made problematic by the Internet.

a. print and broadcast
b. audio and visual
c. linkage and reception
d. radio and television
e. words and pictures

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   149
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

3. A poll of Americans who had seen or heard of Michael Moore’s 2007 documentary Sicko found that _________ changed their mind and said health-care reform was more necessary.

a. relatively few
b. about one-quarter
c. nearly half
d. over three-quarters
e. almost all

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   150
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

4. A recent example of popular music conveying a political message is “Born This Way,” by Lady Gaga, which focuses on

a. ​same-sex marriage.
b. ​obesity.
c. ​bullying.
d. ​racial prejudice.
e. subjugation of women.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   150
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

5. The first newspapers in the United States were

a. farmers’ almanacs.
b. literary gazettes.
c. financed by political parties that advocated party causes.
d. official government publications.
e. published by British tabloids.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

6. Newspapers did not move toward independent ownership and large circulation until

a. the 1780s.
b. the 1830s.
c. the 1870s.
d. about 1900.
e. the 1930s

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

7. _________ occurs when a media outlet such as a magazine informs a relatively small number of group leaders who follow news in a specific area, and those leaders in turn mobilize their followers to put pressure on public officials.

a. Indirect democracy
b. Majoritarian democracy
c. The two-step flow of communication
d. Elite dominance of American politics
e. Multimedia convergence

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

8. ​Journalistic norms of objectivity and accuracy grew, some say, because of

a. ​government regulation resulting from journalistic excesses.
b. ​lack of competition, allowing focus on quality rather than sensationalism.
c. ​growing realization among journalists of their responsibility to the public welfare.
d. ​a reaction to paying damages from lawsuits based on faulty reporting.
e. ​public criticism of pandering journalists.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

9. Counting both print and online users, news readership of newspapers​

a. ​has virtually disappeared.
b. ​has declined slightly.
c. ​has moved to weekly magazines.
d. ​is up overall.
e. ​is the same as it was 50 years ago.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

10. ​To stay in business in the digital age, many newspapers have __________ their online content, with varying degrees of success.

a. ​strictly limited
b. become more objective and even-handed in
c. ​relinquished control of
d. ​begun including only local interest content in
e. ​instituted paywalls for

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   151
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

11. ___________ are group leaders who follow news in specific areas.​

a. ​Attentive policy elites
b. ​Demagogues
c. ​Newshounds
d. ​Elected officials
e. ​Policymakers

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   151
ACCREDITING STANDARDS:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

12. The first media technology to make broadcast journalists into household names was

a. the newspaper.
b. the telegraph.
c. radio.
d. television.
e. cable.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   153
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

13. Despite new technological options, and despite criticism that in its current form it polarizes politics in an unhealthy way, _____ of Americans listen to traditional AM/FM radio weekly.

a. ​15%
b. ​35%
c. ​50%
d. ​75%
e. ​90%

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   153
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

14. The Internet was started

a. in 1989, by Bill Gates for Microsoft’s Windows products.
b. in 1972, by a group of thirty-seven universities.
c. in 1983, by IBM for use on its mainframes.
d. in 1920, after the Great Depression.
e. in 1969, with support from the U.S. Department of Defense.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

15. __________ percent of surveyed adults indicated that they learned about the 2008 political campaign from comedy shows like The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, or Saturday Night Live.

a. Five percent
b. Thirty percent
c. Forty-five percent
d. Sixty percent
e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

16. More and more, cable news seems analogous to

a. weekly news magazines.
b. broadcast networks.
c. radio.
d. early partisan newspapers.
e. YouTube.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

17. ​Early TV network news programs focused their evening news programs on

a. an “anchorman.”
b. ​foreign reporting.
c. “sex and death.”
d. ​infotainment.
e. ​soft news.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

18. Some research indicates that people who watch partisan news become​

a. ​better informed on various sides of contentious issues.
b. ​more extreme in their politics.
c. ​better critical thinkers.
d. more apt to become or be sympathetic with terrorists.
e. ​motivated to change their political views.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   154
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

19. Reaction to a film posted on YouTube made by an Egyptian-American that mocked the Muslim prophet Muhammad is an example of the influence of new media platforms; that they

a. impact the types of stories that get picked up by the “mainstream media.”
b. impact one-third of Americans who say they read political blogs.
c. have resulted in a renewed focus on investigative journalism of party platforms.
d. bring Americans with different ideologies into greater contact with each other.
e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   156
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

20. The amount of information online is so vast that most people rely on _________ to help them determine which news is real and important.​

a. ​Google
b. ​guidance from the government
c. ​the mainstream media
d. ​prominent political commentators
e. the “blog index”

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   156
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

21. ​Chinese political activists have used inflatable ducks and Legos to

a. ​explain the history of their country to children.
b. ​reach out to illiterate citizens with political messages.
c. ​make fun of their political leadership.
d. ​recreate the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in a way that will avoid censors.
e. ​communicate with American activists while avoiding the difficulty of the language barrier.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   156
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

22. A country where the government heavily censors Internet news and search engines is

a. Germany.
b. China.
c. South Africa.
d. Argentina.
e. Italy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   156-157
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

23. Private ownership of the media in the United States makes the American news industry

a. dependent on government subsidies.
b. dependent on advertising revenues.
c. less free to cover stories that are of interest to the audience.
d. less concerned about ratings than media in other countries.
e. a product of popular trends.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   157
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

24. A 2011 news analysis found that cable TV was particularly devoted to __________ whereas online news sites and newspapers provided more coverage of __________.

a. local news; election coverage
b. economic news; foreign affairs
c. foreign affairs; local news
d. election coverage; foreign affairs
e. local news; economic news

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   158
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

25. A story that contains no policy content and is not related to the day’s events but that commonly discusses popular personalities and is designed to draw greater viewer interest is

a. market-driven journalism.
b. the Fox effect.
c. attentive policy elitism.
d. biased media coverage.
e. infotainment.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   158-159
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   A

 

26. ​Newspapers owned by publicly-traded chains are more likely to

a. ​remain neutral in the tone of their reporting.
b. ​resort to negative or positive spin on the news.
c. disregard the bottom line, in service of better reporting.
d. ​​promote journalistic integrity.
e. ​be independent.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   159
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

27. ​In response to financial stress, some have suggested that newspapers operate as ___________, allowing them to be funded through endowments, donations, and perhaps government support.

a. ​for-profit enterprises
b. ​members of chains
c. ​nonprofits
d. ​online-only venues
e. ​ideological think tanks

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   159
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

28. Regarding the Internet, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

a. has issued an increasing number of fines for indecent material posted online.
b. has cracked down since 1999 on reposted copyrighted material.
c. has focused most of its energy monitoring the activities of hate groups.
d. does not have jurisdiction to regulate Internet content.
e. has issued contradictory opinions over recent years.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   160
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

29. The Telecommunications Act of 1996

a. attempted to tighten national control over media ownership and product content.
b. attempted to deregulate all privately owned media.
c. encouraged restrictions on web pages.
d. relaxed the rules governing media ownership.
e. led to an increase in government-owned media outlets.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   160
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

30. The text suggests that in the early days of radio, owners​ sought government regulation of the airwaves to

a. ​promote a socialist agenda.
b. ​ensure a patriotic message was at the center of broadcasting.
c. ​guarantee that stations could use the frequencies they wished, without interference from owners of other stations.
d. ​restrict others’ freedom to enter broadcasting and compete.
e. ​maintain their first amendment rights.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   160
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   A

 

31. The current debate about “net neutrality” concerns whether

a. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should be allowed to censor web content for indecency.
b. Internet content disproportionately favors liberals or conservatives.
c. the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) should be allowed to regulate web content for indecency.
d. ISPs should be allowed to charge people more if they consume a large amount of bandwidth.
e. limits should be placed on the number of Internet websites any media corporation can own.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   161
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

32. The _________ Amendment prohibits Congress from abridging freedom of the press.

a. First
b. Second
c. Fourth
d. Fifth
e. Ninth

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   162
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

33. The reasonable access rule required

a. broadcasters to make facilities available to all responsible parties in a community wishing to express conflicting views on issues.
b. the press to refrain from publishing strategic information during wartime.
c. broadcast stations to provide fair coverage of all views on public issues.
d. broadcast stations to provide free air time to all candidates running for public office.
e. all Internet service providers to use similar equipment.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   162
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

34. The now-abolished __________ obligated broadcasters to discuss public issues and to provide equal coverage of all opinions on those issues.

a. fairness doctrine
b. reasonable access rule
c. equal opportunities rule
d. free exercise rule
e. equal time rule

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   162
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

35. The fairness doctrine, the equal opportunities rule, and the reasonable access rule are all rules under which the FCC has

a. regulated Internet content.
b. ​controlled access to ownership of media outlets.
c. ​​regulated print media content.
d. ​regulated the manner in which media cover the U.S. Congress.
e. ​regulate broadcast media content.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   162
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

36. Which president first provided space in the White House for reporters?

a. Abraham Lincoln
b. John F. Kennedy
c. John Quincy Adams
d. Theodore Roosevelt
e. Ronald Reagan

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   163
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

37. Advocates of dropping all FCC content regulations believe that​

a. all regulations violate the First Amendment.
b. this would result in reduced media-generated polarization of the population.
c. ​broadcast media should be treated the same as other media.
d. ​existing regulations on internet political content are unconstitutional.
e. ​print media have been disadvantaged relative to other types of media outlets.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   163
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3
NOTES:   A

 

38. ​Which of the following is not an important function of the news media in our political system?

a. ​Reporting the news
b. ​Setting the agenda
c. ​Socializing citizens
d. ​Interpreting the news
e. ​All of the above are important functions of the news media in our political system.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   163
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

39. The phrase “on background” means that media are permitted to

a. override FCC rules for ownership.
b. engage in liberal, biased reporting methods.
c. correct an incorrectly-identified source.
d. issue a correction and apology for inaccurate reporting.
e. anonymously quote material without identifying the source.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   163-164
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

40. Most news printed about Congress comes from

a. congressional press releases and prepared reports.
b. independent investigations researched by congressional reporters.
c. information provided by congressional staff and executive officials who regularly deal with Congress.
d. nightly news briefings from congressional party leaders.
e. Internet sources.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   164
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

41. Officials send out __________ when they intentionally leak news to gauge the reaction of the public or other political leaders.

a. trial balloons
b. air memos
c. opinion hounds
d. ghost polls
e. lead balloons

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   164
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

42. The phrase “off the record” means that media

a. are not allowed to identify the source of information.
b. are banned from attending an event.
c. are not allowed to compare a source’s present and past statements in their reporting.
d. are only allowed to take photographs with short captions.
e. are not allowed to print the information.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   164
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

43. The media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who decide which events to report and how to report them are known as

a. horse race journalists.
b. pack journalists.
c. news sophisticates.
d. gatekeepers.
e. journalistic recorders.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

44. Content analysis of network news suggests that most coverage focuses on

a. the president.
b. the Supreme Court.
c. the House of Representatives.
d. the Senate.
e. Options c and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

45. During a presidential election, the tendency of journalists to limit coverage of campaigns to coverage of which candidate is leading or behind in the polls at the time, rather than chiefly covering the issues, is known as

a. pack journalism.
b. pool coverage.
c. horse race journalism.
d. gatekeeping.
e. media sophistication.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

46. Until the early 1960s, most Americans cited __________ as the source from which they got most of their news.

a. news magazines
b. local tabloids
c. television
d. radio
e. newspapers

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

47. ​After the 2012 election, which of the following received the lowest rating from Americans?

a. ​Candidates
b. ​the Media
c. ​Campaign consultants
d. ​Political parties
e. ​Pollsters

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

48. Currently, _________ is (are) most Americans’ primary news source.

a. ​television
b. ​newspapers
c. the Internet
d. ​news magazines
e. ​radio

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

49. The “television hypothesis” is the belief that television

a. should educate the public by aggressively investigating candidates’ personal lives.
b. now routinely suppresses potentially harmful news about large corporations that own TV stations.
c. should be fair and equal in covering all candidates.
d. is to blame for the low level of citizens’ knowledge about public affairs.
e. causes political apathy among viewers.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   166
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

50. General entertainment programming that often includes discussions of political affairs, such as The Daily Show, The Today Show, and The View is called

a. news lite.
b. soft news.
c. micro journalism.
d. new news.
e. New Wave journalism.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

51. Research on the impact of soft news finds it

a. can improve people’s levels of political knowledge.
b. helps citizens identify which politician best matches their own political preferences.
c. can lead people to be more cynical about politicians.
d. can benefit attitudes and engagements when candidates appear for interviews.
e. All of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

52. When the media regularly focus public attention on violent crime, political corruption, or economic woes, they are engaged in

a. biased reporting.
b. political socialization.
c. agenda setting.
d. changing public opinion.
e. apathy management.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

53. Most politicians and many scholars believe that the media’s greatest influence on politics is its ability to

a. report the news.
b. socialize children.
c. set the political agenda.
d. ruin political careers.
e. investigate.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

54. Crime rates fell in every major category (rape, burglary, robbery, assault, and murder) from the 1980s until very recently, but as one journalist said, “Crime coverage is not editorially driven; it’s_________.”

a. ideologically driven
b. politically driven
c. racially driven
d. economically driven
e. Options a and c are true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

55. How do the mass media influence the socialization process?

a. They reflect the government’s position on most important issues.
b. They undermine popular support for the political system.
c. They play contradictory roles, sometimes promoting popular support for government and sometimes eroding public confidence in it.
d. They promote popular support for the political system.
e. They cause confusion about political positions of officeholders.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   168
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

56. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are _________ among journalists and reporters.

a. liberal leanings
b. conservative leanings
c. biases in favor of politicians
d. no biases at all
e. negative leanings

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   169
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

57. Available evidence seems to indicate that there are __________ among editors and owners of the major news media.

a. liberal leanings
b. conservative leanings
c. biases in favor of politicians
d. no biases at all
e. negative leanings

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   169
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

58. It is quite possible that campaign coverage is affected by a(n) __________ among journalists.

a. anti-incumbent bias
b. gender gap
c. age gap
d. income disparity
e. pro-interest group bias

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   170
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

59. When excluding horserace stories, media coverage of Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential campaign, compared to coverage of Barack Obama, was​

a. ​much more negative.
b. ​more negative.
c. ​about the same.
d. ​more positive.
e. ​much more positive.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   170
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

60. By improving the quality of information transmitted to the people about their government, the mass media

a. at various times serve both the majoritarian and the pluralist models of American politics.
b. fit most comfortably into the pluralist model of American politics.
c. fit most comfortably into the majoritarian model of American politics.
d. tend to guarantee government responsiveness to popular demands.
e. raise expectations of voters.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   172
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

61. Which of the following statements is most accurate?

a. The mass media are not important to the majoritarian model of democracy.
b. The mass media are not important to the pluralist model of democracy.
c. The media in the United States have greatly enhanced the government’s efforts to maintain  order.
d. The media in the United States have played an important role in advancing equality.
e. The media represent an unofficial branch of government.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   172
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

62. Representatives of the mass media frequently defend the importance of freedom of the press, even if it comes at the expense of

a. order.
b. equality.
c. profits.
d. democracy.
e. rights.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   172
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

63. A 2006 survey found that if the government feels information threatens national security, _______ Americans favor government censorship.​

a. ​almost no
b. ​about 10 percent of
c. ​about a third of
d. ​about half of
e. ​about two-thirds of

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   172
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

Essay

 

64. Describe the history and current influence of radio on American politics.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   153
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1

 

65. How are political blogs influencing news reporting and politics?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   154-156
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.1 – LO1

 

66. Explain the consequences of the large degree of private ownership of media that exists in the United States.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   157-158
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2

 

67. In what way are some of our modern media outlets a return to the earliest forms of news media in America?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   159
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.2 – LO2

 

68. Describe the government’s history of regulation of media content, including rules historically used​ to regulate content and how different media outlets are treated.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   162-163
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.3 – LO3

 

69. Describe how Washington correspondents rely on the president’s staff and on Congress.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   163-164
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4

 

70. Explain what is meant by the media playing the role of gatekeeper.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   165
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4

 

71. Explain how the media, in setting the agenda, play contradictory roles in the process of political socialization.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   167
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.4 – LO4

 

72. What does research show with respect to the political leanings of major news media reporters?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   169-170
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5

 

73. Describe some of the ways ​the media have had an impact on American values of freedom, order and equality, including the conflicts between these values.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   172
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.6.5 – LO5

 

CHAPTER_7_Participation_and_Voting

1. The text defines __________ as the actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or support government and politics.

a. direct action
b. political participation
c. unconventional participation
d. conventional participation
e. conventional behavior

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   178
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

2. One criterion that must be met for a country to be democratic is that  it must​

a. ​have only two political parties.
b. ​be politically divided along traditional liberal/conservative lines.
c. ​have more than one political party.
d. ​allow initiative and referendum.
e. ​prevent interest groups from unduly influencing elections.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   178
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

3. Although terrorism is an unconventional political action, it is generally not counted as unconventional political participation because

a. terrorists do not seek to influence government but to destroy it.
b. the acceptability of terrorism varies from culture to culture.
c. terrorism uses fear, not persuasion, as its primary tactic.
d. terrorist acts generally concern international politics, not domestic disputes.
e. terrorism does not use the established institutions of representative government.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   179
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

4. Timothy McVeigh bombed the Oklahoma City federal building because he​

a. ​believed the U.S. government had become a police state.
b. ​had a conflict with the IRS.
c. ​opposed the war in Iraq.
d. ​supported the ideology of al Qaeda.
e. ​wanted to ignite a war between the races in America.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   179
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

5. According to the text, violent unconventional political participation is​

a. never used in America.
b. common during elections in the United States.
c. not ​punished harshly enough.
d. ​sometimes worth the risk.
e. ​unjustifiable.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   179
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

6. All of the following are regarded in the text as examples of unconventional participation except

a. the 1965 Selma, Alabama civil rights march.
b. the Boston Tea Party.
c. the Montgomery bus boycott.
d. Timothy McVeigh’s 1995 bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City.
e. All of these are examples of unconventional participation.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   179-181
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

7. Which of the following was the first known act of unconventional participation in America?

a. The Revolutionary War
b. The Declaration of Independence
c. The civil rights marches of the 1960s
d. Shays’s Rebellion
e. The Boston Tea Party

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   180
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

8. Political scientists know less about unconventional forms of political participation because

a. conventional forms have greater impact.
b. few people consider unconventional forms legitimate.
c. it is easier to collect data on conventional practices.
d. they are biased toward institutionalized, or conventional, politics.
e. Options c and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   180
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

9. Unconventional political participation involving assembling crowds to confront businesses and local governments is known as​

a. ​terrorism.
b. ​apathy.
c. ​democracy
d. civil rights.
e. ​direct action.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   181
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

10. The 1955 Montgomery bus boycott is an example of​

a. ​unsuccessful unconventional political participation.
b. ​indirect action.
c. successful ​conventional political participation.
d. ​successful unconventional political participation.
e. ​unsuccessful conventional political participation.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   181
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

11. Americans are less likely to __________ than citizens of other countries.

a. vote
b. sign a petition
c. boycott products
d. be interested in politics.
e. join demonstrations

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   182
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

12. A practical test of whether or not a government is democratic is whether

a. people can operate outside government institutions to influence policymaking.
b. citizens can affect its policies by acting through its institutions.
c. direct action is necessary for government to hear citizens’ views.
d. conventional political action consists largely of influencing behaviors and not supportive behaviors.
e. All of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   182
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

13. Studies of Americans who engage in “contacting behavior” like complaining to city hall find

a. they are not more likely to vote than other Americans.
b. they tend to be of low socioeconomic status.
c. they demand more of the national government than of local government.
d. they are more focused on elected officials representing their views than on providing city services.
e. they tend to have a lower favorable opinion about government.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   183
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

14. Americans contributing money to a candidate’s campaign is best defined as a form of

a. unconventional participation.
b. supportive behavior.
c. influencing behavior.
d. competitive behavior.
e. elite behavior.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   183
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

15. __________ is political action that expresses allegiance to country and government.​

a. Direct action​
b. ​Unconventional participation
c. ​Terrorism
d. ​Supportive behavior
e. ​Influencing behavior

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   183
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

16. The ability of groups to make government respond to their special problems is best described as part of ________ theory.​

a. ​majoritarian
b. ​suffragist
c. ​pluralist
d. ​direct
e. ​NIMBY

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   183
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

17. ​Citizen mobilization to stop construction of a nuclear waste facility near their homes would be an example of the _________ phenomenon.

a. ​contacting
b. ​NIMBY
c. ​supportive
d. ​class action
e. ​unconventional political participation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   A

 

18. A legal action brought by a person or group on behalf of a number of people in similar circumstances is also known as a(n)

a. class action suit.
b. initiative.
c. supportive behavior.
d. public act.
e. referendum.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

19. The country with the lowest voter turnout among eligible voters in congressional elections is

a. Belgium.
b. Sweden.
c. Germany.
d. Spain.
e. the United States.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   186
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

20. Researchers have found that political apathy is _________ in the ​United States compared to almost all other nations.

a. ​much lower
b. ​slightly lower
c. ​about the same
d. ​slightly higher
e. ​much higher

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   186
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

21. The text defines suffrage and franchise as the right to

a. participate.
b. speak.
c. protest.
d. vote.
e. rally.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

22. Which country was the first to provide for the general election of representatives through mass suffrage?

a. France
b. Australia
c. Canada
d. Great Britain
e. United States

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

23. The framers of the Constitution left the issue of voter enfranchisement to

a. Congress.
b. the Supreme Court.
c. the states.
d. the Federalist papers.
e. voting districts.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

24. The __________ Amendment to the Constitution prohibits states from denying the right to vote “on account

of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

a. Tenth
b. Fourteenth
c. Fifteenth
d. Twenty-second
e. Eighteenth

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

25. The purpose of the literacy tests that were used in the southern states after 1870 was to

a. keep schoolteachers employed.
b. keep illegal aliens from voting.
c. void illegally-cast ballots.
d. ensure that only well-informed people voted.
e. discourage African Americans from voting.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

26. In Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court found _________ is(are) unconstitutional.

a. preventing blacks from voting in primary elections
b. state poll taxes
c. literacy tests
d. property requirements for voting
e. Jim Crow laws

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

27. The amendment granting women’s suffrage is the

a. Eighteenth Amendment.
b. Nineteenth Amendment.
c. Twentieth Amendment.
d. Twenty-first Amendment.
e. Twenty-eighth Amendment.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   188
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

28. Compared with other nations in the world in granting suffrage to women, the United States

a. was among the first.
b. ranked about in the middle.
c. lagged far behind.
d. was unique in extending that right without being pressured to do so.
e. was more selective in which women were extended the right.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   188
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

29. A 2013 supreme court decision regarding the Voting Rights Act allowed numerous states to

a. approve more generous voting restoration rights for felons who have served their full sentences.
b. ​​reinstate the all-white primary election.
c. ​enforce new voter identification laws.
d. ​legalize voting by mail.
e. ​restrict voting only to residents of an elected official’s home district.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   188
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

30. Women were granted universal suffrage in​

a. ​1787.
b. ​1865.
c. ​1896.
d. ​1920.
e. 1972.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   188-189
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

31. Which of the following qualifications for voting was virtually eliminated in all states by the 1850s?

a. Property ownership
b. Age
c. Race
d. Gender
e. Literacy requirement

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   189
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

32. The amendment lowering the voting age to eighteen is the

a. Eighteenth Amendment.
b. Nineteenth Amendment.
c. Twentieth Amendment.
d. Twenty-sixth Amendment.
e. Twenty-seventh Amendment.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   189
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

33. A direct primary is a

a. direct vote on a proposed law.
b. preliminary election to choose party candidates.
c. special election initiated by petition.
d. procedure by which voters can propose a law to be considered by the legislature.
e. recorded position on an issue by an interest group.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

34. Most referenda are placed on the ballot by

a. voters.
b. governors.
c. interest groups.
d. judges.
e. legislatures.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

35. The typical procedure for an initiative requires petitions to feature the signatures of _________ of the number of registered voters in a state.

a. 5 to 10 percent
b. 25 to 30 percent
c. 45 to 50 percent
d. more than 50 percent
e. at least 60 percent

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

36. ____________ championed the direct primary.

a. ​African Americans
b. ​Democrats
c. ​Southern voters
d. ​New voters under 21 years old
e. ​Progressives

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

37. One recent criticism of referenda and initiatives is that

a. they create an expensive “industry” designed around circulating petitions and spending millions.
b. citizens cannot exercise great power over government policy through these mechanisms.
c. controversial ballot measures tend to lower voter turnout.
d. voters increasingly tend to reject all ballot measures.
e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

38. In 2012 and 2013, voters approved a number of ballot propositions, including ones in Colorado and Washington that​

a. legalized marijuana.
b. ​​banned same-sex marriage.
c. ​restricted sales of large soft drinks and other unhealthy products.
d. ​prohibited wearing clothing, including religiously-mandated items, that would obscure the wearer’s face in drivers license photographs.
e. ​All of the above were referenda approved in Colorado and Washington in 2012 and 2013.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

39. ​According to the text, if the criterion is ___________, America has the best and most democratic government in the world.

a. ​amount of political information available to voters
b. ​effectiveness of politicians and the political system
c. ​degree of public participation in all types of political activities
d. ​number of elections held
e. ​history of responsive governance

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   192
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

40. Voting in the United States decreased during the 1970s and 1980s. Other forms of participation

a. increased or remained stable.
b. also decreased.
c. have not been extensively studied.
d. rose and fell in no particular pattern.
e. dramatically increased.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

41. The standard socioeconomic model of participation chiefly refers to

a. age, race, and education.
b. gender, ethnicity, and income.
c. race, income, and religion.
d. age, education, and political interest.
e. education, income, and occupation.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

42. According to the text, Americans were __________ ​politically apathetic in 2012 compared to 1952.

a. ​much less
b. ​a little less
c. ​neither more nor less
d. ​a little more
e. ​much more

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   A

 

43. Characteristics frequently associated with nonvoters are

a. low education, high income, and being middle-aged.
b. low education, low income, and being relatively young.
c. high education, low income, and being relatively old.
d. low education, low income, and being middle-aged.
e. low income and general apathy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

44. In general today, women politically participate

a. less than men.
b. more than men.
c. less than men if they are married, but more if they are not.
d. at about the same rate as men.
e. There is no consistent pattern across different forms of participation.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

45. Of all the social and economic variables affecting political participation, _________ is the strongest single factor.​

a. ​race
b. ​gender
c. ​age
d. ​marital status
e. ​education

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

46. Women compared to men, and blacks compared to whites, tend to have political participation rates today that are​

a. ​far lower.
b. ​slightly lower.
c. ​about the same.
d. ​slightly higher.
e. ​far higher.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

47. How does education affect voter turnout?

a. Well-educated people are more likely to vote than are their less-educated counterparts.
b. Educated people are less likely to vote than uneducated people because their education makes them more cynical about government.
c. Educated and uneducated people vote at about the same rates.
d. Educated people vote more than uneducated people, who are often unable to pass voter literacy tests.
e. Educated people cast more split ballots on issues.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   196
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

48. The effect of the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which enfranchised eighteen-to-twenty-year-olds, was to

a. boost voter turnout in the United States above that of most other democratic nations.
b. reduce the national voter turnout rate.
c. increase the national voter turnout rate.
d. decrease the percentage of the population that distrusts the American political system.
e. counter the increasing social mobility of this group.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

49. Psychological explanations of turnout suggest that voting will rise if

a. more Americans believe that government is responsive.
b. party identification increases among the electorate.
c. educational levels rise.
d. a major war begins.
e. satisfaction with government policies declines.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

50. By law, the U.S. presidential election occurs

a. the last Wednesday in October.
b. the first Thursday in November.
c. the last Monday in November.
d. the second Tuesday in November.
e. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

51. In nearly every other democratic country, the burden of registration is placed on

a. the individual voters.
b. political parties.
c. community leaders.
d. the government.
e. private interest groups.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

52. In Oregon, everyone votes by

a. telephone.
b. Internet.
c. electronic devices.
d. mail.
e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

53. If voter turnout was computed on the basis of registered voters, about ________ of Americans vote.

a. 45 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 60 percent
d. 70 percent
e. 80 percent

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   198
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

54. The American emphasis on freedom over equality in political participation works to the benefit of

a. union members.
b. the poor.
c. those with greater resources.
d. no particular group.
e. nonvoters.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   199
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6
NOTES:   C

 

55. According to the text, with respect to political participation, “_________ is the great equalizer,…”

a. ​protest
b. ​voting
c. contacting political elites
d. ​education
e. political party activism

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   199
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6
NOTES:   F

 

56. During the Vietnam War, protesting students on college campuses

a. stopped traffic.
b. destroyed property.
c. occupied buildings.
d. boycotted classes and disrupted lectures.
e. All of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6
NOTES:   F

 

57. To maintain order, the government has a stake in converting ______________ whenever possible.​

a. ​education into voting behavior
b. ​wealth into contributions
c. ​unconventional participation into conventional participation
d. voting into “buy-in”
e. ​foreign policy issues into domestic policy issues

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6
NOTES:   C

 

58. Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age to eighteen, because they

a. recognized the justice of the student antiwar and civil rights movements.
b. knew that student voter turnout would be low.
c. expected the new voters to change the political balance of power drastically.
d. hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.
e. realized the unfairness of the discrepancy between the military draft age and the voting age.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6
NOTES:   C

 

59. Someone who asserts that elections “socialize political activity” is contending that elections are mechanisms that maintain

a. freedom.
b. majoritarianism.
c. equality.
d. order.
e. independence.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

60. The majoritarian model of democracy favors

a. both conventional and unconventional forms of participation.
b. unconventional forms of participation.
c. resourceful individuals seeking particularized benefits.
d. better-educated, wealthier citizens.
e. voting as the primary means of participation.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

61. Elections, as an institutional mechanism,

a. have no perceptible effect on policies and actions of governments.
b. diminish the power and authority of the state.
c. encourage the citizenry to engage in other kinds of political participation.
d. bolster the power and authority of the state.
e. equalize segments of the population.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

62. Because it depends on mass participation in politics, majoritarianism tends to

a. ​enhance individual freedom.
b. ​favor the less wealthy.
c. ​minimize the impact of differences in socioeconomic status.
d. ​limit individual freedom.
e. ​disproportionately advantage politically-motivated individuals.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

63. Define political participation and describe and give examples of the elements​ that comprise it.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   178
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.1 – LO1

 

64. Explain why the 1965 march from Selma, Alabama, to Montgomery, Alabama, though an unconventional form of political participation that led to violence, proved beneficial to the Civil Rights movement.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   179
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.2 – LO2

 

65. Discuss the two major categories of political behaviors that the text indicates comprise conventional political participation.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   183
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.3 – LO3

 

66. Summarize the expansion of voting rights by describing federal government actions that granted the franchise to those who had been denied suffrage.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   187-189
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4

 

67. Discuss initiative and referendum, including how they are related and giving examples of each.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4

 

68. Discuss how Americans compare in terms of voter turnout with citizens of other democracies, and one reason your text offers for why this difference may exist.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   192-193
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.4 – LO4

 

69. What do we know about trends in voter turnout and other forms of political participation from 1952 to 2012?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5

 

70. Describe why people with a higher socioeconomic status engage in conventional political participation.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5

 

71. What explanations have researchers suggested for decreasing voter turnout in the United States?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   197-198
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.5 – LO5

 

72. How does political participation relate to freedom, equality, and order? ​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   199-200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.6 – LO6

 

73. In addition to their being vehicles that implement democracy, describe the other important purposes of elections.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.7.7 – LO7