Think Critically 3rd Edition By Gittens – Test Bank

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Think Critically 3rd Edition By Gittens – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3: Solve Problems and Succeed in College

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following statements about college students is true?

(a) All college students are the same.

(b) More than 75% of college students are irresponsible.

(c) There is no one stereotypic kind of college student.

(d) Most college students study too much.

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_03_01 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Remember, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Which of the following metrics is used to describe the percentage of entering freshmen who complete their baccalaureate in a timely way?

(a) freshmen to sophomore year retention rate

(b) 6-year graduation rate

(c) alumni giving rate

(d) alumni employment rate

(e) net tuition rate

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_03_02 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Remember, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Problem solving is defined as the process of ________.

(a) moving from the point at which we realize we have difficulty to the point at which we consider the difficulty to be resolved

(b) avoiding dealing with difficulties that seem overwhelming

(c) calling on someone to tell what to do whenever difficulties arise

(d) allowing small difficulties to become big enough to affect many different aspects of life

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_03_03 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem- Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. What is IDEAS?

(a) a liberal arts degree program

(b) an open-minded way of viewing the world

(c) a complicated approach to making new friends

(d) a general problem-solving process

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_03_04 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. What does the “A” in IDEAS stand for?

(a) Analyze the hypothesis and anchor the decision.

(b) Assess the situation and make a preliminary decision.

(c) Avoid dealing with annoying people.

(d) Ask questions and apply the relevant stereotype.

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_03_05 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The IDEAS process is presented as multi-step approach because ________.

(a) we must go all the way through Step 5 before we are allowed to correct our thinking

(b) we may make mistakes when we first try to identify the problem

(c) we must apply the steps in an exact order, fully completing each one before moving on to the next

(d) problem solving involves applying our critical thinking skills in an organized and reflective way

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_03_06 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Analyze, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Issues and concerns like “what do I really care about,” “what do I think now about all the religious and patriotic things I was taught as a child,” and “what do I hope to achieve in my life” fall into which of the following domains?

(a) vocational

(b) academic

(c) social

(d) emotional

(e) spiritual

(f) physical

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title: TB_03_07 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Issues and concerns like how to build lasting friendships, what can we expect of the others in my community, and what do others expect of us fall into which of the following domains?

(a) vocational

(b) academic

(c) social

(d) emotional

(e) spiritual

(f) physical

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_03_08 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Paul is uncertain about his initial choice of a major. He only picked it because his parents wanted him to go in that direction. But he likes a different major entirely. He can see himself being happy in the career field associated with that other major, and he realizes that while this might disappoint his parents, the change is probably necessary if he hopes to be successful in life. Paul’s concerns fall into which domain?

(a) vocational

(b) academic

(c) social

(d) emotional

(e) spiritual

(f) physical

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_03_09 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Janessa got through high school easily because she could remember what her teachers said in class and their tests never covered anything else. But in college she is struggling with how to study more complex material, how to prepare for exams that demand that she apply what she is learning, and how to reconcile the apparent conflicts between what she learns in one course and what she learns in another. Janessa’s concerns fall into which domain?

(a) vocational

(b) academic

(c) social

(d) emotional

(e) spiritual

(f) physical

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_03_10 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Kyle puts a lot of pressure on himself to get outstanding grades. His roommate tells him that he needs to find better ways of coping with that stress than by being depressed and angry all the time. But Kyle only shouts at his roommate to leave him alone so he can study. The roommate can see that Kyle is so consumed by trying to get a perfect GPA that he has stopped going to the gym, is ignoring his former friends, and is living on nothing but chips and coffee. The roommate sees these as symptoms that Kyle’s primary difficulty falls in which domain?

(a) vocational

(b) academic

(c) social

(d) emotional

(e) spiritual

(f) physical

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_03_11 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. When problem solving, why is it important to enumerate options? Enumerating options helps us ________.

(a) focus on consequences that have a greater likelihood of occurring

(b) hold true to our preconceived beliefs

(c) align possible outcomes with pre-existing stereotypes

(d) remember why we are trying to solve the problem in the first place

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_03_12 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

  1. Wendy is using the IDEAS process to solve a problem. She just deepened her understanding by gathering relevant information. What should she do next?

(a) Identify the problem and set priorities.

(b) Enumerate options and anticipate consequences.

(c) Assess the situation and make a preliminary decision.

(d) Scrutinize the process and self-correct.

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_03_13 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. When problem solving, it is useful to anticipate consequences so that we can do which of the following?

(a) Adjust our expectations.

(b) Reinforce our preconceptions.

(c) Confirm our snap judgments.

(d) Remember what we were taught as children.

(e) Pretend to be making a good decisions.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title: TB_03_14 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Suppose your professor has scheduled an exam for tomorrow’s class. According to the text, what is the best way to prepare for that exam?

(a) Study off and on for 2 hours.

(b) Study intensely for the entire evening.

(c) Study for 30 solid minutes and then take a break.

(d) Study for 5 minutes before the exam.

(e) Go to the gym for a long workout.

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title: TB_03_15 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Carl has a problem. He has been getting C’s and lower grades on his tests and assignments all term. What is a question he could ask himself to help identify the cause of his poor grades?

(a) Should I pray with more fervor?

(b) Should I eat more protein?

(c) Am I in love?

(d) Are my study habits effective?

(e) Do my high school friends still like me?

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title: TB_03_16 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The questions “Was the short-term goal of my decision achieved? Why or why not?” are associated with which step in the IDEAS process?

(a) Identify the problem and set priorities.

(b) Determine relevant information and deepen understanding.

(c) Enumerate options and anticipate consequences.

(d) Assess the situation and make a preliminary decision.

(e) Scrutinize the process and self-correct as needed.

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title: TB_03_17 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Understand, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The questions “If the situation did not turn out as I had anticipated, how might I rethink this problem, minimize the damage my error may have caused, and make the best out of the position I now find myself in?” are associated with which step in the IDEAS process?

(a) Identify the problem and set priorities.

(b) Determine relevant information and deepen understanding.

(c) Enumerate options and anticipate consequences.

(d) Assess the situation and make a preliminary decision.

(e) Scrutinize the process and self-correct as needed.

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title: TB_03_18 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Understand, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What is the value of beginning the problem-solving process with identifying problems and setting priorities?

 

Answer: Knowing our priorities helps us identify situations, which are or could become problems for

  1. In turn, examining the characteristics of the problem helps us clarify our priorities.

 

Question Title: TB_03_19 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. What is the value of assessing the situation and making a preliminary decision when we are problem solving?

 

Answer: Assessing our situation thoughtfully helps us make an initial tentative decision about what steps we are going to take to resolve the problem. In turn, making a preliminary decision helps us clarify our expectations, so we can better assess what level of resolution will be good enough, given the current circumstances, for us to consider the problem to be resolved at least for the present.

 

Question Title: TB_03_20 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Explain how the five step IDEAS process enables a person to improve their problem solving at any point along the way.

 

Answer: Although IDEAS is presented as five steps, we do not have to go all the way through Step 5 before we correct our own thinking. The IDEAS process can fold back on itself whenever a thoughtful person realizes adjustments need to be made. For example, if the relevant information we developed in Step 2 indicates that we have been mistaken in identifying the problem, then we can go back to Step 1 and fix that before moving on. Or, if the options and consequences enumerated in Step 3 all are problematic, a person can go back and reconsider his or her priorities from Step 1 or revisit Step 2 to determine whether additional information might be available to assist in expanding the options. IDEAS is a thoughtful and reflective process, not rigidly linear. We never have to wait for Step 5 to correct mistakes or make improvements on the work of earlier steps.

 

Question Title: TB_03_21 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. As we mature what makes the decade or so from late adolescence through young adulthood particularly important?

 

Answer: Those years are important because those are the years during which we typically are developing the competencies we will need to make a living in a complex society, learning to manage our emotions, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationships, establishing our personal identity, developing and refining our sense of purpose, and developing a greater integration of who we are with what we say and do in all circumstances.

 

Question Title: TB_03_22 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Remember, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Using brief examples, illustrate what the text means by calling social relationships complex.

 

Answer: The text calls social relationships complex because the meanings that we attach to what others say or do can differ vastly. For example, what one person might see as an apology, another person might interpret as sarcasm. What one person thinks of as a harmless prank, another might experience as a deeply hurtful personal assault. What one person intends as respectful silence, another sees as unwitting acquiescence or as cold indifference. Seeing ourselves as others see us is not an easy thing. But throughout our lives those rare moments when we are able to see ourselves as others see us often yield valuable insights for personal reflection and growth.

 

Question Title: TB_03_23 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. What are some examples of the kinds of issues and concerns college students may have in the physical domain?

 

Answer: College students may be concerned with questions and issues relating to their physical wellbeing such as: What should I eat or not eat? How can I stay fit? I know I’m free to do anything I want, but what kinds of risks with my health and safety are worth taking, and which are just too stupid?

 

Question Title: TB_03_24 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. What is the vocational domain and how does that domain relate to college students?

 

Answer: The word vocation means “calling,” and it is associated with the kind of work for which one is most suited or “called to do.” One’s vocation is intimately associated with one’s identity. People often describe themselves in terms of the professions they have pursued or the work they have done throughout their careers. “I’m an apprentice carpenter.” “I’m a physical therapist at the Med Center.” “I’m a teller at Chase.” “I’m in marketing.” and so on. A combination of temperament, knowledge, skill, and desire goes into forging one’s sense of what one “ought to become”—that is, the career one ought to pursue. But the reality for college students often is that the jobs they happen to have during college do not represent the careers to which they aspire nor the majors they are pursuing.

 

Question Title: TB_03_25 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. If you were concerned to clarify your career vocation options, what are some of the questions you might reasonably ask yourself in order to determine relevant information and deepen your understanding?

 

Answer: Questions like these:

  • What do I know about myself in terms of my knowledge, skills, and values?
  • What topics do I find most interesting?
  • In which academic subjects do I excel?
  • What careers am I most interested in pursuing?
  • What kinds of problems do I find most compelling?
  • What can I learn from talking to other people?
  • What might my academic advisor be able to do to help me?
  • What could my professors this term do to help me?
  • What might my friends who are juniors and seniors be able to tell me about picking a major?
  • What could I learn from talking to people who work in careers that I think are interesting?
  • What can I learn by consulting other available resources?
  • What resources exist on campus to help students pick a major or pick a career?

 

Question Title: TB_03_26 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. If memorizing definitions, facts, and theories is not enough in the academic domain, what more is needed to achieve success in understanding college level material and getting high marks on tests?

 

Answer: Beyond just being able to find or to recite the facts a successful student is able to interpret them in a sensible and meaningful way and to apply them correctly when drawing inferences and giving explanations.

 

Question Title: TB_03_27 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Describe the goal of Step 4 of the IDEAS process—“Assess the Situation and Make a Preliminary Decision.”

 

Answer: The goal of Step 4 is to evaluate the relevant information, use it to inform your understanding of the problem at hand, and to come to a tentative initial decision about what to believe or what to do. Even in contexts of uncertainty and risk, it is often necessary to find the courage to make a decision and stick with it.

 

Question Title: TB_03_28 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Understand, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. What is the “S” step in the IDEAS process?

 

Answer: The “S” stands for “Scrutinize Processes and Self-Correct as Needed.” It is the fifth step in the IDEAS process. Step 5 includes ongoing monitoring, analyzing, and evaluating the consequences of our chosen actions or beliefs. Mid-course corrections may always be necessary, no matter what the decision. As such, this step corresponds to the critical thinking skill of self-regulation.

 

Question Title: TB_03_29 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Understand, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. In college or in any other part of your life, when you are getting ready to finalize your resolution of a problem, what questions might you ask yourself to be sure that you have scrutinized your problem-solving process and made needed corrections?

 

Answer: I could ask myself questions like these:

  • What is actually happening as a result of my decision, and is it what I thought would happen?
  • If my decision was related to a short-term goal, was the goal achieved? Why or why not?
  • If my decision was related to a mid-range or long-term goal, what evidence can I collect to gauge whether I am still on the path to achieve my goal?
  • Whom might I consult to get feedback on my decision and the ramifications of my chosen action (or belief)?
  • If my decision impacts the actions of another person, what can I do to support this relationship?
  • If I need to make a self-correction, where should I start? Do I have the problem and the priorities right?
  • Is there new information to consider? Are some options looking better now than before? Was I mistaken about the consequences? Did I act prematurely or delay too long on some aspect of this?
  • If the situation did not turn out as I had anticipated, how might I rethink this problem, minimize the damage my error may have caused, and make the best out of the position I now find myself in?
  • Are there some questions that I should have asked, some techniques or methods for information gathering I should have used, some assumptions or expectations that I made which were unfounded, some standards of performance or quality that I failed to apply, and some contextual factors, which I failed to take into consideration?

 

Question Title: TB_03_30 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Understand, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. When problem solving, one reason it is important to gather relevant information is because the information can help us deepen our understanding of the problem we are trying to address.

 

Answer: True

 

Question Title: TB_03_31 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Remember, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Successful studying at the college level means becoming intimately, actively, and, at times, even passionately engaged with the material.

 

Answer: True

 

Question Title: TB_03_32 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students, Apply, LO 3.2

Topic: Educating the Whole Person

Learning Objective: 3.2 Explain how to use the IDEAS critical thinking process to solve problems that occur in the day-to-day lives of college students.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

  1. One of the shortcomings of the IDEAS process is that it only works for the problems relating to success in college.

 

Answer: False

 

Question Title: TB_03_33 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Understand, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

  1. Kari is thinking about majoring in economics. She is in the process of researching the various jobs that economics majors hold and trying to figure out which of those jobs actually required the person to have majored in economics. This puts her in the ______________________ step of the IDEAS process.

 

Answer: Determine Relevant Information and Deepen Understanding

 

Question Title: TB_03_34 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Apply, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The IDEAS process is a general ____________________ problem-solving process.

 

Answer: critical thinking

 

Question Title: TB_03_35 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Understand LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. William, who graduated with a degree in Biology last year, is considering whether to go into high school teaching because he is finding the job he took with a biotech start-up is extremely routine and boring. He feels that he wants to do something more with his energy and education than just running the same DNA lab tests over and over again every day. Although no longer a college student, William is struggling with a problem in the _________ domain.

 

Answer: vocational

 

Question Title: TB_03_36 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Apply, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. 37. Why is there no stereotypic kind of college student? Is there anything we can say about all college students?

 

Answer: There is no one stereotypic kind of college student. Some college students are younger people, recently graduated from high school, who are attending full-time and living on campus. Others are working adults with family responsibilities who enroll in only one or two courses at a time. Some college students attend nationally known research universities; some attend regional colleges and universities; some attend community colleges or liberal arts colleges. Some students have disabilities; some are military veterans; some are going back to college after years of raising families. Some college students are deeply religious; some are politically active; some enjoy music more than sports; some enjoy video games more than music; some play chess. Some college students are fortunate enough to have plenty of money; some are scraping it together with loans and part-time jobs. Some live at home with parents and siblings; some live alone; some live in apartments with friends; some on military bases around the world. Some take all their courses online; some take all their courses on campus; some take courses that are hybrids of both. Some students are enthusiastic about their chosen major, and some are totally undecided about a major. About the only thing we can say about “all college students” is that from time to time they all have problems that are social, academic, physical, emotional, vocational, or spiritual. Not in all those domains all the time, and certainly not, we hope, all the same problems. Oh, and one other thing, those college students who have an effective process of problem solving stand a greater chance of successfully earning a degree, achieving their other goals, realizing what it means to have the right and the skills to think for themselves.

 

Question Title: TB_03_37 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Analyze, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. How do institutions of higher education, accrediting bodies, and the media measure student success in college? Are those measures consistent with your own sense of what it means to you to be successful in college? Explain why or why not.

 

Answer: See the THINKING CRITICALLY box entitled “Institutional Programs and Measures of Students’ Success” in the section “Solve Problems and Succeed in College” for the first part of the answer. The second part of the answer depends on each student’s personal sense of what it means to him or her to be successful in college and on how well the student demonstrates strong critical thinking in explaining that answer.

 

Question Title: TB_03_38 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process, Analyze, LO 3.1

Topic: IDEAS: A 5-Step Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process

Learning Objective: 3.1 Identify the five steps of the IDEAS Critical Thinking General Problem-Solving Process.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. 39. What is the primary purpose of higher education? Give detailed examples and explain your answers with reasons and evidence.

 

Answer: The response to this essay prompt will include the topics discussed in the THINKING CRITICALLY Box entitled “What is the Primary Purpose of Higher Education?” with additional references to the material in the informational box entitled “What Is the Relationship between Education and Income” both of which are in the section entitled “Problems in College and Beyond.”

 

Question Title: TB_03_39 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Analyze, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. Problems and issues in the spiritual domain can be very troubling. Different religions have different beliefs and practices, and often people devoted to a given religion have an incomplete knowledge of about their own religion and even less of an understanding about other religions. Discuss the factors that predict religious knowledge. Using your critical thinking skills, analyze how knowing a religion relates to practicing a religion.

 

Answer: The answer to the first part of this question begins with the material presented in the THINKING CRITICALLY Box entitled “Religious Practices and Beliefs—What Do We Know?” which is in the section entitled “Problems in College and Beyond.” The response to the second part of this question depends on the strength of the student’s critical thinking skills and their ability to analyze the differences between knowing about a religion and living one’s life according to the beliefs and social mores of that religion.

 

Question Title: TB_03_40 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond, Analyze, LO 3.3

Topic: Problems in College and Beyond

Learning Objective: 3.3 Recognize the potential application of the IDEAS process to any problem-solving situation in college or beyond.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

Chapter 7: Evaluate Arguments: Four Basic Tests

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The practice of argument making rests in part on the presumption upon which so much of human discourse depends, namely that __________.

(a) both parties are members of the same language community

(b) the speaker is telling the truth

(c) either party is in a position to threaten the other

(d) the truth of what is being said is self-evident

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_01 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Remember, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The second presupposition of the practice of argument making is the hypothetical that __________.

(a) the speaker’s reason, if true, is the logical basis for the speaker’s claim

(b) the listener’s attention, if focused, will agree with what the speaker is saying

(c) the speaker’s claim, if false, will be rejected by the listener

(d) the listener’s response, if measured, will be to judge the argument sound

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_02 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. It happens that a conclusion might be true independent of whether the premises are true or whether the premises logically support that conclusion; because this is so the practice of argument making also presume that __________.

(a) the premises are inconsistent with one another

(b) the claim is true no matter what the premises say

(c) the listener and the speaker agree on all the key points

(d) the truth of the reason is relevant to establishing the truth of claim

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_03 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. In the context of the argument making, there is no point to giving reasons __________.

(a) if the listener is not going to rely on those reasons in deciding what to believe with regard to the claim

(b) if the listener is not sure about whether the speaker’s claim is true or false

(c) if the speaker is often occasionally confused or mistaken about the facts of the matter

(d) if the speaker is not going to listen to what the other person has to say in reply

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_04 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Remember, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Argument making in real world situations is essentially a one-way street. The reason is used to establish the acceptability of the claim. This practice presumes that the speaker is not then __________.

(a) mistrustful of the listener’s ability to understand

(b) using the claim as a basis for the reason

(c) questioning the privacy and security of the communication

(d) concealing anything from the listener

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_05 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Logicians call an argument with true premises that has also passed the Test of Logical Strength a __________.

(a) relevant argument

(b) sound argument

(c) worthy argument

(d) persuasive argument

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_06 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the negative evaluative adjectives: “Unworthy, Poor, Unacceptable, Unsound, Fallacious, Illogical, Incomplete, Unreasonable, Bad, and Circular.” The adjectives in that list typically apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_07 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the negative evaluative adjectives: “False, Improbable, Self-Contradictory, Fanciful, Fabricated, Vague, Ambiguous, Nonsensical, and Unknowable.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_08 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the positive evaluative adjectives: “Well-Documented, Strongly Supported, Well-Argued, Certain, True, Reasonable, Plausible, and Probable.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title:  TB_07_09 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Consider the positive evaluative adjectives: “Sensible, Well-Educated, Informed, Truth-Seeking, Open-Minded, Persuasive, and Confident.” The adjectives in that list typically best apply to which of the following?

(a) premises

(b) reasons

(c) claims/conclusions

(d) arguments

(e) argument makers

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_10 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris is a master of confronting people with whom he disagrees. One of his favorite techniques is to pick the weakest of his opponent’s reasons and then to refute it. He thinks that by doing that he has shown that his opponent’s claims are mistaken. By using this tactic Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) the bandwagon fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) an ad hominem attack

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_11 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements about argument making is true?

(a) Making arguments pro and con can aid group decision making.

(b) Making an argument is an essentially aggressive and confrontational practice.

(c) Making an argument is pointless unless you are an expert.

(d) Making an argument is the opposite of truth-seeking.

 

Answer: a

 

Question Title:  TB_07_12 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Apply, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris wants to correctly apply the four tests to evaluate an argument. First Chris checks the facts and learns that the premises are all true. The next step is to __________.

(a) provide multiple reasons to support the claim being advanced

(b) contact an expert to ask the expert to confirm or to disconfirm the conclusion

(c) figure out if the reason(s) given are relevant to the truth of the conclusion

(d) see if the claim forms part of the basis for accepting the truth of any of the premises

(e) try to imagine a situation in which all of the premises are true, but the conclusion is false

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_13 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris gives you two reasons to support an implausible claim. One reason turns out to be irrelevant. As a strong critical thinker, what should you do?

(a) Help Chris by making up another reason to support that claim.

(b) Dismiss the second reason because the first was false.

(c) Stop trusting anything Chris says.

(d) Test the second reason.

(e) Take Chris’ claim on faith.

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_14 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris, a master at office gossip and innuendo, says, “We know we have a corporate spy someplace in the organization, probably on the management team itself. There is no evidence that it is Audrey. In fact, she’s too clean, if you know what I mean. Somebody should fire Audrey; she’s got to be the spy.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) an appeal to ignorance fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) an appeal to the mob fallacy

 

Answer: c

 

Question Title:  TB_07_15 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Chris makes this argument to himself: “Everybody I know has at least one tattoo, most of my friends have three or four, but I have only one. So, it’s about time that I get another tattoo.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) a straw man fallacy

(c) circular reasoning.

(d) the bandwagon fallacy

(e) an ad hominem attack

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_16 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. “When we were discussing thermodynamics the other day, Dave didn’t say anything. That must mean he doesn’t know anything about the topic.” What would be the most useful question to debunk this claim?

(a) Does Dave have a degree in science?

(b) Could there be another reason why Dave remained quiet?

(c) How long has Dave been working at our company?

(d) Is Dave known for his critical thinking skills?

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title:  TB_07_17 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. When Chris learned that his friend, who is also a manager, like Chris, has been sentenced to prison for stealing from their employer, Chris told his friend, “Everyone who is in prison can still be free, for true freedom is the knowledge of one’s situation. The more one knows about one’s self, the more one is truly free.” By making this argument Chris is actually engaging in __________.

(a) an appeal to emotion fallacy

(b) an ad hominem attack

(c) the bandwagon fallacy

(d) circular reasoning

(e) a playing with words fallacy

 

Answer: e

 

Question Title:  TB_07_18 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Is the following argument worthy of acceptance? “In a perfect world, the government should investigate whether any laws were broken relating to the treatment of wartime detainees. But this is not a perfect world. So, it would be a mistake for the government to engage in such an investigation.

(a) Yes, because the premises are true.

(b) Yes, because the argument is sound.

(c) Yes, because it passes all four tests.

(d) No, because the reason is irrelevant.

(e) No, because the argument is circular.

 

Answer: d

 

Question Title:  TB_07_19 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. Is the following argument sound? “Not every argument is of equal quality. Therefore, at least one argument is better than at least one other argument.”

(a) Yes, because the premise is true and the argument is not circular.

(b) Yes, because the premise is true and it implies the conclusion.

(c) No, because the premise is true but it is not relevant.

(d) No, because the premise is false.

(e) No, because there is the possibility that the premise could be true but the conclusion false.

 

Answer: b

 

Question Title: TB_07_20 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the first condition is:

 

Answer: To the best of our knowledge and understanding, the reason is true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_21 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the second condition is:

 

Answer: The logical relationship between the reason and claim is such that the reason implies, entails, strongly warrants, or strongly supports the claim, such that the claim must be true or very probably true if the reason is assumed to be true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_22 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the third condition is:

 

Answer: The relevance of the reason to the claim is such that the truth of the claim actually depends on the truth of the reason.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_23 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Given a reason offered in support of a claim, these are the four conditions that must be met for that argument to be considered worthy of acceptance. In order of their application, the fourth condition is:

 

Answer: The flow of the reasoning is such that truth of reason must not depend on the truth of the claim.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_24 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The assumption that premises are true provides a reasonable basis for moving to consider next which aspect of the argument?

 

Answer: Its logical strength, specifically whether those premises imply that the conclusion is true or very probably true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_25 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Understand, LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Suppose our community had the problem of deciding what to believe or what to do with regard to an important issue. And suppose we did not have the practice of reason giving and argument making. Name a method our community might be likely to use in that situation.

 

Answer: Accepting on faith the opinion or the decision of the most powerful person in the community.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_26 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims, Analyze LO 7.1

Topic: Giving Reasons and Making Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.1 Explain the four presumptions about argument making we all rely upon when offering one another reasons to support our claims.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. Is this argument worthy of acceptance, and if not, what is wrong with it? “To many around the world, the Statue of Liberty symbolizes the welcome our nation extends to all freedom loving people. So, as the great Yogi Berra says, “You can observe a lot just by watching.”

 

Answer: No. The reason given is not relevant to the truth of the conclusion.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_27 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Analyze, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The book highlights this warning: “Dismissing an otherwise-worthy claim simply

because one or more of the arguments made on its behalf contains false reasons is one of the most

common human reasoning errors.” What is the basis for this?

 

Answer: The warning is based on the realization that the claim could still be true.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_28 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Analyze, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. The book warns that underestimating one’s opponent in a debate or dispute can backfire. What reasons support this claim?

 

Answer: One reason is that listeners can be alienated when they realize that we have not been fair or objective. A second reason is that we may become overconfident. Strong critical thinkers try not to mislead themselves. Strong critical thinkers try not to confuse defeating a straw man argument with giving due consideration to the opposition’s array of worthy arguments.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_29 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Analyze, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: 2–Moderate

 

 

  1. What is the reasoning that supports this claim the book makes? “Being able to explain why an argument is unworthy of acceptance is a stronger demonstration of one’s critical thinking skills than being able to remember the names of the different types of fallacies.”

 

Answer: The terminology of logicians and other scholars who study arguments is valuable to the extent that it helps us remember the underlying ideas. But the key to learning is to practice and internalize the process of interpreting people’s words correctly so that we can understand exactly what their arguments are, and then evaluating those arguments fair-mindedly. People with strong critical thinking skills are good at evaluating arguments because they can recognize logically correct forms of arguments as well as common mistakes that make an argument invalid, unwarranted, or fallacious. And, they can explain in their own words why one form is reliable and another is fallacious.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_30 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Apply, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. What are fallacious arguments?

 

Answer: Fallacies are deceptive arguments, which appear to be logical but turn out not on closer analysis not to demonstrate their conclusions.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_31 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Understand, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

True or False Questions

 

  1. Argument making always involves winning or losing a verbal confrontation.

 

Answer: False

 

Question Title:  TB_07_32 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. A good argument or a worthy argument is an argument that merits being accepted as a proof that its conclusion is true or very probably true.

 

Answer: True

 

Question Title:  TB_07_33 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Understand, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. Fallacies are deceptive arguments that appear logical and seem at times to be persuasive, but, upon closer analysis, fail to demonstrate their conclusions.

 

Answer: True.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_34 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance, Understand, LO 7.3

Topic: Common Reasoning Errors

Learning Objective: 7.3 Recognize common reasoning mistakes known as fallacies of relevance.

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the reason is true in each of its premises, explicit and implicit.

 

Answer: first

 

Question Title:  TB_07_35 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that if the reason were true, it would imply, entail, strongly warrant, or strongly support

the conclusion making the conclusion (claim) true or very probably true.

 

Answer: second

 

Question Title:  TB_07_36 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the truth of the claim depends on the truth of the reason.

 

Answer: third

 

Question Title:  TB_07_37 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

  1. The _______ test condition that an argument must meet in order to be considered worthy of acceptance is that the truth of the reason does not depend on the truth of the claim.

 

Answer: fourth

 

Question Title:  TB_07_38 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Remember, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: 1–Easy

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. 39. The book offers long lists of evaluative adjectives that can be applied to premises, reasons, claims, and arguments. Why so many possible evaluative terms?

 

Answer: Good arguments—subtle and yet effective as solid proofs that their claims are worthy of being accepted as true—can be expressed in so many ways that listing them all may be impossible. In natural language contexts argument making can take the form of a personable and convivial conversation between friends as they explore options and consider ideas. Good argument making can occur in front of juries and judges in the push and pull of a legal dispute. Managers seeking budget approvals present arguments for more funding. Fundraisers seeking donations offer reasons that tug at our minds and our hearts for why we should contribute to their charities. Researchers present complex and detailed arguments when reporting their findings in professional journals. Good argument making can be embedded in warnings, ironic commentary, allegorical dramas, one-line counterexamples, recommendations, policy statement preambles, public addresses, conversations, group meetings, negotiations, comic monologues, serious pro-and-con debates, meandering reflections, and even the lyrics of songs. The vocabulary we use to evaluate arguments must be as flexible as our understanding of the wide variety of contexts within which argument making can be found. A conversation with a colleague about an impending decision can be helpful, even if we would not think about calling it valid, or persuasive. Natural language offers such richness in its evaluative repertoire that it seems wise, at least at this early point, not to close our options by prematurely stipulating a set of evaluative categories.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_39 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

 

 

  1. Explain what an “ad hominem attack” is and why strong critical thinkers reject this tactic as a demonstration that a person’s argument is unacceptable.

 

Answer: The short response is that arguments are to be judged on their own merits, not on the merits of their producers. To amplify that, it is simply false to assume that because the person making the argument is deficient in some real or imagined way, the person’s argument, work product, or views should not be accepted on their own merits. Ad hominem is Latin for “against the person” and it expresses the error this fallacy makes, which is to claim that a person’s ideas must be tainted because the person has some vice or flaw. The opposite would be equally fallacious, which is to assume that because the person making the argument is virtuous the argument must be good, too. Strong critical thinking no more obliges us to reject every argument made by a convicted felon or an intentionally incendiary radio talk-show host than to accept every argument made by a beneficent Pope or a peace loving Dalai Lama.

 

Question Title:  TB_07_40 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity, Apply, LO 7.2

Topic: The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments

Learning Objective: 7.2 Evaluate the worthiness of arguments by applying the four tests: Truthfulness of the Premises, Logical Strength, Relevance, and Non-Circularity.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: 3–Difficult

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