The Economy Of Nature 6th Edition By Ricklefs – Test Bank

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The Economy Of Nature 6th Edition By Ricklefs – Test Bank

Name Test Bank Chapter 06
Description
Instructions The year 2009 is a significant anniversary in the history of science. Charles
Darwin, chief architect of the theory of evolution by natural selection, was born
on February 12, 1809, sharing that birth date with Abraham Lincoln. On the
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published 50 years later, in
1859, making 2009 the bicentennial of Darwin’s birth and the sesquicentennial of
his most significant publication. Celebrations of these events will take place
around the world, and the administration of State University has decided to
sponsor a special lecture series in honor of Charles Darwin. The detailed
planning for this lecture series has fallen to the Biology Club, of which you are
president. As you begin thinking about speakers to invite, you decide to seek
scientists who are conducting cutting-edge research in evolutionary biology. To
stimulate discussion, you ask each member of your small club (you and six other
members!) to submit a question to you about some evolutionary topic. You will
then research each question, using your answer to that question as the basis for
identification of a topic and potential speaker. What follow are the questions
generated by club members. Please answer each question, and, where possible,
identify a researcher who might speak on that topic.
Question 1
Essay
Question The Galápagos archipelago and its unique species were an
important source of inspiration for Charles Darwin’s development of his theory
of evolution by natural selection. Can you identify an example of current
evolutionary research being carried out in the Galápagos archipelago?
Answer The research carried out by Peter and Rosemary Grant would be most
appropriate. For many years, the Grants have studied populations of
Darwin’s finches in the Galápagos. In one study, they showed that
beak size of the medium ground finch, Geospiza fortis, increased
during periods of drought associated with La Niña years. This
evolutionary change resulted from the scarcity of seeds during the
drought. As seeds became scarcer and the softer seeds were
consumed, only hard-shelled seeds remained. Medium ground finches
with larger beaks were better able to crack these seeds and thus
experienced better survival and left more progeny. The result was an
evolutionary change in the average beak size of the population. You’re
delighted with this example, because it ideally “fits the bill,” so to
speak, for the lecture series.
Question 2
Essay
Question Evolution sometimes occurs as the result of natural selection
imposed by biotic agents, like parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Can you
offer an example of evolution resulting from selection imposed by such an
agent?
Answer A recent study conducted in the Hawaiian Islands by Marlene Zuk
showed that males of the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, had
largely ceased emitting mating calls. Upon further investigation, she
demonstrated that this was an evolutionary change. The selective
agent was a parasitoid fly that had been recently introduced. Because
the fly locates its victims by homing in on their mating calls, there was
strong selection for silent male field crickets.
Question 3
Essay 1 points
Question Reaction norms may be modified by evolution to improve
performance under the particular conditions experienced by a population. Can
you provide an example illustrating this phenomenon?
Answer Ayres and Scriber demonstrated this phenomenon in a careful study of
growth rates of caterpillars of a swallowtail butterfly, Papilio
canadensis, collected in Michigan and Alaska. These caterpillars grow
more rapidly at higher temperatures, irrespective of the population
source. However, caterpillars from northern populations grow more
rapidly at low temperatures than their counterparts from southern
populations. The reverse is true at high temperatures, where
caterpillars from southern populations grow faster than their northern
counterparts.
Question 4
Essay
Question Can you identify an example of an evolutionary change resulting
from artificial selection imposed by humans?
Answer In the early twentieth century, citrus growers in California began
fumigating their orchards with cyanide gas, an effective control for
scale insects. However, after several years, they found that such
fumigation was no longer effective, and scale insects once again
became serious pests. On further investigation, researchers found that
cyanide resistance has a genetic basis, and that fumigation had
selected for cyanide-resistant populations by favoring those individuals
with alleles conferring resistance to the cyanide gas.
Question 5
Essay
Question Can you offer an example of directional selection on a natural
population?
Answer Perhaps the best-known example of directional selection on a natural
population comes from the work of H. B. D. Kettlewell in the 1950s.
Kettlewell’s research is famous for its documentation of directional
selection on coloration of adults of the peppered moth, Biston
betularia. Typical individuals of this moth are light-colored, and they
blend well with the bark of trees on which they rest during daytime
hours. As a result, these moths are not readily detected and eaten by
birds. In areas where air pollution had darkened the bark of trees,
Kettlewell discovered that the moth populations consisted
predominantly of dark-colored, or melanistic individuals. Because color
of these moths is under genetic control, Kettlewell concluded that the
shift in coloration in polluted areas was the result of selection favoring
dark-colored individuals. He was also able to demonstrate that
individuals with coloration matching their background were less likely
to be taken by birds than contrasting individuals.
Question 6
Essay
Question Can you also offer an example of disruptive selection on a natural
population?
Answer Research conducted by T. B. Smith on an African finch revealed a
bimodal distribution in beak size, the result of disruptive selection
imposed by the availability of two different kinds of seeds in the habitat
of these finches. Genetic variation in the population was maintained
because individuals with large beaks could crack the hard seeds of a
common species of sedge. However, large-beaked individuals were
less efficient at cracking the soft seeds of another common species of
sedge.
Question 7
Essay
Question What is evolution?
Answer In its broadest sense, evolution is any change in a population’s gene
pool. Although we usually think of evolution as changes in allelic
frequencies resulting from natural selection, other processes, such as
mutation and genetic drift, can also result in changes in the gene pool.
Question 8
Essay
Question What are the prerequisites for evolution by natural selection?
Answer There are three prerequisites or “ingredients” for evolution by natural
selection. First, there must be variation among the individuals in a
population for a particular trait. Second, the variation must be
heritable—it must have a genetic basis. Third, variation in the trait
must have consequences for the fitness of individuals, resulting in
differences in survival and reproductive success.
Question 9
Essay
Question What is the genetic basis of continuously varying phenotypic traits,
and what is the typical frequency distribution of these traits?
Answer Many traits vary continuously because they are affected by the
expression of many genes, each of which has a relatively small effect
on a given trait. Such traits often take on a normal distribution, with the
bulk of trait values concentrated near the trait’s mean.
Question 10
Essay
Question Directional selection acts to remove genetic variation from
populations. Given that directional selection is a potent force leading to
evolutionary change, why doesn’t the genetic variation in a population gradually
dwindle away until only a single, highly fit genotype remains?
Answer There are many other forces that act to maintain genetic diversity in
populations. Mutations continue to occur, introducing new alleles or
reintroducing old ones that have been eliminated. In certain situations,
the fitness of heterozygotes may be superior to that of homozygotes,
resulting in retention of allelic diversity. Another process maintaining
genetic diversity is frequency-dependent selection, in which the
relative fitness of genotypes incorporating rare alleles is enhanced.
Finally, it is important to keep in mind that both biotic and abiotic
environments are subject to continual change. The relative fitnesses of
various genotypes are constantly changing as the environmental
background against which they are tested also changes.
Question 11
Essay
Question What useful lessons can ecologists learn from studies of population
genetics?
Answer Ecologists can draw many useful lessons from studies of population
genetics. First, most natural populations contain substantial genetic
variation maintained and enhanced by a number of important
processes. It is this store of genetic variation, and the continual
generation of new genetic variation, that provides resiliency for
populations faced with continually changing environmental challenges.
Second, changes in selective pressures in the environment will be met
with evolutionary responses leading to shifts in genotypic frequencies
within populations. In other words, evolution is an ongoing process.
Third, human intervention can overwhelm the capability of natural
systems to respond to environmental challenges. By fostering
situations in which genetic diversity is depleted (as is the case in
small, fragmented populations), humans reduce the inherent resiliency
of populations. By causing extremely rapid changes in the physical
environment or by rapidly altering the biotic makeup of natural
communities (through introductions, extinctions, etc.), humans create
situations that can overwhelm the capacity of populations to respond
through evolutionary change, leading to further extinctions and, in the
worst case, collapse of entire ecosystems.
Question 12
Essay
Question Although individual organisms cannot evolve, they can undergo
changes that enable them to adapt to a changing environment. Please explain,
using an example.
Answer Most organisms have some capacity to respond to environmental
variation, and we refer to this as phenotypic plasticity. The cactus
wren, a resident of deserts of the southwestern United States and
northern Mexico, illustrates phenotypic plasticity through its selection
of microhabitats on a daily basis. In the early morning, when air
temperatures are low, cactus wrens forage in a variety of
microhabitats. As air temperatures increase toward midday, the wrens
increasingly spend time in cooler microhabitats, particularly the
shaded interiors of small trees and large shrubs. By selecting the
cooler microhabitats, the birds minimize their need for evaporative
cooling and thus conserve precious water.
Question 13
Essay
Question Cactus wrens have an extended breeding period (March through
September) in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. The most successful
breeders build nests with entrances facing away from the prevailing winds in
early spring, but during summer they orient their nests such that the entrances
face the prevailing afternoon winds. Why?
Answer The nest microenvironment must remain within the tolerance range of
the young wrens at all times. In early spring, when temperatures are
cool, young in nests facing away from prevailing winds remain
warmer. In summer, when environmental temperatures are high,
young in nests with entrances facing the prevailing winds can take
better advantage of convective cooling.
Question 14
Essay
Question You compare the abilities of two species of shrub in the genus
Atriplex to acclimate to a range of temperature conditions. One species,
Atriplex maritima, is found in shrublands along the northern California coast,
where conditions are continuously cool. The other species, A. interior, is found
in the Great Basin Desert to the east of the range of A. maritima. Temperatures
in the Great Basin Desert vary seasonally, from very cold in winter to extremely
hot in summer. In your experiments, you discover that both species acclimate
well to a temperature of 20°C, showing equivalent photosynthetic activity.
However, when acclimated to a temperature of 45°C, A. interior also performs
well, whereas A. maritima exhibits reduced photosynthetic capability. Why?
Answer An organism’s capacity for acclimation often reflects the range of
conditions experienced in its natural environment. A. interior normally
experiences a wide range of temperatures, whereas A. maritima is
exposed to a narrower range of temperatures, closer to the 20°C
acclimation temperature in the experiment. Because the ability to
acclimate to a wide range of temperatures imposes a cost for the
organism, it is not surprising that A. maritima lacks this unnecessary
ability.
Question 15
Essay
Question What is a genotype-environment interaction? Please include a
discussion of the reaction norm in your answer.
Answer Each genotype responds in a particular way to variations in the
environment, resulting in the phenotypic plasticity observed in all
species. The observed relationship between the phenotype of an
individual and its environment is called the reaction norm. Reaction
norms for different genotypes may be different, and when this is the
case there is a genotype-environment interaction. Put another way,
the pattern of phenotypic response over a fixed range of
environmental variation will differ for two genotypes when there is a
genotype-environment interaction.
Question 16
Essay
Question How can reciprocal transplant experiments help us separate genetic
and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation?
Answer Individuals belonging to the same species may exhibit different
phenotypes when grown under different conditions, but it is impossible
without experimentation to determine the extent to which the
phenotypic differences are caused by genetic effects, environmental
effects, or a genotype-environment interaction. For example,
reciprocal transplanting might reveal that phenotypic variation is
entirely related to where an individual is growing and unrelated to
where it comes from. In this case, one would conclude that there is
little genetic basis for the phenotypic variation observed and that
variation is attributable solely to phenotypic plasticity. If reciprocal
transplanting revealed that phenotypic variation is entirely related to
where an individual comes from, then one would conclude that
phenotype is genetically determined and insensitive to environmental
change. Finally, when individuals are found to be responsive to
environmental change, but the response depends on where the
individual comes from, then one would conclude that there is a
genotype-environment interaction.
Question 17
Multiple Choice
Question __________ and its biota were a source of inspiration to Charles
Darwin as he formulated his theory of evolution by natural selection. This place
also remains a mecca for biologists like Peter and Rosemary Grant who are
interested in the study of evolutionary biology.
Answer Antarctica
Australia
The Orkney Islands
The Galápagos Islands
The California Channel Islands
Question 18
Multiple Choice
Question Why did average beak size increase in surviving individuals of
Darwin’s medium ground finch (and their progeny) during a period of severe
drought in the Galápagos?
Answer Individuals eating the harder seeds available during the drought
developed larger beaks and passed this trait on to their offspring.
Individuals with larger beaks could eat the harder seeds available
during the drought and survived better than individuals with
smaller beaks.
Individuals with larger beaks are always at an advantage.
The observed change in beak size was purely the result of
chance.
Question 19
Multiple Choice
Question A new protein produced by a mutant gene may or may not have
properties different from those of the original protein. If its properties are
altered, these properties are most likely to be __________ to the individual.
Answer beneficial
harmful
neutral
Question 20
Multiple Choice
Question The development of resistance to cyanide poisoning in California
citrus scale is an excellent example of evolution by natural selection. Which of
the following characteristics of this situation were critical to the evolutionary
process?
Answer There was variation in cyanide resistance among individuals.
There was inheritance of cyanide resistance.
There were differences in fitness related to variation in cyanide
resistance.
All of the above were critical to the evolutionary process.
Question 21
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is relevant to the evolutionary process?
Answer how fast rabbits can run
whether running speed affects the ability of rabbits to leave
successful offspring
both A and B
neither A nor B
Question 22
Multiple Choice
Question When the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, experienced strong
selective pressure from a predator that used sound to locate singing males, the
frequency of males capable of producing mating calls decreased in the
population. Although this adaptive response was beneficial, it also had a
negative consequence. What was this negative consequence?
Answer Silent males are unable to attract mates.
Silent males are also deaf.
Silent males have defective wings and are unable to fly.
Silent males are unable to attract prey.
There was no negative consequence.
Question 23
Multiple Choice
Question In the previous question, you were asked to identify a negative
consequence for males unable to produce mating calls. What additional
adaptive response emerged in the population that offset the negative
consequence of silence?
Answer Silent males also displayed more striking coloration than their
singing counterparts.
Silent males also engaged in more active flight displays than
their singing counterparts.
Silent males also spent more time chasing receptive females
than their singing counterparts.
Silent males also tended to aggregate around singing males that
attracted females with their calls.
Silent males exhibited all of the above adaptive responses.
Question 24
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following types of selection serves as a kind of genetic
housekeeping, sweeping away harmful genetic variation?
Answer stabilizing selection
directional selection
disruptive selection
all of the above
none of the above
Question 25
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following types of selection results in the distribution of
phenotypes in a population shifting toward a new optimum?
Answer stabilizing selection
directional selection
disruptive selection
all of the above
none of the above
Question 26
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following types of selection can lead to a bimodal
distribution of phenotypes?
Answer stabilizing selection
directional selection
disruptive selection
all of the above
none of the above
Question 27
Multiple Choice
Question Weight at birth of human babies has a genetic component. In one
large study, survival in a cohort of babies during the first month of life was
shown to be greatest for babies of average weight at birth and least for babies
with very low or very high weights at birth. Survivors of the first month of life
had lower variation in weight at birth than did all babies in the cohort.
Differential survival of this kind could result in __________ on genes controlling
weight at birth.
Answer stabilizing selection
directional selection
disruptive selection
no selection
Question 28
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following types of selection is illustrated by the example
of the peppered moth, Biston betularia?
Answer stabilizing selection
directional selection
disruptive selection
all of the above
none of the above
Question 29
Multiple Choice
Question In his studies of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, H. B. D.
Kettlewell demonstrated that the ultimate selective agent leading to changes in
genotypic frequencies was:
Answer predation by birds.
poisoning of moths caused by industrial pollution.
indiscriminant use of pesticides.
all of the above.
Question 30
Multiple Choice
Question An interesting and gratifying footnote to the long-term study of the
peppered moth, Biston betularia, in England has been the recent:
Answer increase in the melanistic form.
stabilization of the melanistic form.
decline of the melanistic form.
demonstration that coloration in peppered moths has no
selective value.
Question 31
Multiple Choice
Question With the advent of pollution controls, what happened to the
frequency of the melanistic form of the peppered moth in England?
Answer immediate shift to a lower frequency
gradual shift to a lower frequency
immediate shift to a higher frequency
gradual shift to a higher frequency
no change
Question 32
Multiple Choice
Question During the summer months, where would you expect to find a cactus
wren in early afternoon?
Answer in almost any available microhabitat
in exposed areas with no plant cover
in the deep shade cast by small trees and large shrubs
in the nest
Question 33
Multiple Choice
Question During the summer months, cactus wrens build nests oriented to
take advantage of which of the following?
Answer prevailing afternoon breezes
shade cast by large saguaro cacti
reduced incidence of predation
ground cover that can break the fall of a nestling pushed from
the nest
Question 34
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following best defines the reaction norm?
Answer the observed relationship between the phenotype of an individual
and density of conspecifics
the observed relationship between the phenotype of an individual
and density of predators
the observed relationship between the phenotype of an individual
and density of prey
the observed relationship between the phenotype of an individual
and the environment
Question 35
Multiple Choice
Question The larvae of swallowtail butterflies are capable of surviving and
growing over a range of temperatures. They exhibit faster growth as the
environmental temperature increases. The responsiveness of the larval
phenotype to a range of environmental temperatures is referred to as:
Answer a genotype-environment interaction.
phenotypic plasticity.
variation in fecundity.
evolutionary fitness.
none of the above
Question 36
Multiple Choice
Question Swallowtail butterfly larvae from Alaska and Michigan each exhibit
characteristic reaction norms for growth rate with respect to temperature.
Although larvae from both populations exhibit increasing growth rate with
increasing temperature, larvae from Alaska grow faster at lower temperatures
and larvae from Michigan grow faster at higher temperatures. The specific
relationship described is referred to as:
Answer a genotype-environment interaction.
phenotypic plasticity.
variation in fecundity.
evolutionary fitness.
none of the above.
Question 37
Multiple Choice
Question When a population develops an adaptive response that results in
improved performance under the prevalent environmental conditions, a shift in
the reaction norm is likely to result in __________ performance in alternate
environmental conditions.
Answer improved
reduced
similar
Question 38
Multiple Choice
Question Acclimatization is a(n) __________ process.
Answer reversible
irreversible
Question 39
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve the same maximum
photosynthetic, irrespective of the temperature to which it is acclimatized?
Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climate
Atriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously cool
climate
Tidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hot
climate
all of the above
Question 40
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve a higher maximum
photosynthetic when acclimatized at a low temperature?
Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climate
Atriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously cool
climate
Tidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hot
climate
all of the above
Question 41
Multiple Choice
Question Of the following plants, which is likely to achieve a higher maximum
photosynthetic when acclimatized at a high temperature?
Answer Larrea divaricata, a plant found in a seasonal climate
Atriplex glabriuscula, a plant found in a continuously cool
climate
Tidestromia oblongifolia, a plant found in a continuously hot
climate
all of the above
Question 42
Multiple Choice
Question Developmental responses are __________ processes.
Answer reversible
irreversible
Question 43
Multiple Choice
Question Why do individuals of the African grasshopper, Gastrimargus
africanus, have pigmentation that matches the background color of their
habitat?
Answer Matching coloration helps them avoid detection by would-be
predators.
Matching coloration minimizes absorption of solar radiation.
Matching coloration makes them more attractive to potential
mates.
Matching coloration alerts fewer competitors when food is
discovered.
Question 44
Multiple Choice
Question Late in the dry season, individuals of the African grasshopper,
Gastrimargus africanus, are black. What habitat condition makes this coloration
adaptive?
Answer more intense sunlight
browning of the vegetation
blackening of the ground by fires
reduction of standing water in the habitat
Question 45
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following was an interesting outcome of the reciprocal
transplant experiments carried out by Niewiarowski and Roosenberg on fence
lizards?
Answer Native lizards and transplants from New Jersey performed
equally well in Nebraska.
Nebraska lizards performed equally well in Nebraska and in
New Jersey.
New Jersey lizards performed equally poorly in New Jersey and
in Nebraska.
Each of the above was an interesting outcome of this
experiment.
Question 46
Multiple Choice
Question Highbush blueberry plants belonging to a particular species grow in
a wide range of environments in North Carolina. Plants growing in acidic bogs
are slower growing than plants on fertile, better-drained floodplains. In a
reciprocal transplant study, plants from a bog were transplanted to a floodplain
and plants from a floodplain were transplanted to a bog. The transplants from
the bog performed better in the floodplain, but not as well as plants native to
the floodplain. The transplants from the floodplain performed more poorly in the
bog, about the same as plants native to the bog. What can we conclude from
this experiment about the causes of differences in growth rate between the bog
and floodplain populations?
Answer They are genetically determined.
They reflect phenotypic plasticity.
Both of the above conclusions are correct.
Question 47
Fill in the Blank
Question The outward expression of the genotype in the individual’s structure
and function is called the ________.
Answer phenotype
Incorrect
Feedback
The outward expression of the genotype in the individual’s
structure and function is called the phenotype.
Question 48
Fill in the Blank
Question Different forms of a particular gene are referred to as ________.
Answer alleles
Incorrect
Feedback
Different forms of a particular gene are referred to as
alleles.
Question 49
Fill in the Blank
Question A diploid individual that has two different alleles of a particular gene
is said to be ________.
Answer heterozygous
Incorrect
Feedback
A diploid individual that has two different alleles of a particular
gene is said to be heterozygous.
Question 50
Fill in the Blank
Question Molecules of DNA are comprised of four kinds of subunits (adenine,
thymine, cytosine, and guanine) called ________.
Answer nucleotides
Incorrect
Feedback
Molecules of DNA are comprised of four kinds of subunits
(adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) called nucleotides.
Question 51
Fill in the Blank
Question Certain mutations are referred to as ________ because the mutated
coding sequence still codes for the same amino acid as the unmutated coding
sequence. Such mutations have no consequences for fitness.
Answer silent or synonymous
Incorrect
Feedback
Certain mutations are referred to as silent or synonymous
because the mutated coding sequence still codes for the same
amino acid as the unmutated coding sequence. Such mutations
have no consequences for fitness.
Question 52
Question A diploid individual who has two different alleles of a particular gene
is said to be ________.
Answer heterozygous
Incorrect
Feedback
A diploid individual who has two different alleles of a particular
gene is said to be heterozygous.
Question 53
Question The ________ of variation is the genetic basis of evolution.
Answer inheritance
Incorrect
Feedback
The inheritance of variation is the genetic basis of
evolution.
Question 54
Question selection can result in a bimodal distribution of phenotypes with
peaks toward both ends of the original distribution.
Answer disruptive
Incorrect
Feedback
disruptive selection can result in a bimodal distribution of
phenotypes with peaks toward both ends of the original
distribution.
Question 55
Question Increased frequency of the dark-colored form of the moth Biston
betularia in England was associated with industrial development leading to
darkening of tree trunks. Because of this, the increased frequency of dark
moths has been dubbed ________.
Answer industrial melanism
Incorrect
Feedback
Increased frequency of the dark-colored form of the moth Biston
betularia in England was associated with industrial development
leading to darkening of tree trunks. Because of this, the increased
frequency of dark moths has been dubbed industrial melanism.
Question 56
Question Whether differences between populations are due to genetic
differences, phenotypic plasticity, or genotype-environment interactions can
often be revealed by ________ experiments.
Answer reciprocal transplant
Incorrect
Feedback
Whether differences between populations are due to genetic
differences, phenotypic plasticity, or genotype-environment
interactions can often be revealed by reciprocal transplant
experiments.

 

Name Test Bank Chapter 07
Description
Instructions Use the following information for Questions 1 to 5:
The genus Cassina consists of ten species of mammals that occur on Faraway
Island in the central Pacific Ocean, near the equator. These species are closely
related and apparently diverged from a common ancestor, much like Darwin’s
finches on the Galápagos Islands. The species of Cassina are quite varied in
their sizes and habits; C. minima is the size of a mouse, whereas C. maxima is
as large as a draft horse. As part of a research team studying the fauna of
Faraway Island, you have undertaken a comparative study of life histories of the
various Cassina species.
Use the following information for Questions 6 to 11:
The Pacific swingtail is a colonial nesting seabird found only on an isolated coral
atoll (Faraway Island) in the central Pacific Ocean, near the equator. The
swingtail feeds exclusively on adults of a large species of flying fish that it scoops
from just above the ocean’s surface in an acrobatic maneuver. The ocean
surrounding the atoll is unproductive and essentially devoid of fish. However, a
small area of upwelling located 60 km from the atoll provides a continuous and
reliable source of flying fish for the swingtail. During the breeding season, the
female swingtail incubates her eggs and later cares for her young until they are
ready to fend for themselves. The female swingtail is entirely dependent on her
mate to bring food to her (and eventually to the young as well) during the period
of egg incubation and juvenile care. The males fly to the area of upwelling and
return with fish, which they carry in their bills. They share the fish with their mate
and offspring before returning to fish again.
Question 1
Essay
Question To begin your study of life history in Cassina, you decide to catalog
the traits for each species, including development rate, age at sexual maturity,
allocation of resources to reproduction, adult mortality rate, and length of life.
Before doing so, you postulate that these traits will not vary independently of
one another but will instead exhibit correlated changes along a continuum.
Characterize the continuum that you anticipate.
Answer For the variety of species under consideration, the traits you’ve
chosen to catalog will be expected to vary along a continuum best
characterized as “slow” to “fast.” At the “slow” end will be species with
slow development, greater age at sexual maturity, relatively small
allocation of resources to reproduction, low adult mortality, and long
life (exemplified perhaps by C. maxima). These traits will gradually
change along the life-history continuum to the “fast” extreme
(exemplified perhaps by C. minima), where species have traits just the
opposite of those belonging to the “slow” species.
Question 2
Essay
Question With your catalog complete, you begin a more detailed investigation
of life history traits among the various Cassina species. All of these species
cease growing when they reach sexual maturity. However, there is
considerable variation in age at sexual maturity and life span among the
species. What kind of relationship between these two traits do you expect to
find? In addition, how do you expect size and age at sexual maturity to vary?
Answer The expected relationship is one in which age at sexual maturity
varies in direct proportion to the life span. In other words, the longer a
species lives, the longer its prereproductive development. In most
cases the species with delayed sexual maturity will also be larger
when they reach maturity.
Question 3
Essay
Question Closer examination of certain Cassina species reveals interesting
patterns. For example, Cassina intermedia and C. normalis are both rat-like
members of the genus. Although quite similar in size, the two species differ
greatly in their habits and life histories. C. intermedia is a long-lived nocturnal
forager in closed forests and suffers relatively low adult mortality. C. normalis
forages during daylight hours on open, rocky areas of the island and suffers
high adult mortality caused by predation from hawks; its life span is shorter
than that of C. intermedia. You haven’t had a chance yet to determine
fecundities of the two species, but you speculate that these fecundities will be
quite different. What is your speculation and what is your reasoning behind this
speculation?
Answer Cassina normalis is likely to have higher fecundity than C. intermedia.
High adult mortality is typically associated with greater fecundity. If
adults have a high probability of dying, it is to their advantage to
increase their investment in current reproductive output. Conversely,
longer-lived species with lower adult mortality rates may jeopardize
future reproduction by investing heavily in current reproduction.
Question 4
Essay
Question You move into a more experimental phase of your studies of
Cassina species. You determine that C. intermedia females routinely produce 4
young per litter, in comparison with 10 young per litter in the more fecund C.
normalis. You conduct an experiment in which you add 6 newborn C.
intermedia (obtained from lab-reared animals) to each of several natural litters
of C. intermedia. The C. intermedia females accept the added young and
attempt to raise their newly expanded litters of 10 to maturity. What do you
expect to be the consequences of your litter supplementation experiments?
Explain your answer, citing results of other workers where appropriate.
Answer Litter supplementation could have far-reaching consequences. As
predicted by David Lack and borne out by results of numerous
experiments in birds, you suspect that litter supplementation will result
in poor reproductive success, caused by inability of the female to
provide for the additional offspring. Indeed, the artificially
supplemented litters may actually produce fewer successful young
than the natural litters, as seen in Hogstedt’s work with magpies. In
her attempt to provide for additional young, the female C. intermedia
may be in poor condition herself by the end of the breeding season,
less likely to survive for subsequent breeding attempts, as seen in
experiments by Dijkstra and Daan with European kestrels.
Question 5
Essay
Question In your studies of Cassina species of Faraway Island, you’ve seen
numerous examples of trade-offs in life history traits. What fundamental
process is responsible for such trade-offs? Use your work with C. intermedia
and C. normalis to illustrate your answer.
Answer From an evolutionary perspective, life history traits persist because
they contribute to reproductive success and, therefore, evolutionary
fitness. Faced with scarce resources, organisms must allocate these
resources in ways that optimize fitness. Consider the case of C.
intermedia and C. normalis. Emphasis on current reproductive output
will compromise future reproductive output. In order to allocate
resources to growth and future reproductive output, current
reproductive output must be curtailed. In the case of C. normalis,
emphasis on current reproductive output pays off, because future
reproductive success is unlikely anyway. With a greater expectation of
future life, C. intermedia foregoes some current reproduction to
increase the likelihood that future reproductive opportunities may be
exploited.
Question 6
Essay
Question During the breeding season, the female swingtail and her offspring
are tied to their nesting site, whereas the male swingtail forages for food 60 km
from the atoll. What kind of foraging situation is this?
Answer central place foraging
Question 7
Essay
Question Several investigators have studied the economics of foraging by
male swingtails during the breeding season. They found that the foraging cost
to the swingtail is primarily associated with travel time (and energy expended
during travel) to and from the upwelling area. Because of the abundance of
their prey, swingtails spend a trivial amount of time and energy in the act of
fishing (searching for and capturing prey). Adult male swingtails are swift fliers,
cruising at a speed of 60 km/hr when not carrying fish in their bills. After
catching one flying fish, their flight speed drops to 30 km/hr. Flight speeds for
birds with two and three fish in their bills are further reduced to 15 km/hr and 5
km/hr, respectively. A male swingtail carrying three fish in his bill is incapable of
capturing a fourth. How much time does a male swingtail spend in making the
trip to the upwelling area and returning with a single fish in his bill? How much
time is required for a round trip if two fish are caught? How much time is
required if three fish are caught?
Answer The trip to the upwelling area always takes 1 hour (60 km divided by
60 km/hr). A male returning with one fish takes twice as long to cover
the 60 km, 2 hours (60 km divided by 30 km/hr). Thus a male making
the round trip and returning with one fish completes the trip in 3 hours.
By similar calculations, a male returning with two fish takes 5 hours (1
hour out, 4 hours back), and a male returning with three fish takes 13
hours (1 hour out, 12 hours back).
Question 8
Essay
Question Considering only the efficiency of foraging (hrs/fish), how many fish
returned per trip represents the most efficient use of the male swingtail’s time?
Answer The efficiencies for returning with one, two, and three fish are 3, 2.5,
and 4.3 hrs/fish, respectively. Thus males returning with two fish make
most efficient use of their time.
Question 9
Essay
Question Swingtails are averse to flying at night. At the latitude of Faraway
Island, day length is about 12 hours. Swingtails will fly from about 2 hours
before sunrise to 2 hours after sunset, resulting in a 16-hour window within
which they will fly and fish. However, time spent feeding and grooming back at
the nest consumes about an hour of the male’s daylight hours, leaving a 15-
hour window for fishing. For male swingtails making fishing trips in which they
routinely return with one, two, or three fish, how many fish per day can they
deliver to their mate and offspring? How does total catch of fish per day
compare with fishing efficiency?
Answer A male routinely returning with a single fish can make at most five trips
per day (15 hr/3 hr per trip). Thus the total catch would be five fish.
Similarly, a male returning with two fish per trip could make at most
three trips per day, for a total catch of six fish. A male routinely
returning with three fish could only make a single trip in a day, for a
total catch of three fish. Thus the greatest catch per day is also
associated with the most efficient fishing behavior (return with two fish
per trip).
Question 10
Essay
Question From an evolutionary perspective, which foraging behavior (return
with one, two, or three fish) would you expect to find practiced by male
swingtails feeding their mates and young? Why?
Answer From an evolutionary perspective (optimal foraging theory), one would
expect an efficient foraging behavior leading to the greatest total catch
of fish to be preferred. In the case of the swingtail, males returning
with two fish per trip maximize their total daily catch. If fishing behavior
is under genetic control, alleles leading to behaviors resulting in the
greatest catch of fish would increase in the swingtail population
because individuals practicing such behaviors would be capable of
raising more successful offspring.
Question 11
Essay
Question Researchers studying the swingtails of Faraway Island discovered
that most males routinely return with a single fish from each fishing trip. The
researchers were perplexed by this observation, because males returning with
a single fish per trip catch slightly fewer fish (five total) in a given day than
males returning with two fish per trip (six total). What might explain this
observation?
Answer While males returning with two fish per trip are more efficient and
catch more fish per day, they are also much slower fliers on their
return trips (they fly at half the speed of birds carrying a single fish).
Their slower flight speed might make these birds more susceptible to
predation. Increased risk of predation could easily offset the slight
advantage associated with catching more fish. In other words, the
swingtails may be risk-sensitive foragers. There are other possible
explanations for the one-fish foraging behavior. For example, perhaps
the young need to be fed small amounts more frequently to achieve
optimal growth. Or perhaps it is important for the male to return
frequently to the nest to assure that the female and young are
protected from predators, and so forth.
Question 12
Essay
Question Tropical songbirds tend to have nests with fewer eggs than birds
nesting at higher latitudes. David Lack of Oxford University first placed this
observation in a life-history context. What were the key concepts elaborated by
David Lack?
Answer Lack recognized that life-history traits contribute to reproductive
success and thus to evolutionary fitness. He also proposed that lifehistory
traits are subject to natural selection, varying in predictable
ways with environmental factors and constraints. Finally, he
hypothesized that clutch size was commensurate with availability of
resources (food, in this case) and that experimental increase of clutch
size would result in poor reproductive success.
Question 13
Essay
Question Given a fixed allocation of resources to reproduction, there are still
many possible trade-offs between the size and number of offspring produced.
Consider seed-producing trees and discuss conditions that might favor
production of few, relatively large seeds versus conditions that might favor
production of many, relatively small seeds.
Answer Trees of closed forests with little opportunity to disperse seeds into
newly created habitats might be expected to produce relatively few
large seeds. Each seed could be supplied with substantial reserves of
food and nutrients, giving the developing seedling an opportunity to
compete successfully for limited resources. Trees of open forests with
opportunities to disperse seeds into newly created habitats might be
expected to produce larger numbers of lighter seeds. Such seeds
might be more readily dispersed by wind, water, or small animals into
open habitats. The larger numbers of seeds would also increase the
chances that some seeds would land in favorable sites, and
opportunities for rapid population expansion could be readily exploited.
Question 14
Essay
Question Is senescence inevitable? Please explain your answer,
accounting for the great variation in patterns of aging among
different species.
Answer Yes, it appears that all mechanisms, biological and otherwise,
inevitably wear out. However, organisms differ greatly in their longevity
and some apparently invest more resources in processes that prevent
or repair damage. The degree to which resources are allocated to
such processes appears to be related to the hazards of life. There can
be little fitness benefit to investment in processes that prevent or
repair damage by species for which external factors (accidents,
predation, bad weather) greatly reduce the likelihood of adult survival.
The reproductive benefits of greater potential longevity would be rarely
experienced by such species, and resources devoted to maintenance
and repair would detract from early fecundity. Species with greater
likelihood of adult survival (and investing in processes that repair or
prevent damage) would be more likely to reap the reproductive
benefits of extended life span, and the cost of somewhat reduced
early fecundity would be more than offset by the advantages conferred
by multiple reproductive events.
Question 15
Essay
Question Discuss the options available for storage of energy by migratory
versus non-migratory animals.
Answer Both migratory and non-migratory species may store energy as
internal fat reserves. However, this internal storage imposes a cost,
because a heavier animal will be slower and less agile, thus less
effective at capturing prey or avoiding predation. Apart from frequent
refueling stops during migration, this is the only option available to
migratory species. Non-migratory species have an additional option,
that of caching food stores in special hiding places. Whereas these
stored foods may be subject to losses caused by spoilage and
utilization by other animals, external storage has the benefit of not
encumbering the animal; such external caches are widely used by
non-migratory species, such as squirrels and jays.
Question 16
Essay
Question Distinguish between proximate and ultimate factors as stimuli for
various activities, such as breeding or migration. Provide an example from
everyday human activities.
Answer Proximate factors (such as day length) serve as important cues for
timing of various activities; however, such factors, in and of
themselves, do not directly affect the well being of the organism.
Ultimate factors (such as availability of food or the onset of bad
weather) directly affect the well-being of the organism. Humans use
alarm clocks and various other devices to wake themselves at
particular times. An alarm clock, however, is simply a proximate factor
used as a cue for waking. The ultimate factor associated with waking
(and one that has a very real effect on the well-being of the individual)
is the need to attend to an important activity, such as work or
attendance in class.
Question 17
Essay
Question What is risk-sensitive foraging and how can it be demonstrated
experimentally?
Answer Risk-sensitive foraging is a situation in which an animal’s choice of
whether or not to forage is conditioned by the risk of predation. A risksensitive
forager apparently has the ability to assess potential rewards
(such as abundance and quality of food) and the risks (such as
likelihood of predation) associated with these rewards. The costbenefit
ratio must be sufficiently attractive before the animal will
undertake foraging. Experiments to demonstrate risk-sensitive
foraging usually involve presenting animals with foods of varied
abundance under controlled levels of predation risk (varied numbers
or densities of potential predators). An excellent example is the work
of Gilliam and Fraser with foraging of juvenile creek chubs.
Question 18
Multiple Choice
Question A mature female sockeye salmon swims up to 5,000 km from her
Pacific Ocean feeding ground to the mouth of a coastal river in British
Columbia and then another 1,000 km upstream to her spawning ground. Once
there, she lays thousands of eggs in her single reproductive event and
promptly dies. The salmon’s reproductive life history is referred to as:
Answer semelparous
iteroparous
oddparous
evenparous
nonparous
Question 19
Multiple Choice
Question A female African elephant produces a single offspring at a time at
intervals of several years, caring for her young for an extended period before
reproducing again. The elephant’s reproductive life history is referred to as:
Answer semelparous
iteroparous
oddparous
evenparous
nonparous
Question 20
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following British biologists first placed the clutch size of
birds in an evolutionary context?
Answer J. P. Grime
Charles Darwin
David Lack
A. G. Tansley
Question 21
Multiple Choice
Question The average European magpie’s (Pica pica) clutch size of seven
eggs was manipulated by Swedish ecologist Gören Hogstedt by adding or
removing eggs, to make up clutches of five to nine eggs. What was the most
productive clutch size (number of chicks fledged)?
Answer five eggs
six eggs
seven eggs
eight eggs
nine eggs
Question 22
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following is an important component of life history?
Answer age at maturity
parity
fecundity
longevity
all of the above
Question 23
Multiple Choice
Question The British ecologist J. P. Grime has characterized the relationship
between:
Answer life history traits of animals and conditions of the environment.
life history traits of plants and conditions of the environment.
comparative life history traits of animals and plants.
Question 24
Multiple Choice
Question In J. P. Grime’s classification of life history traits, a species with a
fast potential growth rate, reproduction at a relatively early age, allocation of a
small proportion of net production to seeds, and reliance on vegetative spread
fits the profile of a:
Answer stress tolerator.
ruderal.
competitor.
Question 25
Multiple Choice
Question In J. P. Grime’s classification of life history traits, a species with a
slow potential growth rate, reproduction at a relatively late age, allocation of a
small proportion of net production to seeds, and reliance on vegetative spread
fits the profile of a:
Answer stress tolerator.
ruderal.
competitor.
Question 26
Multiple Choice
Question When researchers added two young to typical kestrel nests, one
result was:
Answer reduction in survival of chicks from the norm of 98% to 81%.
increase in survival of chicks from the norm of 81% to 98%.
no change in the survival rate of chicks.
Question 27
Multiple Choice
Question When researchers added two young to typical kestrel nests, one
result was:
Answer reduction in survival of parents to the next breeding season.
increase in survival of parents to the next breeding season.
no change in survival of parents to the next breeding season.
Question 28
Multiple Choice
Question By breeding at an earlier age, an organism will reap the obvious
benefit of increased fecundity at that age.Is there any potential cost associated
with breeding at an earlier age?
Answer There is no cost associated with breeding at an earlier age.
Yes, there is a cost: reduced survival to older ages.
Yes, there is a cost: reduced fecundity at older ages.
Both B and C are reasonable expectations.
Question 29
Multiple Choice
Question Storm-petrels live 30 to 40 years. Thrushes rarely live beyond 3 to 4
years. Even if you knew nothing more about the life histories of these two
species, could you make an educated guess about which species has the
longer prereproductive period?
Answer Yes, the longer-lived species (storm-petrel) probably has the
longer prereproductive period.
Yes, the shorter-lived species (thrush) probably has the longer
prereproductive period.
No, information about maximum age is insufficient background
for an educated guess.
Question 30
Multiple Choice
Question For birds, age at maturity:
Answer varies directly with annual survival rates of adults.
varies inversely with annual survival rates of adults.
is unrelated to annual survival rates of adults.
Question 31
Multiple Choice
Question When adults have a low probability of survival from one year to the
next, and offspring survival is relatively good, the best adult strategy (to
maximize fitness) is:
Answer increase fecundity at the expense of adult survival.
increase adult survival at the expense of fecundity.
maintain a balance of fecundity and adult survival.
Question 32
Multiple Choice
Question When adults have a high probability of survival from one year to the
next, and offspring survival is relatively poor, the best adult strategy (to
maximize fitness) is:
Answer increase fecundity at the expense of adult survival.
increase adult survival at the expense of fecundity.
maintain a balance of fecundity and adult survival.
Question 33
Multiple Choice
Question For fish living a fairly long time (10 or more years), what would you
predict to be the optimal allocation of resources to fecundity versus growth?
Answer high fecundity versus slow growth
low fecundity versus rapid growth
equal allocation of resources to fecundity and growth
Question 34
Multiple Choice
Question When David Reznick compared populations of guppies experiencing
both low and high predation rates, he found an expected shift under high
predation to:
Answer smaller mature size for males.
allocation of greater body mass to reproduction for females.
production of more offspring.
production of smaller offspring.
all of the above
Question 35
Multiple Choice
Question Although different in almost every imaginable respect, agaves
(century plants) resemble sockeye salmon in that both are __________.
Answer semelparous
iteroparous
oddparous
evenparous
nonparous
Question 36
Multiple Choice
Question Agaves and yuccas often grow side by side in desert habitats.
Although superficially similar, members of these two groups differ markedly in
their life histories. How?
Answer Agaves are annuals; yuccas are perennials.
Agaves are perennials; yuccas are annuals.
Agaves are semelparous; yuccas are iteroparous.
Agaves are iteroparous; yuccas are semelparous.
Question 37
Multiple Choice
Question One possible explanation of the different life histories of agaves and
yuccas is related to:
Answer differences in acquisition of soil nutrients.
differences in acquisition of soil moisture.
differences in acquisition of carbon.
All of the above are equally plausible explanations.
Question 38
Multiple Choice
Question Bamboos are semelparous organisms. Synchronous breeding in
large populations of bamboo may benefit these populations by:
Answer facilitating wind pollination.
overwhelming seed predators.
Both A and B are potential benefits.
Question 39
Multiple Choice
Question “Bet hedging” (spreading reproduction over both good and bad
years) has been proposed as an advantage to which of the following life
histories?
Answer iteroparity
semelparity
both A and B
neither A nor B
Question 40
Multiple Choice
Question Lobelia telekii and its relative, L. keniensis, both grow on Mount
Kenya in Africa. L. telekii grows on dry rocky slopes on which resources for
reproduction (particularly moisture) are highly variable in time and space. L.
keniensis is found in moist valley bottoms with more stable moisture regimes.
Which species is semelparous?
Answer Lobelia telekii
Lobelia keniensis
Question 41
Multiple Choice
Question Researchers Abraham Miller-Rushing and Richard Primack compiled
data on first flowering time of plants in Concord, Massachusetts, collected by
Henry David Thoreau and others. When they graphed average date of first
flowering against mean spring temperature (which had increased by 2.4
o
C from
1852 to 2006), they found which of the following?
Answer All species responded to temperature change in the same way.
Closely related species exhibited similar responses to the
warming temperatures.
All species flowered at least slightly earlier.
There was a general trend across the common species toward
earlier flowering as temperatures increased over the period of
the study.
Question 42
Multiple Choice
Question Which of the following statements about senescence of organisms is
true?
Answer Mechanisms preventing and repairing damage caused by wear
and tear are not under genetic control.
Prolonging the life span by postponing senescence is unlikely to
affect fecundity in the early reproductive years.
Senescence is an inevitable consequence of wear and tear.
Question 43
Multiple Choice
Question Across a wide range of bird and mammal species, the rate of aging
(senescence) is:
Answer positively related to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes
(accidents, predators, weather).
negatively related to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes
(accidents, predators, weather).
unrelated to the mortality rate due to extrinsic causes (accidents,
predators, weather).
Question 44
Multiple Choice
Question Many chaparral shrubs have large, woody root crowns that are fireresistant.
When periodic fires sweep through the chaparral ecosystem, these
root crowns enable the shrubs to resprout rapidly. This is an example of which
of the following adaptations to the onset of unfavorable conditions?
Answer migration
storage
dormancy
none of the above
Question 45
Multiple Choice
Question Fall diapause in Daphnia (water fleas) is under control of day length.
When fall temperatures are warm and population densities low, Daphnia
undergo diapause under shorter daylengths than they would if densities were
higher or temperatures were cooler. Why?
Answer This altered response extends their active period when
conditions are favorable.
This altered response extends their active period when
conditions are unfavorable.
This altered response has no plausible explanation.
Question 46
Multiple Choice
Question Many animals undergo a dramatic metamorphosis from larval to
adult (sexually mature) forms.Poorly nourished animals cannot grow as fast as
well-nourished animals and therefore do not reach a given mass as quickly as
their well-nourished counterparts. If metamorphosis occurs when a specific,
minimum body mass is reached, which of the following costs is most likely
incurred by a poorly nourished animal?
Answer longer period of risk prior to reproduction
reduced reproductive output as an adult
Question 47
Multiple Choice
Question Many animals undergo a dramatic metamorphosis from larval to
adult (sexually mature) forms.Poorly nourished animals cannot grow as fast as
well-nourished animals and therefore do not reach a given mass as quickly as
their well-nourished counterparts. If metamorphosis occurs when a specific,
minimum age is reached, which of the following costs is most likely incurred by
a poorly nourished animal?
Answer longer period of risk prior to reproduction
reduced reproductive output as an adult
Question 48
Multiple Choice
Question Research on frogs has shown that poorly nourished animals mature
in which of the following ways, compared to their well-nourished counterparts?
Answer at the same size but at a much later age
at the same age but at a much smaller size
at a somewhat later age and at a somewhat smaller size
Question 49
Multiple Choice
Question The relationship between age and size at metamorphosis under
different feeding regimes is the __________ of metamorphosis with respect to
age and size.
Answer evolutionary fitness
evolutionary cost
reaction norm
parity
specialization
Question 50
Multiple Choice
Question Alex Kacelnik of Oxford University trained starlings to feed at artificial
stations where the birds obtained mealworms dispensed by a mechanical
device. Each successive mealworm fed to a given bird during a single visit
arrived after a progressively longer interval. Why did Kacelnik design his
experiment in this way?
Answer He wanted to test the patience of his birds.
He did not want his birds to depend only on artificial food
sources.
He wanted to expose his birds to some risk of predation.
He wanted to mimic the timing of natural feeding events.
Question 51
Multiple Choice
Question What happened to the amount of food starlings carried in their bills
when scientist Alex Kacelnik increased their round-trip travel time from nests to
foraging areas?
Answer Starlings increased the amount of food carried.
Starlings decreased the amount of food carried.
Starlings did not alter the amount of food carried.
Question 52
Fill in the Blank
Question One of the remarkable facts of nature is that, on average, each
organism produces ________ offspring that lives to reproduce.
Answer one
Incorrect
Feedback
One of the remarkable facts of nature is that, on average, each
organism produces one offspring that lives to reproduce.
Question 53
Fill in the Blank
Question The schedule of an individual’s life—age at maturity, number of
offspring, life span—makes up what ecologists call the________ of the
individual.
Answer life history
Incorrect The schedule of an individual’s life—age at maturity, number of
Feedback offspring, life span—makes up what ecologists call the life
history of the individual.
Question 54
Fill in the Blank
Question An individual organism cannot dedicate scarce energy or material
resources used for one function to another. In other words, the organism is
faced with a problem of ________.
Answer allocation
Incorrect
Feedback
An individual organism cannot dedicate scarce energy or
material resources used for one function to another. In other
words, the organism is faced with a problem of allocation.
Question 55
Question The number of offspring produced per reproductive episode is an
individual’s ________.
Answer fecundity
Incorrect
Feedback
The number of offspring produced per reproductive episode
is an individual’s fecundity.
Question 56
Question The number of reproductive events in an organism’s lifetime is
referred to as its ________.
Answer parity
Incorrect
Feedback
The number of reproductive events in an organism’s lifetime
is referred to as its parity.
Question 57
Question In J. P. Grime’s comprehensive classification of plant life histories,
“weedy” species are referred to as ________.
Answer ruderals
Incorrect
Feedback
In J. P. Grime’s comprehensive classification of plant life
histories, “weedy” species are referred to as ruderals.
Question 58
Question Many plants and invertebrates, plus some lower vertebrates, do not
have a characteristic adult size and may continue to grow throughout their adult
lives. This condition is referred to as ________ growth.
Answer indeterminate
Incorrect
Feedback
Many plants and invertebrates, plus some lower vertebrates, do
not have a characteristic adult size and may continue to grow
throughout their adult lives. This condition is referred to as
indeterminate growth.
Question 59
Question Adult female salmon arrive exhausted at their upstream spawning
grounds, convert a large portion of their remaining resources to eggs, then die,
in a process of ________.
Answer programmed death
Incorrect
Feedback
Adult female salmon arrive exhausted at their upstream
spawning grounds, convert a large portion of their remaining
resources to eggs, then die, in a process of programmed death.
Question 60
Question Humans are capable of multiple reproductive events through their
lifetime and are thus considered ________.
Answer iteroparous
Incorrect
Feedback
Humans are capable of multiple reproductive events through
their lifetime and are thus considered iteroparous.
Question 61
Question The spread of bamboos by vegetative or asexual reproduction is
also referred to as ________ growth.
Answer clonal
Incorrect
Feedback
The spread of bamboos by vegetative or asexual reproduction
is also referred to as clonal growth.
Question 62
Question Virtually all animals, humans included, exhibit a deterioration of
physiological function, or ________, with increasing age.
Answer senescence
Incorrect
Feedback
Virtually all animals, humans included, exhibit a deterioration of
physiological function, or senescence, with increasing age.
Question 63
Question Dormancy in insects is referred to as ________.
Answer diapause
Incorrect Feedback Dormancy in insects is referred to as diapause.
Question 64
Question Perhaps the most extreme response to an unfavorable change in the
environment is to become inactive or ________, simply “riding out” the period
of unfavorable conditions.
Answer dormant
Incorrect
Feedback
Perhaps the most extreme response to an unfavorable change in
the environment is to become inactive or dormant, simply “riding
out” the period of unfavorable conditions.
Question 65
Question Ecologists studying foraging behavior in animals determine carefully
the time spent capturing and ingesting a prey once it has been located. The
combined time spent capturing and ingesting prey is sometimes referred to as
________ time.
Answer handling
Incorrect
Feedback
Ecologists studying foraging behavior in animals determine
carefully the time spent capturing and ingesting a prey once it has
been located. The combined time spent capturing and ingesting
prey is sometimes referred to as handling time.
Question 66
Question The particular kind of foraging observed by Alex Kacelnik in
European starlings is called ________ foraging.
Answer central place
Incorrect
Feedback
The particular kind of foraging observed by Alex Kacelnik in
European starlings is called central place foraging.