THINK Social Psychology 1st Canadian Edition By Duff Peace – Test Bank

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THINK Social Psychology 1st Canadian Edition By Duff Peace – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

1) Automatically created cognitive frameworks that organize and guide how people think about and understand the world are known as:

  1. affects.
  2. schemas.
  3. emotions.
  4. premonitions.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Factual

 

2) Which of the following statements about schemas is NOT true?

  1. Schemas help us organize information efficiently.
  2. Schemas help guide processing of future information.
  3. Schemas eliminate all errors in thinking and remembering.
  4. Schemas affect what we notice and remember.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Conceptual

 

3) What could be considered a potential shortcoming of a schema once it is activated?

  1. Schemas can mislead you because they are not created based on real experiences.
  2. Schemas do not help us organize information efficiently.
  3. The use of schemas often takes a lot of controlled processing.
  4. Schemas can result in errors in thinking and remembering of information.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Conceptual

 

4) When you arrive at your first university class you find a seat, take out your notebook, and begin to record information the professor writes on the board. Previous experience of being a high school student helped you determine what to do in this situation. In social psychological terms, the cognitive structure that guided your behaviour is commonly known as ______________.

  1. a plan
  2. a schema
  3. a self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. the perseverance effect

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Applied

 

5) In a study by Bargh and colleagues (1996) participants were exposed to stereotypes about the elderly through a scrambled sentence task. What was their main finding?

  1. Participants primed with the elderly stereotype walked more slowly down the hallway than those who were not primed.
  2. It took the experimenter longer to debrief participants primed with the elderly stereotype than those who were not primed.
  3. Participants primed with the elderly stereotype actually walked faster down the hallway than those who were not primed.
  4. There were no differences found between those participants primed with the elderly stereotype and those who were not primed.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Factual

 

6) _____________ is a type of schema in which we apply generalized information to an individual based on the group to which he or she belongs.

  1. A stereotype
  2. A self-fulfilling prophecy
  3. A prime
  4. Controlled processing

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Factual

 

7) Heather, who has sustained brain damage from a car accident, appears to have trouble making decisions and solving problems that require careful thought. Based on information presented in your textbook, Heather most likely has damage to what part of the brain?

  1. The occipital lobe
  2. The limbic system
  3. The amygdala
  4. The prefrontal cortex

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Applied

 

8) If a schema is strong and well-developed then you will likely:

  1. pay more attention to information consistent with that schema.
  2. pay less attention to information consistent with that schema.
  3. pay more attention to information inconsistent with that schema.
  4. pay the same amount of attention to information consistent and inconsistent with that schema.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Conceptual

 

9) Paying more attention to sensory information that fits a given schema while at the same time filtering information that is inconsistent is defined as ____________.

  1. a self-fulfilling prophecy
  2. selective filtering
  3. counterfactual thinking
  4. controlled thinking

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Factual

 

10) Justin is convinced that his girlfriend’s parents do not like him. When Justin arrives at their house for a party, he feels so uncomfortable that he does not act in a friendly manner. His girlfriend’s parents, in turn, see Justin as rude and antisocial. This example best illustrates ____________.

  1. a self-fulfilling prophecy
  2. automatic processing
  3. the perseverance effect
  4. controlled processing

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Applied

 

11) Automatic processing is considered ____________, while controlled processing is considered ____________.

  1. tiring; easy
  2. hard; easy
  3. effortless; effortful
  4. effortful; effortless

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Conceptual

 

12) Information processing that requires careful thought and effort is referred to as____________.

  1. controlled processing
  2. simple processing
  3. automatic processing
  4. routine processing

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Factual

 

13) Compared with controlled processing, automatic processing is believed to:

  1. involve no activation of the amygdala.
  2. be less emotion-driven.
  3. occur mostly in the limbic system.
  4. require careful thought and effort.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Conceptual

 

14) The ____________ is a small structure found in the medial temporal lobe of the brain and is believed to be involved in automatic processing.

  1. cerebellum
  2. corpus callosum
  3. pons
  4. amygdala

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Factual

 

15) What area of the brain has been identified as critical to emotional processing and memory?

  1. The cortex
  2. The prefrontal cortex
  3. The limbic system
  4. The occipital lobe

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Factual

 

16) People with damage to what part of the brain show problems with automatic responses in fear conditioning but not problems with controlled processing?

  1. The amygdala
  2. The prefrontal cortex
  3. The frontal cortex
  4. The hippocampus

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Conceptual

 

17) Which part of the brain plays a role in higher-order thinking, including judgment, decision making, and evaluation?

  1. The prefrontal cortex
  2. The brain stem
  3. The occipital lobe
  4. The amygdala

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Factual

 

18) Your textbook indicates that patients who have damage to the prefrontal cortex show difficulty with ___________.

  1. automatic processing
  2. controlled processing
  3. walking
  4. writing

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Factual

 

19) ______________ are simple rules that reduce mental effort and allow us to make decisions or judgments quickly.

  1. Facts
  2. Heuristics
  3. Thoughts
  4. Regulations

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Factual

 

20) You have recently heard of two cases on the news of a person being struck by lightening. Although the odds of getting struck by lightening are low, you easily recall these examples and falsely estimate that your risk is high. This best illustrates the use of the ____________ heuristic.

  1. anchoring and adjustment
  2. representativeness
  3. availability
  4. framing

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Applied

 

21) Tversky and Kahneman (1973) asked participants to estimate whether the letter ‘R’ more often held the first position of words or the third position of words. Most participants incorrectly estimated that the letter ‘R’ held the first position of words rather than the third position. What is the most plausible explanation for this finding?

  1. Participants did not think hard enough.
  2. Participants were able to recall words that started with ‘R’ more easily.
  3. Participants utilized the framing heuristic.
  4. Participants utilized selective filtering which biased their answers.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Conceptual

 

22) Which of the following is an example of the availability heuristic?

  1. People assume that John is not masculine because he is a nurse.
  2. Sam avoids going into the ocean because he can easily remember two recent shark attacks reported in the media.
  3. People assume that Andrea is not feminine because she likes to box.
  4. None of the examples provided illustrate the availability heuristic.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Applied

 

23) Your friend Jane is trying to decide if she wants to go on a camping trip for the weekend. You know that Jane thinks camping is fun but you also remember that the last two times Jane went camping she got sick. Based on your knowledge of how the availability heuristic impacts judgments and decisions, what could you say to Jane that would be most likely to convince her to stay home?

  1. “Camping is fun but there are so many other fun things to do this weekend.”
  2. “Camping is not fun.”
  3. “Do you remember that the last two times you went camping you ended up getting sick?”
  4. “You should make a list of pros and cons before you decide.”

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Applied

 

24) Which heuristic involves deciding the probability that object A belongs to category B or that event A is a result of process B?

  1. The anchoring and adjustment heuristic
  2. The representativeness heuristic
  3. The availability heuristic
  4. Both the availability heuristic and the representative heuristic

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Factual

 

25) John likes to read books and spends a great deal of time in the library. The tendency to conclude that John is more likely to be a university professor than a mechanic is an example of using the _____________ heuristic.

  1. representativeness
  2. availability
  3. anchoring and adjustment
  4. framing

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Applied

 

26) What can we conclude from research looking at the ‘hot hand’ in basketball?

  1. There is support for the notion that a basketball player is more likely to make a basket following a hit rather than a miss.
  2. People often tend to see patterns in truly random sequences.
  3. People make judgments based on the ease with which they can recall relevant examples.
  4. People often fail to consider personality information when estimating the likelihood of an event.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Conceptual

 

27) Eighty percent of people who live in your community are politically conservative. At a town event you are introduced to Jim who tells you he is pro-choice on the issue of abortion. Based on this information, you incorrectly conclude that Jim is politically liberal. Your failure to take into account the number of people who are coservatives when making your judgment about Jim illustrates an example of:

  1. the framing heuristic.
  2. anchoring an adjustment.
  3. the base rate fallacy.
  4. the negativity bias.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Applied

 

28) Heuristics are useful mental shortcuts but they also have drawbacks. What could be considered one disadvantage of using the availability heuristic?

  1. People may give less weight to higher probability events compared with more vivid or scarier lower probability events.
  2. Using the availability heuristic results in greater use of the base rate.
  3. When using the availability heuristic people do not consider information about an individual’s personality.
  4. The availability heuristic takes a great deal of controlled processing.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Conceptual

 

29) Heuristics are useful mental shortcuts but they also have drawbacks. What could be considered one disadvantage of using the representativeness heuristic?

  1. When using the representativeness heuristic people do not consider information about an individual’s personality.
  2. The representativeness heuristic takes a great deal of controlled processing.
  3. Using the representativeness heuristic may lead to neglecting other important information such as the base rate.
  4. Using the representativeness heuristic leads to greater use of the base rate.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Conceptual

 

30) _____________ refers to how common a behaviour or characteristic is in the population.

  1. The base rate
  2. Anchoring and adjustment
  3. Framing
  4. The basic rate

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Factual

 

31) Tversky and Kahneman (1974) provided participants with personality descriptions of engineers or lawyers and asked them to choose whether the individual was a lawyer or engineer. Out of a supposed sample of 100 engineers and lawyers, half of the participants were told that there were 70 engineers and 30 lawyers, while the other half were told that there were 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. What was the main finding of this study?

  1. The availability heuristic is very common.
  2. The negativity bias is very common.
  3. People are pretty good at using the base rate when provided with descriptive information.
  4. People often do not use the base rate when provided with descriptive information about people.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48–49

Skill: Factual

 

32) Tversky and Kahneman (1974) provided participants with personality descriptions of engineers or lawyers and asked them to choose whether the individual was a lawyer or engineer. Out of a supposed sample of 100 engineers and lawyers, half of the  participants were told that there were 70 engineers and 30 lawyers, while the other half were told that there were 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. Tversky and Kahneman (1974) found that participants did not consider information about the ratio of engineers to lawyers when making their judgments. In other words, participants failed to take into account which of the following?

  1. The base rate
  2. Descriptions of the engineers and lawyers
  3. The degree to which the descriptions of the engineers and lawyers matched the participants’ stereotypes of engineers and lawyers
  4. The need to make an adjustment from the initial starting point

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 48–49

Skill: Factual

 

33) The _____________ heuristic refers to the notion that we use a number as a starting point on which to anchor our judgment.

  1. availability
  2. anchoring and adjustment
  3. framing
  4. representativeness

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 49

Skill: Factual

 

34) You are asked to estimate the work productivity of an employee. If you under- or overestimated their productivity as a result of using your own level of productivity as a starting point, this would illustrate _____________.

  1. the use of the availability heuristic
  2. a self-fulfilling prophecy
  3. the use of the representativeness heuristic
  4. the use of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 49–50

Skill: Applied

 

35) According to information presented in your textbook, which of the following best describes why the anchoring and adjustment heuristic leads to problems when making decisions or judgments?

  1. When people use anchors they stop adjusting once a seemingly reasonable value is reached.
  2. You fail to consider the base rate.
  3. The use of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic takes a lot mental effort and time.
  4. The use of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic is an efficient strategy and does not lead to problems when making decisions or judgments.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 50

Skill: Conceptual

 

36) When you base a conclusion about a situation on the framework in which it is presented, you are using the _____________ heuristic.

  1. framing
  2. availability
  3. representativeness
  4. context

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 50

Skill: Factual

 

37) You have developed a new medical device that can diagnose a deadly disease with 80% accuracy. According to information on the framing heuristic, which of the following would be the best way to present this new device to doctors?

  1. “This is a great device!”
  2. “This device is 80% accurate in diagnosing this disease.”
  3. “This device is 20% inaccurate in diagnosing this disease.”
  4. “This is the most accurate device for diagnosing this disease!”

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 50

Skill: Applied

 

38) You have developed a new medical device that can diagnose a deadly disease with 80% accuracy. According to information on the framing heuristic, which of the following is the LEAST effective way to present this new device to doctors?

  1. “This is a great device!”
  2. “This device is 80% accurate in diagnosing this disease.”
  3. “This device is 20% inaccurate in diagnosing this disease.”
  4. “This is the most accurate device for diagnosing this disease!”

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 50

Skill: Applied

 

39) Even though Christopher has lost a great deal of money gambling, he continues to place bets at the roulette table because he believes that he can predict the winning number. Christopher’s perception that he can control events that are uncontrollable is known as:

  1. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  2. the negativity bias.
  3. the illusion of control.
  4. the framing heuristic.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Applied

 

40) Which of the following is the most reasonable explanation for why people rely on mental shortcuts and schemas even though they can lead to biases?

  1. Because most people are too lazy to use careful thought when making decisions
  2. Because people are taught to use mental shortcuts in place of careful thought when making decisions
  3. Because the metal energy required for every single decision would be so great that it would be exhausting and inefficient
  4. Because most people are not intelligent enough to use careful thought when making decisions

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Conceptual

 

41) Which concept refers to the tendency to notice and remember negative information, which then influences the evaluation of people and situations?

  1. The recall bias
  2. Selective filtering
  3. The framing heuristic
  4. The negativity bias

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Factual

 

42) Research on the negativity bias suggests what about how we process negative information compared with positive information?

  1. Positive information sticks out in our minds more than negative information.
  2. We are more sensitive to negative information than positive information.
  3. We are more likely to remember positive information than negative information.
  4. We give equal weight to positive and negative information.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Conceptual

 

43) Langer (1975) assigned participants a lottery number, or invited participants to choose a number themselves. Participants were then asked if they would sell their tickets back, and for what price. The results showed that:

  1. those who chose their own numbers gave their ticket back at no cost.
  2. those who had been assigned random numbers refused to sell their ticket back.
  3. those who chose their own numbers demanded four times more money to resell as those who had been assigned random numbers.
  4. those who chose their own numbers were significantly more likely to win the lottery than those who did not.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Factual

 

44) We are more likely to respond to negative stimuli and filter out positive stimuli when:

  1. the information is arousing, personally relevant, or uncertain.
  2. the information is context-dependent, dispositionally irrelevant, or precise.
  3. the information is temporal, spatially-relevant, or costly.
  4. the information is transient, frequency-encoded, or enduring.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Factual

 

45) Which of the following best represents an evolutionary explanation for the negativity bias?

  1. We are imitating our parent’s behaviour.
  2. Our culture values negative information
  3. We have an unconscious drive for negative information.
  4. We are predisposed to avoid danger and negative information would be more important for avoiding danger than positive information.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Conceptual

 

46) You believe that bad things are more likely to happen to other people but good things are more likely to happen to yourself. This is termed ______________.

  1. overconfidence barrier
  2. counterfactual thinking
  3. optimistic bias
  4. illusion of control

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51–52

Skill: Factual

 

47) Katherine believes she will earn a higher salary than her classmates once she’s out of university and that she is less likely to incur any financial problems. Katherine is exhibiting:

  1. the optimistic bias.
  2. the illusion of control.
  3. counterfactual thinking.
  4. optimal thinking.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 51–52

Skill: Applied

 

48) Medvec and Savitsky (1997) found that individuals on the borderline of a grade (e.g., 89 percent) reported:

  1. being more upset because it is easier to imagine getting an A+ (i.e., 90 percent) than a lower grade.
  2. being satisfied because it is harder to imagine getting an A+ (i.e., 90 percent) than a lower grade.
  3. being satisfied because it is easier to imagine getting a borderline grade (i.e., 89) than an A+ (i.e., 90 percent).
  4. being more upset because it is easier to imagine getting a borderline grade (i.e., 89) than an A+ (i.e., 90 percent).

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Factual

 

49) You are in a car accident. You and your passengers are unharmed, but the car is badly damaged and cannot be repaired. You are upset about the incident. Which of the following is likely to improve your mood?

  1. Consider that you will now have to spend hard-earned money on a replacement car
  2. Dwell on aspects of the accident that were your fault, and how you can take future precautions
  3. Talk to others about how embarrassed you are to have caused a car accident
  4. Think about how you and your passengers are safe, when you could have been injured

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Application

 

50) The optimistic bias is often more evident in people who:

  1. are low in self-esteem, confidence, or defensiveness.
  2. are low in attractiveness, social status, or egocentrism.
  3. are high in attractiveness, social status, or egocentrism.
  4. are high in self-esteem, confidence, or defensiveness.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Factual

 

51) A state of having more confidence in one’s judgment or control over a situation than is really justified refers to what concept?

  1. The optimistic bias
  2. The illusion of control
  3. Counterfactual thinking
  4. Overconfidence barrier

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Factual

 

52) Last year Joseph was in a serious car accident. He often thinks to himself, “If only I hadn’t been driving so fast, maybe the accident would never have happened.” This example best illustrates the concept known as _____________.

  1. biased thinking
  2. counterfactual thinking
  3. maladaptive thinking
  4. overconfidence barrier

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Applied

 

53) Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the relationship between counterfactual thinking and mood?

  1. You always feel worse as a result of engaging in counterfactual thinking.
  2. You always feel better as a result of engaging in counterfactual thinking.
  3. If you compare a real life outcome with a less desirable imagined outcome, you will likely feel better.
  4. If you compare a real life outcome with a less desirable imagined outcome, you will likely feel worse.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52–53

Skill: Conceptual

 

54) An imagined outcome in which things turn out better than the real event is called a(n) ______________; whereas, an imagined outcome in which things turn out worse than the real event is called a ______________.

  1. higher counterfactual; lower counterfactual
  2. upward counterfactual; downward counterfactual
  3. elevated counterfactual; subordinate counterfactual
  4. increased counterfactual; decreased counterfactual

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Factual

 

55) You had your annual job performance review and are disappointed to learn that your boss has given you a poor review. In order to feel better you think to yourself, “at least I did not get fired.” This is an example of _____________.

  1. downward counterfactual thinking
  2. upward counterfactual thinking
  3. biased thinking
  4. the availability heuristic

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Applied

 

56) When Madndel and Dhami (2005) asked prisoners to focus on counterfactuals to being caught for their current offense, the prisoners reported:

  1. lower future probability of committing different types of crime.
  2. higher future probability of committing different types of crime.
  3. higher feelings of shame over being caught, but not more blame or guilt.
  4. higher feelings of blame and guilt over being caught, but not more shame.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Factual

 

57) In a study done on counterfactual thinking, what did researchers find with respect to the satisfaction level of Olympic medalists?

  1. Silver medalists were more satisfied than bronze medalists.
  2. Silver and bronze medalists were equally satisfied.
  3. Gold medalists were just as satisfied as bronze and silver medalists.
  4. Bronze medalists were more satisfied than silver medalists.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Factual

 

58) According to your textbook, which of the following statements represents a potential benefit of counterfactual thinking?

  1. Counterfactual thinking is often used to assign blame in a situation.
  2. Counterfactual thinking leads to the overconfidence barrier.
  3. Counterfactual thinking increases use of the base rate.
  4. Counterfactual thinking about an event may lead to better preparation for a future event.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Conceptual

 

59) Which of the following is true regarding counterfactual thinking?

  1. The erroneous belief that one is at a higher risk of homicide than heart disease is due to counterfactual thinking.
  2. Counterfactual thinking explains reactions to “wrong place at the wrong time” stories.
  3. Counterfactual thinking explains the “hot in hand” phenomena.
  4. The erroneous belief that one is more likely to succeed than others is due to counterfactual thinking.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Conceptual

 

60) Jane is in a very good mood. According to the mood congruence effect, what information from her day will Jane be more likely to remember?

  1. Her teacher asking her to re-do an assignment because it was poorly done
  2. Her roommate snapping at her
  3. Finding a ten dollar bill on the ground
  4. What time she got up in the morning

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Applied

 

61) Andrew is in a very bad mood. According to the mood congruence effect, what information from his day will Andrew be more likely to remember?

  1. His roommate snapping at him
  2. What he ate for lunch
  3. What time he got up in the morning
  4. Receiving an A on an assignment

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Applied

 

62) Mood congruence effect refers to which of the following?

  1. Remembering both positive and negative information regardless of mood
  2. Being more likely to remember positive information when in a negative mood
  3. Being more likely to remember negative information when in a positive mood
  4. Being more likely to remember positive information when in a positive mood and more likely to remember negative information when in a negative mood

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 53

Skill: Factual

 

63) Alex is often nervous during exams, and seems to forget everything during the test only to remember it hours later when he is relaxed. What would you recommend Alex do to improve his performance on exams?

  1. Study for an exam when he is relaxed
  2. Study for an exam when he is nervous
  3. Study only the material he finds interesting
  4. Study only the material he finds boring

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Application

 

64) What we remember when in a given mood is influenced in part by what we learned when previously in that mood. This is known as _____________.

  1. mood congruence effects
  2. mood dependent memory
  3. counterfactual thinking
  4. mood reliant memory

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Factual

 

65) Under which of the following circumstances are you more likely to rely on heuristics?

  1. When you’re in a bad mood
  2. When you’re in a sad mood
  3. When you’re in a happy mood
  4. You’re equally likely to rely on heuristics when either in a bad or happy mood.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Conceptual

 

66) In which of the following situations would George be most likely to rely on heuristics?

  1. After hearing that he received a job promotion
  2. After his boss tells him he has to work over the holidays
  3. After sitting through a long, boring work meeting
  4. After he has eaten lunch

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Applied

 

67) Which of the following would NOT be considered a consequence of being in a good mood?

  1. Relying more on heuristics
  2. Using stereotypes more
  3. Being more easily persuaded
  4. Evaluating information carefully

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Conceptual

 

68) Schemas can influence decisions only if you are aware that you have been primed.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Factual

 

69) Schemas are universal across cultures and are very much the same in every person.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: TF

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Conceptual

 

70) Once they are formed, schemas are easy to change.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Conceptual

 

71) You don’t think men are very emotional and you classify your emotional friend John as an exception to this general belief. This serves as an example of the perseverance effect.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Applied

 

72) A prediction that causes itself to become true is known as selective filtering.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 44

Skill: Factual

 

73) Automatic and controlled processing are thought to be housed in the same areas of the brain.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 45

Skill: Factual

 

74) When you estimate your risk of dying of cancer based on the number of people you know who have been diagnosed, you are using the availability heuristic.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Applied

 

75) The representativeness heuristic is a rule used to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how well it fits with your expectations of a model for that event.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Factual

 

76) Triplet (1992) found that participants involved in a hypothetical medical decision task were more likely to label heterosexual patients as having AIDS (independent of their symptoms) relative to homosexual patients.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 48

Skill: Factual

 

77) Work by Tversky and Kahneman suggests that providing descriptive information about people results in a greater use of base rate information.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 48–49

Skill: Conceptual

 

78) The belief that picking your own lottery numbers will result in a much better chance of winning the lottery reflects the illusion of control.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Applied

 

79) The optimistic bias would explain why Sarah, a graduating student, believes she will be less likely than her peers to experience hardship from a difficult job market.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Applied

 

80) Mood dependent memory refers to the fact that we are more likely to remember positive information when in a positive mood and more likely to remember  negative information when in a negative mood.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: TF

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Factual

 

81) Define schema and provide an example.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Factual

 

82) Describe how schemas are activated. Once schemas are activated, how do they influence our processing and interpretation of subsequent information we encounter in the social world?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 42

Skill: Conceptual

 

83) Briefly define the availability heuristic. Provide an example.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 46

Skill: Factual

 

84) You are trying to convince your friend to go on a trip with you to the beach. You know your friend loves to swim and spend time sunbathing. However, you also know that your friend has a lot of work to do and that her last trip to the beach she was badly sunburned. Based on information about the way the availability heuristic works, what should you say to your friend that would help convince her to go? What should you avoid saying?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 46–47

Skill: Applied

 

85) Using research by Tversky and Kahneman, describe how providing participants with descriptive information affects their use of base rate information. Why can failing to use the base rate result in errors in judgment?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 48–49

Skill: Conceptual

 

86) Explain how the use of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic can lead to biased estimates.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 49–50

Skill: Conceptual

 

87) Peter has a gambling problem. Using the concept of the illusion of control, how can Peter’s gambling problem be explained?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Applied

 

88) Describe a situation that illustrates the negativity bias.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 51

Skill: Applied

 

89) Although assuming you will experience positive outcomes in life is healthy in many ways, the optimistic bias also has drawbacks. Describe one potential drawback to the optimistic bias. Be sure to include a definition of this concept in your answer.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 51–52

Skill: Conceptual

 

90) Describe the two types of counterfactual thinking. How may counterfactual thinking be useful?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 52

 

91) Briefly define mood dependent memory.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 54

Skill: Factual

 

92) What is the perseverance effect? Provide an example and explain how it relates to stereotyping.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 43

Skill: Factual

 

93) Compare and contrast automatic and controlled processing. Include information on where each type of processing is housed in the brain. When are you more likely to engage in controlled processing over automatic processing?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 44–45

Skill: Conceptual

 

94) What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic? How can anchors influence our moods or outlook on life? Refer to an experiment from your text to support your argument.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 49–50

Topic: Factual

 

95) Suppose you have developed a new weight loss drug which, on average, helps overweight and obese individuals lose up to 15% of their body weight. Using information about the framing heuristic, describe both an effective and ineffective way of marketing your new product and explain why one strategy is likely to be more successful over the other strategy.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 50

Skill: Applied

 

96) What is the negativity bias? When is it likely to be used, and why might it be of benefit? Demonstrate your point with an example of when the negativity bias may be advantageous.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 51

 

97) Pick two of the four heuristics described in your textbook and discuss how they can bias our thinking. What are the advantages or benefits to using heuristics?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 51–56

Skill: Conceptual

 

98) Tom sustained serious injuries in a car accident and was paralyzed from the neck down. Provide an example of how Tom could engage in counterfactual thinking and feel better about his situation. Describe an example of how Tom could engage in counterfactual thinking and feel worse about his situation. Include a definition of counterfactual thinking in your answer.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 52

Skill: Applied

 

99) How does mood influence the way we remember and learn information? Describe at least two ways in which mood affects cognition. If you had an important decision to make, would it better to be in a positive or negative mood? Why?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 53–54

Skill: Conceptual

 

1) __________ is the way people communicate in order to influence other people’s attitudes and behaviours.

  1. Persuasion
  2. Social perception
  3. Social psychology
  4. Social interaction

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

2) What type of model proposes that persuasion occurs through two routes?

  1. A Yale model
  2. A heuristic model
  3. A dual process model
  4. A two-part persuasion model

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

3) According to Hovland and colleagues, a measure will be accepted based on which three factors?

  1. Communicator, cogency, and audience
  2. Persuasiveness, content, and audience
  3. Communicator, content, and audience
  4. Persuasiveness, cogency, and salience

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Factual

 

4) Compared with an attitude formed through the peripheral route, an attitude formed through the central route will:

  1. be more likely to produce a negative outcome.
  2. remain more resistant to persuasion.
  3. exert no impact on cognition and behaviour.
  4. be influenced only by external cues.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Conceptual

 

5) Chris is buying a last minute gift for his father’s birthday and he doesn’t have much time pick it out. He decides to purchase a digital camera because it has a big sign next to it that says “Sale.” Chris probably arrived at his decision through:

  1. peripheral route processing.
  2. central route processing.
  3. controlled thinking.
  4. reasoned action.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Applied

 

6) Two key factors identified as important for central route processing are:

  1. unbiased thinking and intelligence.
  2. intelligence and motivation.
  3. ability and motivation.
  4. ability and intelligence.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

7) One counterintuitive finding in the study of persuasion suggests that:

  1. when processing through the central route we may be persuaded by strong arguments.
  2. ability and motivation are needed for central route processing.
  3. when processing through the peripheral route we may be persuaded by the attractiveness of the source.
  4. when processing through the peripheral route we may be persuaded by weak arguments if the message is presented in an attractive manner.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 119

Skill: Factual

 

8) The ____________ is a model which proposes that there are two routes, central and peripheral, that an individual may take when processing a message.

  1. Elaboration Likelihood Model
  2. Route Model of Communication
  3. Hovland Model of Communication
  4. Heuristics Model of Communication

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 120

Skill: Factual

 

9) When tennis star Roger Federer appears in commercials for Gillete Razor Blades, he is considered:

  1. the model.
  2. the source.
  3. the endorser.
  4. the spokesperson.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 120

Skill: Applied

 

10) Attractiveness of the source becomes less important when:

  1. the consumer values the credibility of the source.
  2. the consumer does not have motivation.
  3. when the source is the same gender as the consumer.
  4. when the source is younger than the consumer.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 120

Skill: Conceptual

 

11) The sleeper effect is less likely to occur if:

  1. a person is informed of the source beforehand.
  2. the source is not attractive to the consumer.
  3. the product is straightforward.
  4. the intelligence of the consumer is low.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Factual

 

12) Dawn is persuaded by her roommate to cut her hair short even though her mom has been trying to persuade her to get it cut short for years. Dawn may have been more easily persuaded by her roommate because:

  1. her mother is not very smart.
  2. her mother did not present a strong argument.
  3. her roommate has more perceived similarities.
  4. she is processing information through the central route.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Conceptual

 

13) How can an advertiser increase the persuasiveness of a message?

  1. Use a source that shares similarities to the target audience
  2. Use an attractive source
  3. Use a source that is perceived to have credibility
  4. Use a source that shares similarities to the target audience, use an attractive source, and use a source that is perceived to have credibility

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 120–121

Skill: Applied

 

14) Changing the likeability, attractiveness, and credibility of the source are all methods that involve:

  1. the peripheral route to persuasion.
  2. the central route to persuasion.
  3. the sleeper effect.
  4. deception.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Conceptual

 

15) Jane is persuaded to buy a new type of iPod because someone at school that she admires and likes just bought one. Jane is being persuaded through:

  1. the peripheral route.
  2. the central route.
  3. controlled processing.
  4. deception.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Applied

 

16) Valence refers to the:

  1. credibility of the source.
  2. degree of attraction or aversion that a person feels towards a specific object, event, or idea.
  3. way in which a message is constructed.
  4. way in which a message is tailored to a specific audience.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Factual

 

17) Which of the following is true regarding research on persuasion?

  1. We are more likely to consider the arguments of strangers than those of peers
  2. The sleeper effect refers to decreased persuasion from credible sources over time
  3. We are more likely to vote for political candidates of the same-sex than of the opposite-sex
  4. Incidental similarities always increase persuasion, regardless of situational factors

 

Answer: c

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 121

Skill: Conceptual

 

18) Researchers gave participants one of three messages, each differing in the level of fear, about the dangers of not practicing oral hygiene. The message that resulted in the most improvement of oral hygiene had a(n) ________ level of fear.

  1. absent
  2. mild
  3. very high
  4. extreme

 

Answer: b

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Factual

 

19) An attempt to provoke fear in the audience in order to persuade them not to do something is known as a__________.

  1. political persuasion
  2. reactionary message
  3. fear–based appeal
  4. valence-based appeal

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Factual

 

20) Which of the following statements about fear-based appeals is FALSE?

  1. Fear-based appeals attempt to provoke fear in order to change the behaviour of the audience.
  2. The effectiveness of fear-based appeals varies.
  3. Fear-based appeals seem to be most effective when they attempt to prevent a negative outcome.
  4. Fear-based appeals seem to be most effective when they attempt to promote a positive outcome.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

21) A fear-based appeal would be most UNSUCCESSFUL when:

  1. people are so afraid of the message that they feel too hopeless to act.
  2. the appeal puts the audience on the defensive.
  3. they attempt to prevent a negative outcome.
  4. either people are so afraid of the message that they feel too hopeless to act or when the appeal puts the audience on the defensive.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

22) A fear-based appeal might be MOST successful under which of the following conditions?

  1. When the message contains information on how to avoid the problem or implement a solution
  2. When the message makes people extremely frightened
  3. When the messages is boring and straightforward
  4. When the message is not too specific

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

23) A public service advertisement intended to promote healthy habits which features young people having fun while eating healthy snacks and exercising has:

  1. a positive valence.
  2. a negative valence.
  3. no valence.
  4. reactance.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Applied

 

24) Research shows that longer messages are sometimes more effective. However, the length of the message should matter less when:

  1. the information is processed via the central route.
  2. the information is processed via the peripheral route.
  3. the message has a positive valence.
  4. the consumer has a short attention span.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

25) Sally is running for governor and is producing a campaign advertisement defending her stance on immigration reform. Research shows that the MOST effective advertisement she could make would:

  1. outline her plans for immigration reform without mentioning her opponent’s plan.
  2. be shorter and vaguer than her opponent’s.
  3. present both her and her opponent’s views, and refute her opponent’s position.
  4. focus just on slandering her opponent.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

26) When you form an opinion on an issue you care deeply about, you are MORE likely to:

  1. process information through the central route.
  2. process information through the peripheral route.
  3. be persuaded by the attractiveness of the source.
  4. be persuaded by the attractiveness of the source and process information through the peripheral route.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

27) If Doug is passionate about his views on the issue of abortion, which of the following is a true statement?

  1. He will be resistant to counter-attitudinal messages.
  2. He will be receptive to counter-attitudinal messages.
  3. He will be persuaded by the attractiveness of the source.
  4. He will process new information about this issue through the peripheral route.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Conceptual

 

28) ______________ is the degree to which the economic or social outcome promoted in the message is important to the receiver.

  1. The sleeper effect
  2. Outcome-relevant involvement
  3. Incentive
  4. Socio-economic status

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

29) A message promoting a new tax credit for first time home buyers is more likely to affect people who are thinking about buying their first home because:

  1. they have higher outcome-relevant involvement.
  2. they have significantly lower outcome-relevant involvement.
  3. they have slightly lower outcome-relevant involvement.
  4. they have lower outcome-relevant involvement and therefore are more likely to process information through the central route.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Applied

 

30) When outcome relevance is _______, people are more likely to ___________.

  1. low; engage in central route processing
  2. low; engage in peripheral route processing
  3. high; engage in peripheral route processing
  4. high; use heuristics

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

31) Compared to university-aged adults, middle-aged adults:

  1. are more susceptible to attitude change.
  2. are less susceptible to attitude change.
  3. exhibit the same amount of susceptibility to attitude change.
  4. are less likely to buy products advertised on television.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

32) What type of persuasive message will be more effective for women compared to men?

  1. A message delivered via email
  2. A message delivered via mail
  3. A message delivered face to face
  4. A message with weak arguments

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

33) You have designed a persuasive message to convince people to donate money to a charity for children’s cancer. The message is designed to stir up thoughts of love and caring. Based on research presented in your textbook, this message will be more persuasive for:

  1. older adults.
  2. teenagers.
  3. younger adults.
  4. young men.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Applied

 

34) Which statement about individuals with a high need for cognition is FALSE?

  1. They enjoy thinking abstractly.
  2. They are likely to be persuaded by messages that can withstand scrutiny.
  3. They are more likely to default to central route processing.
  4. They tend to avoid situations in which they need to think abstractly.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Factual

 

35) Individuals with low need for cognition are more likely to be persuaded by ___________, rather than by____________.

  1. the quality of the message; peripheral route cues
  2. peripheral route cues; the quality of the message
  3. the gender of the source; peripheral route cues
  4. the credibility of the source; peripheral route cues

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Conceptual

 

36) Joe is gearing up to deliver a campaign speech to a group of individuals who he believes have a high need for cognition. Prior to delivering his speech, Joe should focus his efforts on which of the following?

  1. Developing a strong argument for his views
  2. Preparing a very long speech
  3. Dressing very attractively
  4. Preparing a very short speech

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Applied

 

37) In order to improve a campaign advertisement so that it is more appealing to someone with low need for cognition, you could:

  1. make the advertisement longer.
  2. make the advertisement more intellectually stimulating.
  3. use a more attractive source.
  4. elaborate on all of the complex issues involved in the campaign.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Conceptual

 

38) An individual who is _________ will be most likely to change their behaviours to the demands of a particular situation.

  1. high in self-monitoring
  2. low in self-monitoring
  3. low in self-consciousness
  4. low in self-awareness

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Factual

 

39) When choosing a partner, high self-monitors are more likely to choose _________; whereas, low self monitors are more likely to choose ____________.

  1. an attractive partner with a negative personality; an unattractive partner with a positive personality
  2. an attractive partner with a positive personality; an unattractive partner with a negative personality
  3. an unattractive partner with a negative personality; an attractive partner with a positive personality
  4. an unattractive partner with a positive personality; an attractive partner with a negative personality

 

Answer: a

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Factual

 

40) You want to persuade your friend to stop binge drinking. In order to increase the persuasiveness of your argument, you should present information on the health risks of binge drinking to her when she is:

  1. in a bad mood.
  2. in a good mood.
  3. distracted.
  4. preoccupied.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Applied

 

41) Dan is watching television and is highly motivated to process a message delivered by a political candidate. However, he is distracted by loud noises outside his house. In this circumstance, Dan is likely to process the candidate’s message:

  1. through the central route.
  2. through the peripheral route.
  3. through controlled processing.
  4. by carefully considering the quality of the arguments.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Applied

 

42) Distraction can sometimes enhance the effectiveness of a message because it does which of the following?

  1. It encourages central route processing.
  2. It helps the receiver focus on the message.
  3. It prevents the receiver from developing counterarguments.
  4. It increases outcome-relevant involvement.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

43) When would be the best time to ask your parents for money?

  1. When they are in a good mood
  2. When they are in a bad mood
  3. Their answer will be the same no matter what mood they are in
  4. When they are processing information through the central route

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

44) Why are people easier to persuade when they are in a good mood versus a bad mood?

  1. Due to the social proof effect
  2. Due to the increased cognitive processing associated with good moods
  3. Because of the inoculation effect
  4. Because people want to stay in a good mood

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

45) Why should advertisers be careful about the physical cues they use in messages?

  1. Because physical cues only impact audiences prone to central route processing
  2. Because physical cues can vary in meaning for different audiences
  3. Because physical cues never impact persuasion
  4. Because physical cues are always offensive

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

46) Persuasion in Western culture may be easier than in some other cultures because:

  1. Western culture emphasizes a broad sense of self.
  2. Western culture emphasizes collective attitudes and beliefs.
  3. Western audiences always use peripheral route processing.
  4. Western culture emphasizes the attitudes and beliefs of the individual.

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

47) Which of the following is NOT one of Cialdini’s “weapons of influence”?

  1. Liking
  2. Social proof
  3. Classification
  4. Commitment and consistency

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 126

Skill: Conceptual

 

48) A political candidate sends a signed picture to everyone in her district, along with a letter soliciting campaign donations. This candidate is employing the ____________ tactic.

  1. reciprocation
  2. social proof
  3. sleeper effect
  4. scarcity

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 126

Skill: Applied

 

49) If voters who initially favour a particular political candidate are told that another candidate is ahead in the polls, they may change their voting behaviour. This is an example of the ________ tactic of persuasion.

  1. social proof
  2. authority
  3. inoculation
  4. reactance

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 127

Skill: Factual

 

50) You decide to buy skinny jeans because you notice that other people are wearing skinny jeans. This is called ________.

  1. reactance
  2. the like-others effect
  3. inoculation
  4. the bandwagon effect

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 127

Skill: Factual

 

51) Why do researchers believe that the reciprocation norm operates on the need to restore balance and not necessarily because of our selfish desire to receive recognition for our acts?

  1. Because research supports the idea that we do not like to receive recognition for our acts of kindness
  2. Because people only seem to reciprocate when the other individual is aware of the favour
  3. Because research supports the idea that humans are not selfish
  4. Because people seem to reciprocate even when the other individual will not know they returned the favour

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 127

Skill: Conceptual

 

52) If you are using the commitment and consistency weapon of influence to solicit donations for an environmental group, an effective question to pose prior to asking for money would be:

  1. Do you have any money?
  2. What’s your name?
  3. Do you have ten minutes to talk?
  4. Do you want to help save the environment?

 

Answer: d

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 127

Skill: Applied

 

53) Suppose you are trying to persuade people to volunteer their time to help build houses this coming Saturday. Based on the commitment and consistency principle, which of the following represents the most effective strategy?

  1. Leave a voicemail message describing the volunteer opportunity
  2. Ask people to write their name on the volunteer sign-up sheet
  3. Send people an email describing the volunteer opportunity
  4. Send people a letter and email describing the volunteer opportunity

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 127

Skill: Applied

 

54) You are in a bookstore and an individual walks up to you and says, “The store is closing early, you will have to leave.” You would be more likely to obey this request if:

  1. the individual is older.
  2. the individual is very young.
  3. the individuals is wearing a nametag that says “Manager.”
  4. the individual is dressed in plain clothes.

 

Answer: c

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 128

Skill: Applied

 

55) In the absence of an obvious punishment for disobeying a command, research has shown that people will:

  1. not feel the need to obey the authority figure.
  2. obey the authority figure anyway.
  3. argue with the authority figure.
  4. disregard and ignore the authority figure.

 

Answer: b

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC

Page Reference: 128

Skill: Factual

 

56) You are up late one evening watching an infomercial which is advertising a new ‘miracle’ cleaning product. If you call tonight you can get extra bottles of the product at a cheaper price, but the deal supposedly only lasts for the next 20 minutes. Which strategy is being employed to persuade you to buy the cleaning product?

  1. The liking “weapon” of influence
  2. The authority “weapon” of influence
  3. The commitment and consistency “weapon” of influence
  4. The scarcity “weapon” of influence

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 128

Skill: Applied

 

57) A group of individuals who support anti-smoking laws are about to listen to a counter-attitudinal message on the issue. Which of the following would reduce the chance that the group would be persuaded by the message?

  1. Forewarning the group
  2. Using a credible source
  3. Getting people to nod their head in an up and down motion
  4. Having a message with strong arguments

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 129

Skill: Applied

 

58) _________ is the process of being informed ahead of time that a favoured attitude will be challenged.

  1. The sleeper effect
  2. Forewarning
  3. Intuition
  4. The chameleon effect

 

Answer: b

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 129

Skill: Factual

 

59) Why does forewarning seem to reduce the effect of a counter-attitudinal persuasive message?

  1. Because it increases the use of heuristics
  2. Because it automatically decreases the likability of the source
  3. Because it automatically decreases the credibility of the source
  4. Because it allows people to prepare to resist the message

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 129

Skill: Conceptual

 

60) __________theory argues that when individuals feel threatened, they instinctively want to restore their freedom.

  1. Conflict
  2. Opposition
  3. Reactance
  4. Resistance

 

Answer: c

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 129

Skill: Factual

 

61) The concept of psychological reactance would suggest that parents who want to prevent drug use among their children should probably avoid which of the following strategies?

  1. Modelling appropriate behaviour for their children
  2. Exposing children to similar others who live a drug-free life
  3. Developing quality arguments against the use of drugs
  4. Forbidding children to use drugs under any circumstances

 

Answer: d

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 129

Skill: Applied

 

62) ________ benefit from loss framing, while ________ become more likely with gain framing.

  1. Rare behaviours; frequent behaviours
  2. Low-risk behaviours; risky behaviours
  3. Frequent behaviours; rare behaviours
  4. Risky behaviours; low-risk behaviours

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 130

Skill: Factual

 

63) When people were uncertain whether they would test positive or negative on an HIV test, they were more persuaded to get tested when ________ was used than when ________ was used.

  1. gain framing; loss framing
  2. goal framing; loss framing
  3. gain framing; cost framing
  4. loss framing; grain framing

 

Answer: d

Diff: Challenging

Type: MC

Page Reference: 130

Skill: Factual

 

64) Exposing people to weak attacks on their favoured position so that they will form stronger resistance to subsequent attacks is a technique known as:

  1. inoculation.
  2. forewarning.
  3. the sleeper effect.
  4. psychological reactance.

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC

Page Reference: 130

Skill: Factual

 

65) According to your textbook, __________ are less capable of employing resistance tactics like inoculation.

  1. middle-aged adults
  2. young adults
  3. women
  4. children

 

Answer: d

Diff: Easy

Type: MC

Page Reference: 130

Skill: Factual

 

66) Central route processing is more likely to occur when we have the ability and motivation to process information.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

67) If Sally has formed an attitude towards smoking through the central route, her attitude will be more resistant to your subsequent persuasion attempts.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Applied

 

68) The Elaboration Likelihood Model proposes that there are two different routes, central and peripheral, that an individual may take when processing information.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 120

Skill: Factual

 

69) For a fear-based appeal to be most effective, it should be as scary as possible.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

70) Including instructions on how to overcome ‘the problem’ described in a fear-based appeal will enhance its effectiveness.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

71) Complex and convoluted arguments lead to greater central processing.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

72) One way to increase the likelihood of central route processing would be to increase the personal relevance of an issue to an audience.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Conceptual

 

73) When a topic is unfamiliar to both men and women, women are more easily persuaded than men.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

74) Men are more persuaded by face to face persuasive attempts compared with impersonal strategies (e.g., email advertising).

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: b

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

75) Children are more likely to use peripheral than central processing.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

76) Even though Bob cares deeply about the issue of drunk driving, he will process a message about the subject through the peripheral route if he is in a hurry.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Easy

Type: TF

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Applied

 

77) The effectiveness of persuasive tactics may differ between individualist and collectivist cultures.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Moderate

Type: TF

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

78) Persuasion is always something to be resisted.

  1. True
  2. False

 

Answer: a

Diff: Challenging

Type: TF

Page Reference: 130

Skill: Conceptual

 

79) Describe how attitudes formed through the central route differ from attitudes formed through the peripheral route.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 118

Skill: Conceptual

 

80) What is the sleeper effect? When is this effect less likely to occur?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Easy

Type: ES

Page Reference: 120

Skill: Factual

 

81) How does the attractiveness of the source affect the power of a persuasive message? Are there limits to the influence of attractive sources in persuasive attempts? Why or why not?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 120–121

Skill: Conceptual

 

82) What is outcome-relevant involvement and why is it important to consider when designing a persuasive message?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 123

Skill: Factual

 

83) Describe high and low self-monitoring. Why is self-monitoring relevant to persuasion?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 124

Skill: Conceptual

 

84) Would you always want an audience to focus intently on your message? Elaborate on why the use of distraction could enhance the persuasiveness of a message in some cases.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 124–125

Skill: Conceptual

 

85) You hope to convince your friend to babysit in your place so you can go to a concert with your new boyfriend. Based on information presented in your textbook on the relationship between mood and persuasion, would it be best to ask her when she is a very good mood, a neutral mood, or a bad mood? Explain why.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Applied

 

86) How might persuasion and the use of persuasion tactics differ across cultures?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Conceptual

 

87) You are charged with recruiting 10 volunteers to help out a local animal shelter this weekend. Using Cialdini’s commitment and consistency ‘weapon of influence,’ describe how you could increase your chances of persuading people to volunteer their time?

 

Answer:

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

 

Page Reference: 125

Skill: Applied

 

88) Distinguish between peripheral route processing and central route processing. What determines whether people are likely to process information through the central route compared with the peripheral route? Describe at least two important factors that help determine the route people take.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 118–126

Skill: Conceptual

 

89) Suppose you are going to be giving a presentation to stop illegal online sharing of music and movies. You want to convince the crowd of your perspective, but your argument is weak. Consider source, message, and audience characteristics and describe one way, for each category, you could increase the persuasiveness of your argument.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 120–125

Skill: Conceptual

 

90) Under what circumstances are fear-based appeals less effective? If you were designing a fear-based appeal, describe what you could do to make it more effective.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Conceptual

 

91) Linda is distracted by her kids while she is reading an article touting the benefits of a new fad diet. Describe how the length of the message will influence her susceptibility to the persuasive communication. If Linda were processing the message through the central route would the length of the message have the same impact? Why or why not?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 122

Skill: Applied

 

92) Holly is trying to solicit donations for breast cancer research. Pick three of Cialdini’s six ‘weapons of influence’ and describe how she could use them to persuade people to donate money.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 126–128

Skill: Applied

 

93) Define the concepts of forewarning and inoculation. Explain how they can be used to help people resist persuasive attempts.

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Challenging

Type: ES

Page Reference: 128–130

Skill: Factual

 

94) Describe psychological reactance and provide a real-world example. Based on the notion of psychological reactance, why would public health officials have to be careful about the wording of health messages?

 

Answer:

 

 

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES

Page Reference: 129–130

Skill: Factual