Traditions & Encounters A Brief Global History Volume 1, 4th Edition by Jerry Bentley – Test Bank

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Traditions & Encounters A Brief Global History Volume 1, 4th Edition by Jerry Bentley – Test Bank

Chapter 06

The Unification of China

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 101)Sima Qian was
    A. the founder of the Qin dynasty.
    B. the leading Legalist scholar.
    C. a great Chinese historian.
    D. the Chinese rebel who seized control during the Han dynasty.
    E. the Chinese heaven.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 102)The Qin and Han dynasties
    A. copied the ruling techniques of the Aryans.
    B. did not push for centralization as thoroughly as the Achaemenids did.
    C. imposed order on India.
    D. never mastered the administrative brilliance and unification of the Zhou period.
    E. went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unity.

 

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  1. (p. 102)The collection of Confucian sayings and teachings is known as the
    A. Mencius.
    B. Memoirs of a Philosopher.
    C. Analects.
    D. Reflections on a Quiet Life.
    E. Reflections on Things at Hand.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 102)The philosophy of Confucius
    A. formed a thoroughly practical and secular approach to life.
    B. called for a strict adherence to the will of the gods.
    C. addressed abstruse philosophical questions.
    D. was deeply religious.
    E. was inspired by the Hindu Upanishads.

 

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  1. (p. 102)Confucius believed that political and social harmony
    A. came from a retreat into a quiet life of meditation.
    B. arose from the proper ordering of human relationships.
    C. depended on the proper structuring of a strong centralized government.
    D. was available to human beings if they expressed a deep devotion to the gods.
    E. could only be imposed by a powerful king.

 

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  1. (p. 102)Junzi
    A. were Chinese priests who argued that Confucius’s philosophy was too secular.
    B. was the honorific of the Qin emperor who united China for the first time.
    C. was the classic compilation of Daoist thought.
    D. were Confucian “superior individuals” who took an active role in public affairs.
    E. were the Confucian model of enlightened thinkers who withdrew from society.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 103)The Chinese concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure, was expressed by the word
    A. junzi.
    B. ren.
    C. li.
    D. xiao.
    E. vedas.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 103)When discussing qualities that were essential to good character, Confucius used which of the following terms to mean an attitude of kindness or a sense of humanity?
    A. dao
    B. xiao
    C. maodun
    D. dasas
    E. ren

 

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  1. (p. 103)Which of the following Confucian terms, with its translation, is NOT correct?
    A. ren—benevolence
    B. li—passion
    C. xiao—filial piety
    D. dao—way
    E. junzi—superior individuals

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 103)Through the efforts of Confucius, the literary works of the Zhou period
    A. became the core texts of traditional Chinese education.
    B. were replaced by newer and more important texts.
    C. were completely destroyed.
    D. were translated from the original cuneiform.
    E. were included in the Persian Gathas.

 

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  1. (p. 103)The most learned man of the Period of the Warring States, who served as the chief spokesman for Confucius’s philosophy, was
    A. Xunzi.
    B. Mencius.
    C. Laozi.
    D. Shang Yang.
    E. Shihuangdi.

 

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  1. (p. 103)At the heart of Mencius’s philosophy was the belief that
    A. human nature was essentially good.
    B. it was better to withdraw from life and follow a path of inaction.
    C. a repressive government was the best approach to curbing human selfishness.
    D. deep devotion would bring reward from the gods.
    E. human nature was essentially bad.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 104)The Chinese philosopher who proposed that strong social discipline was the best means of bringing society into order was
    A. Confucius.
    B. Mencius.
    C. Laozi.
    D. Xunzi.
    E. Shihuangdi.

 

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  1. (p. 105)The philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life of reflection and introspection was
    A. Legalism.
    B. Confucianism.
    C. Daoism.
    D. Mencianism.
    E. Platonism.

 

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  1. (p. 105)According to tradition, the founder of Daoism is considered to be
    A. Xunzi.
    B. Laozi.
    C. Zhuangzi.
    D. Mencius.
    E. Wudi.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 105)Chinese philosophers often spoke of which term, meaning “the way”?
    A. junzi
    B. li
    C. ren
    D. dasas
    E. dao

 

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  1. (p. 105)The most important text of Daoism is the
    A. Book of Songs.
    B. Wuwei.
    C. Daodejing.
    D. Analects.
    E. Dao of Reflection.

 

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  1. (p. 105)The Daoist thinkers spoke of wuwei, which stood for
    A. disengagement from the affairs of the world.
    B. the mandate of heaven.
    C. a socially active lifestyle.
    D. the notion of filial piety.
    E. a matriarchal world order.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 106)What was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to China after the Period of the Warring States?
    A. Confucianism
    B. Draconianism
    C. Daoism
    D. Legalism
    E. neo-Confucianism

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 106)What was the Chinese political philosophy that called for clear and strict laws?
    A. Confucianism
    B. Legalism
    C. Daoism
    D. Buddhism
    E. Hinduism

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 106)Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China’s subjects
    A. through religious devotion.
    B. through ruthless strengthening and expansion of the state.
    C. by adhering to certain classic Confucian concepts such as ren and li.
    D. with a well-meaning government designed to bring out the inherent goodness of human beings.
    E. by building peasant support through democratic reforms.

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 106)In an effort to bring about effective governmental control, the Legalists
    A. relied on the example set by hard-working junzi.
    B. stressed that the peasants should follow the Daoist doctrine of inaction.
    C. established the principle of collective responsibility before the law.
    D. stressed the need for education.
    E. suggested that each individual Hindu focus on his or her caste duties.

 

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  1. (p. 106)The Book of Lord Shang is a work that helped develop the doctrine of
    A. Legalism.
    B. Confucianism.
    C. Daoism.
    D. Buddhism.
    E. Zoroastrianism.

 

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  1. (p. 107)The man who first declared himself emperor of a unified China was
    A. Liu Bang.
    B. Prince Wu.
    C. Qin Shihuangdi.
    D. Wang Mang.
    E. Prince Yu.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 106)How did Shang Yang weaken the economic position of the hereditary aristocratic classes in order to strengthen the Qin state?
    A. imposing major tax increases on aristocrats
    B. ending the practice of hereditary inheritance
    C. forcing aristocrats to serve in the military
    D. burning aristocratic lands to reduce surpluses
    E. granting land rights to individual cultivators

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 107-108)Which one of the following was NOT one of Qin Shihuangdi’s policies?
    A. strong centralized rule
    B. support of traditional learning
    C. huge public works projects
    D. disarming regional military forces
    E. building protective walls

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 107)The Chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was
    A. Qin Shihuangdi.
    B. Wudi.
    C. Liu Bang.
    D. Wang Mang.
    E. Jiang.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 107-108)Of the following, Qin Shihuangdi’s most important contribution to China was
    A. building the precursor to the Great Wall.
    B. his elaborate tomb, which tells us much about the Qin religious orientation.
    C. his appreciation and support of education.
    D. establishing a precedent for centralized imperial rule.
    E. his conversion to Buddhism.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 108)The Chinese script was standardized during the reign of
    A. Liu Bang.
    B. Jiang.
    C. Wang Mang.
    D. Wudi.
    E. Qin Shihuangdi.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 108)Fifteen thousand terra-cotta soldiers were unearthed in the tomb of
    A. Maodun.
    B. Wang Mang.
    C. Xiongnu.
    D. Liu Bang.
    E. Qin Shihuangdi.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 108)The founder of the Han dynasty was
    A. Wudi.
    B. Liu Bang.
    C. Shihuangdi.
    D. Wang Mang.
    E. Jiang Zemin.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 108)The dividing line between the Early Han and the Later Han is marked by
    A. a bloody civil war.
    B. invasion by the Xiongnu.
    C. the brief rule of a usurper.
    D. a brief resurgence of Qin power.
    E. the appearance of Buddhism in China.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 109)The Han philosophy of rule was
    A. the high point of Legalism.
    B. dependent on the constant and unrelenting use of terror.
    C. dependent on the social and political activism of Daoist ministers of state.
    D. a continuation of Qin policies of centralization.
    E. copied from Mauryan India.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 109)The greatest and most dynamic Han emperor, known for his administrative centralization and imperial expansion, was
    A. Wudi.
    B. Liu Bang.
    C. Wang Mang.
    D. Shihuangdi.
    E. Confucius.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 109)The Chinese emperor who started an imperial institute for higher learning was
    A. Han Wudi.
    B. Qin Shihuangdi.
    C. Liu Bang.
    D. King Yu.
    E. Mencius.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 109)In 124 B.C.E., Han Wudi transformed China by
    A. allowing the peasants to divide up the land into privately owned plots.
    B. establishing an imperial university.
    C. completing the Great Wall.
    D. creating a modern standing army.
    E. invading and conquering Korea.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 110)Which group of people was the greatest military threat to the Han dynasty?
    A. the Hmong
    B. the Koreans
    C. the Mongols
    D. the Japanese
    E. the Xiongnu

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 110)Modu was the
    A. minister of state whose usurpation of the throne brought an end to the Former Han period.
    B. most successful leader of the Xiongnu.
    C. founder of the Han dynasty.
    D. most powerful Han emperor.
    E. last Qin emperor.

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 111)Which popular treatise emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women?
    A. Analects
    B. Admonitions for Women
    C. Daodejing
    D. Book of Songs
    E. Lessons for Women

 

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

 

 

 

  1. (p. 115)As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy,
    A. the classically Confucian concern for peasants became more pronounced.
    B. social distinctions became almost invisible.
    C. the status of women improved dramatically.
    D. the gap between rich and poor grew dangerously large.
    E. Hinduism increasingly appealed to the lower classes.

 

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

  1. (p. 116)Wang Mang
    A. was primarily known for his adherence to Legalist doctrines.
    B. was famous for creating a new and lasting dynasty.
    C. stood as the greatest single military threat during the Later Han period.
    D. was a Daoist term referring to disengagement from the world.
    E. carried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the “socialist emperor.”

 

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 105)The legendary founder of Daoism was Laozi.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 102, 105)The Daoist virtue of removal from the affairs of the world was known as junzi.
    FALSE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 102)Junzi were Confucian “superior individuals” who took an active role in public affairs.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 103)Mencius was the post-Confucian scholar who believed that human nature was basically good.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 106)Shang Yang was the most powerful Han emperor.
    FALSE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 104)Xunzi was the post-Confucian scholar who believed that human beings selfishly pursued their own interests.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. (p. 108)Liu Bang was the founder of the Han dynasty.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. (p. 107)The first proclaimed emperor of the unified Chinese state was Qin Shihuangdi.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. (p. 116)Han Wudi was known as the “socialist emperor.”
    FALSE

 

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

  1. (p. 102)Confucius was the philosopher who believed that political and social harmony arose from the proper ordering of human relationships.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

Essay Questions

  1. In the Daodejing, Laozi stated, “There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, yet for attacking things that are hard and strong there is nothing that surpasses it.” How is this statement representative of Daoist thought?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. The Chinese have, arguably, the longest-lasting and most stable political structure of any powerful state in world history. What factors might help to explain this fact?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. Laozi said in the Daodejing, “. . . practice non-interference in order to win the empire.” What did he mean by these words? How does this quote demonstrate the fundamental difference between Confucianism and Daoism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Describe Legalist philosophy and how it influenced the leaders that brought order and centralization to China after a long period of unrest.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Why did the political chaos of the Period of the Warring States give rise to philosophies such as Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast the philosophies of Mencius and Xunzi. How did their contrasting views of human nature influence their political theories? In what ways were they still operating within a Confucian framework?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Examine the Chinese view of action and inaction as expressed in philosophy. Could this view change the world for the better?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Chinese Daoist philosophers spoke of the dao, meaning “the way.” What did they mean by this word? How did they use their philosophy to attack the philosophies of others?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Discuss the significance of social order in Chinese thought. What part does family life play in the Chinese concept of social order?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the role that Qin Shihuangdi played in the unification of China. What were the foundations of his political philosophy?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Unification of China

  1. Discuss the role of human nature in Chinese philosophical thought. How did the major Chinese philosophies view human nature? Compare this view to those of other civilizations we have covered.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Discuss the political and social reforms of Wang Mang. What led to the need for these reforms? How successful were they?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

  1. Examine the reign of Han Wudi. What challenges did he face and how did he overcome them? How has he influenced Chinese history?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. Examine the philosophical school known as Daoism. Who were the founding thinkers of this philosophy? What are the basic tenets of this thought? What would be the political consequences of being a Daoist?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Examine the thought of Confucius. What are the basic tenets of this philosophy? How has his philosophy influenced Chinese history?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Discuss the difference between the ruling philosophies of Qin Shihuangdi and the later Han emperors. Which emperors were more successful at maintaining order, and why?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. Examine Map 6.1, China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E. How was Qin Shihuangdi able to create a state that large? How successful were his methods in the long run?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. Examine the defensive walls on Map 6.1, China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207 B.C.E. Why were they constructed in the north? Were there reasons for constructing the walls other than purely defensive ones?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. Compare maps 6.1 and 6.2. How was the Han state different than the Qin? Discuss the threat posed by the Xiongnu.

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. Look at the illustration on page 109 of the terra-cotta army surrounding the tomb of Qin Shihuangdi. What could this picture tell us about the splendor of the First Emperor’s reign? Can this picture also give us an insight into the workings of Qin Shihuangdi’s mind?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Unification of China

  1. What does the burial suit on page 115 tell us about the life and death of the wealthy classes during the Han period? How did this compare to the lives of peasants during this period?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

 

 

 

  1. Examine the painting of Confucius on page 103. How is he represented in this picture? There were no contemporary portraits of Confucius. What role might a later artist play in helping to create a lasting image of a historical figure?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. In the section from the Analects (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Confucius on Good Government), Confucius points out that, “When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.” How is this statement representative of Confucian thought? In what ways does it disagree with Legalist philosophy?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Read the section from the Analects (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Confucius on Good Government). How do these quotes relate to basic Confucian notions such as ren, li, and junzi?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Who was Laozi? What is the Daoist view of virtue? How can it be used to rule a state? Relate these ideas to those of Confucius.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

 

 

 

  1. What are the fundamental ideas and values of Confucianism? Make sure to include the concepts of ren, li, and xiao in your answer.

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. How does Daoism contrast with Confucianism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. What were the fundamental principles of Legalism, and how do these differ from those of Confucianism and Daoism?

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Topic: Searching for Political and Social Order in China

  1. Why does your book call Qin Shihuangdi “one of the most important figures in Chinese history”?

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Topic: The Unification of China

  1. How did the early Han contribute to the unification of China?

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Topic: The Unification of China

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the role of the Xiongnu in the history of China during the Han.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. What were the most significant technological developments during this period of Chinese history?

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

  1. How did the issue of uneven distribution of wealth contribute to the collapse of the Han?

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

  1. How did the educational system develop in China during this period?

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder
Topic: The Unification of China

  1. What was the role of the family in classical China?

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Topic: From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder

 

Chapter 07

State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 119)Although only fragments remain, some of our best information about early Indian history comes from the Indika, written by
    A. Socrates.
    B. Megasthenes.
    C. Herodotus.
    D. Sima Qian.
    E. Kautalya.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 119)Megasthenes was the
    A. author of the Indika.
    B. Macedonian general who invaded India in 327 B.C.E.
    C. Indian spiritual leader who founded Jainism.
    D. founder of the Mauryan dynasty.
    E. name for a special class of Jain priests.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 119)During the time of the Aryans, the Indian political landscape was characterized by
    A. a series of small kingdoms.
    B. efficient centralized government.
    C. constant bloody civil war.
    D. two equally matched rival states.
    E. a turbulent but profitable union with China.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 120)The Indian political scene changed in 520 B.C.E. when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the
    A. Aryans.
    B. Greeks.
    C. Chinese.
    D. Austronesians.
    E. Persians.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120)In 327 B.C.E., India was thrown into political chaos by the invasion of
    A. the Persian king Cyrus.
    B. the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III.
    C. Chandragupta Maurya.
    D. Alexander of Macedon.
    E. Qin Shihuangdi.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120)Alexander of Macedon’s invasion of which country in 327 B.C.E. caused political chaos that eventually led to the country’s unification?
    A. China
    B. Egypt
    C. India
    D. Persia
    E. Greece

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 120)The kingdom that played a leading role in Indian unification after the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon was
    A. Kalinga.
    B. Magadha.
    C. Bodh Gaya.
    D. Nalanda.
    E. Bengal.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120)The ruler that unified all of northern India beginning in the late 320s B.C.E. was
    A. Cyrus the Great.
    B. Ashoka Maurya.
    C. Chandragupta Maurya.
    D. Harsha.
    E. Shihuangdi.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120)Kautalya was the
    A. main advisor to Chandragupta Maurya.
    B. first ruler to unite all of India.
    C. founder of Jainism.
    D. author of the Ramayana.
    E. Persian ruler who invaded India in 520 B.C.E.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 120-121)The harsh political philosophy of Kautalya is recorded in the
    A. Law Codes of Manu.
    B. Mauryan Law Codes.
    C. Bhagavad Gita.
    D. Daodejing.
    E. Arthashastra.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120-121)The Arthashastra reflected the political philosophy employed by
    A. Ashoka Maurya.
    B. Qin Shihuangdi.
    C. Chandragupta Maurya.
    D. Chandra Gupta.
    E. Cyrus the Great.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 121)The Mauryan emperor Ashoka fought his bloodiest battle against
    A. the Punjab.
    B. Kalinga.
    C. Magadha.
    D. Harsha.
    E. Alexander the Great.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 121)The capital of Ashoka’s empire was
    A. Delhi.
    B. Bodh Gaya.
    C. Pataliputra.
    D. Mahavira.
    E. Banaras.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 121)The high point of Mauryan success came during the reign of
    A. Chandragupta Maurya.
    B. Chandra Gupta II.
    C. Kautalya.
    D. Ashoka.
    E. Harsha.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 121-122)The rock and pillar edicts were issued by
    A. Kautalya.
    B. Harsha.
    C. Hammurabi.
    D. Chandragupta Maurya.
    E. Ashoka.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 122)One of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the
    A. decision to trade exclusively with China.
    B. issue of high administrative costs and soldier and bureaucrat salaries.
    C. failure to invest in sea trade.
    D. decision to borrow money from Persia at high interest rates.
    E. decision to stop trading with the Persians.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 121)After the collapse of the Mauryan empire, India
    A. returned to a series of regional kingdoms.
    B. was immediately reunified in a new empire.
    C. was united by a new wave of invaders.
    D. suffered through a long period of chaos marked by a later Dravidian uprising.
    E. was absorbed into the expanding Chinese empire.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 121)After the collapse of the Mauryan dynasty, northwest India was controlled by the Bactrians, who spoke
    A. Chinese.
    B. Persian.
    C. Latin.
    D. Thai.
    E. Greek.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 122)The Kushans in India reached their peak under
    A. Kanishka.
    B. Chandra Gupta II.
    C. Samudra Gupta.
    D. Ashoka.
    E. Chandragupta.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 123)The year 320 C.E. saw the creation of the Gupta dynasty by
    A. Chandragupta Maurya.
    B. Harsha.
    C. Samudra Gupta.
    D. Chandra Gupta.
    E. Cyrus the Great.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 123)Politically, the Guptas
    A. achieved the same level of centralized power that had existed under the Mauryas.
    B. left local government and administration in the hands of their allies.
    C. created a much larger and more powerful state than the Mauryas did.
    D. brought unprecedented civil strife to India.
    E. were able to bring complete unification to India by spreading a state-supported religion.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 123)The eventual collapse of the Gupta state was partially caused by an invasion of the
    A. Persians.
    B. White Huns.
    C. Chinese
    D. Romans.
    E. Mauryas.

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 124)The success and timing of trade through the Indian Ocean basin largely depended on
    A. controlling the actions of Turkish pirates.
    B. forming a lasting trading partnership with China.
    C. understanding the rhythms of the monsoon winds.
    D. the Indian desire to purchase pepper from the Romans.
    E. the invention of a revolutionary sailing vehicle.

 

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Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. (p. 125)The two great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana,
    A. called for an end to the caste system.
    B. championed the rights of women.
    C. showed the same questioning of divine judgment that would later mark Greek thought.
    D. commonly portrayed women as weak-willed and emotional creatures.
    E. were written during a period when Indian society was strongly matriarchal.

 

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Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

 

 

 

  1. (p. 125)One of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was the
    A. common practice of child marriage.
    B. domination of gods over goddesses in Hindu mythology.
    C. rise in significance of the kshatriya caste.
    D. growing role of women in the marketplace.
    E. lack of any female characters in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

 

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Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. (p. 125)One of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was the
    A. elimination of the brahmins as a caste.
    B. rise of guilds, which essentially served as jati.
    C. rise of the untouchables to an equal status to the rest of the castes.
    D. rise of the kshatriyas to the top position.
    E. complete destruction of the caste system.

 

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Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. (p. 125)Essentially, much of the responsibility for maintaining social order in India during these years fell to
    A. the Mauryan emperors themselves.
    B. the powerful Buddhist monasteries.
    C. the jati.
    D. the writers and philosophers of classical India.
    E. Hindu religious police.

 

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Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

 

 

 

  1. (p. 125)Ancient Indian religion accorded special honor to priests, who were known as
    A. kshatriyas.
    B. brahmins.
    C. vaishyas.
    D. shudras.
    E. jati.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 126)The Charvaka sect believed
    A. that India would be best served by a reaffirmation of the leading role of the brahmins.
    B. that too many Indians were falling into the trap of atheism.
    C. that the gods were figments of the imagination.
    D. in personal salvation through a personal faith in the Buddha.
    E. that everything was divine.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 126)The beliefs of the Charvakas
    A. reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian society.
    B. reaffirmed basic Hindu tenets.
    C. led naturally to the acceptance of Siddhartha Gautama as the Buddha.
    D. strengthened the power of the brahmins.
    E. led to a spiritual reawakening in India.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. (p. 126)Vardhamana Mahavira
    A. eventually became known as “the enlightened one.”
    B. brought about the end of the caste system.
    C. created the last politically unified state in India before the sixteenth century C.E.
    D. was the driving force behind the Charvakas.
    E. was a great Jainist teacher.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 126)Jainism first became popular under the teachings of
    A. Vardhamana Mahavira.
    B. Siddhartha Gautama.
    C. Ashoka Maurya.
    D. Kautalya.
    E. Samudra Gupta.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 127)The religious group that carefully swept the ground before them as they walked to avoid harming any invisible insects was the
    A. Zoroastrians.
    B. Jains.
    C. Buddhists.
    D. Hindus.
    E. Sikhs.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. (p. 127)The Jains adhered to the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls, which is expressed in the word
    A. dharma.
    B. boddhisatva.
    C. nirvana.
    D. ahimsa.
    E. karma.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 127)Ahimsa refers to
    A. the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path.
    B. the Hindu concept of reincarnation.
    C. the Jain principle of nonviolence.
    D. Ashoka Maurya’s policy of enlightened rule.
    E. Kautalya’s policy of harsh statecraft.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 127)The greatest social contribution of the Jains was
    A. their support of the traditional caste system.
    B. the fact that they did not recognize social hierarchies based on caste.
    C. their incorporation into the brahmin caste.
    D. the implementation of their law code after they became the leading religion of India.
    E. their incorporation into the kshatriyas.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. (p. 128)The Buddha called for people to lead lives characterized by
    A. intense meditation.
    B. extreme asceticism.
    C. balance and moderation.
    D. active hedonism.
    E. devotion to a powerful monotheistic god.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 127)The core of Buddhist doctrine was known as the
    A. Three Principles of the People.
    B. Second Triad.
    C. Four Noble Truths.
    D. Ahimsa Path.
    E. Path of Reincarnation.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 130)Theravada Buddhism is also known as
    A. Hinayana Buddhism.
    B. Mahayana Buddhism.
    C. Zen Buddhism.
    D. Chan Buddhism.
    E. Ahimsa Buddhism.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. (p. 129-130)The bodhisattva is associated with which religion?
    A. Buddhism
    B. Judaism
    C. Zoroastrianism
    D. Hinduism
    E. Jainism

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 130-131)The Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna, is the
    A. Mahabharata.
    B. Ramayana.
    C. Bhagavad Gita.
    D. Arthashastra.
    E. Book of Songs.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 132)Hindu ethical teachings held out the promise of salvation precisely to those who
    A. rejected the caste structure and sought to improve their lives.
    B. participated in the world and observed their caste duties.
    C. gave to the poorest members of society.
    D. removed themselves from the world and material concerns.
    E. committed themselves to extreme nonviolence and aestheticism.

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 120)The man that unified northern India and laid the foundation for the first empire to control most of the subcontinent was Chandragupta Maurya.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 120-121)The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian political handbook.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. (p. 130)Mahayana was known as the greater vehicle because it opened the road to salvation for large numbers of people.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 120)Chandra Gupta was the Indian ruler who converted to Buddhism and became a very active missionary for its spread.
    FALSE

 

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Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. (p. 130-131)The Bhagavad Gita is the work containing a dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 127)The Jainist principle of nonviolence to other living things is ahimsa.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 125)The Ramayana is an Indian epic in which the subordinate position of women is demonstrated.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 130)With the spread of Mahayana Buddhism, the Hinayana faith disappeared.
    FALSE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. (p. 123)Chandra Gupta II was the founder of the Gupta dynasty.
    FALSE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. (p. 127)Siddhartha Gautama was the Buddha.
    TRUE

 

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Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

Essay Questions

  1. Describe the beliefs of the Charvaka sect and how they were a reflection of changes in Indian society.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Compare the deep spirituality of ancient India with the secularism of ancient Chinese thought. Why were the two areas so different?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna says, “As a man, casting off old clothes, puts on others and new ones, so the embodied self, casting off old bodies, goes to others and new ones.” What did he mean? How does this comment express the basic ideals of Hinduism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast the reigns of Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka Maurya. What common techniques did the Mauryas pursue?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Compare the unification of India with the unification process in China under the Qin and Han dynasties, and in southwest Asia under the Assyrians and Persians.

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. What social and religious changes worked to transform the caste system during these years? What were the long-term consequences of this transformation?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation
Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. Compare and contrast the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. What were the essential differences between the two? What hope did they give to the common people of India?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation
Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

 

 

 

  1. What sets Jainism apart from other religions, such as Hinduism or Buddhism? How does Jainism compare to Daoism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Despite the efforts of several Indian emperors, Buddhism never became the main religion of India. What factors explain this?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. In what ways did outsiders influence India during this period? In turn, how did India influence the rest of the world and especially Asia?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions
Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Examine Chandragupta Maurya’s effort to unify India. What steps did he take? What factors helped make this process possible?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

 

 

 

  1. Examine the reign of Ashoka Maurya. In what ways was his reign the high point of Mauryan rule? How did he affect the religious beliefs of India and Asia?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Examine the social structure of India during the time of the Mauryas and the Guptas. How did long-distance trade influence India?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. Examine the period of political revitalization under the Guptas. How does this dynasty compare to the earlier Mauryas?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Examine the religious philosophy of Siddhartha Gautama. What are the basic tenets of Buddhism? How did this religion influence India?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

  1. Discuss the formation and beliefs of Jainism. What factors explain why it never became as successful as Hinduism or Buddhism?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Examine the transformation of Hindu thought during this period. Why did it change?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Examine the Mauryan and Gupta dynasties as represented in Map 7.1, The Mauryan and Gupta empires, 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. What did these dynasties have in common? How did trade influence them?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Describe the status of women during this period. Did the level of patriarchy differ based on the class one belonged to?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

 

 

 

  1. Examine the picture of the Buddha on page 128. Why would the Buddha be portrayed in this manner? Why would the representation be so stylized?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Examine the carving of the boddhisatva Avalokitesvara on page 130. What is the theory behind the boddhisatva? Can you think of any similar religious concepts?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. What brought about the decline of the Gupta dynasty? What replaced the empire in the power vacuum that resulted?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. Read the passage from Ashoka’s 13th Major Rock Edict (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Ashoka Adopts and Promotes Buddhism). What does Ashoka have to say about violence? What effect did Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism have on the Mauryan dynasty?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

 

 

  1. How did the Persian conquest set the stage for the emergence of the Mauryan empire?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. What were the major accomplishments of the emperor Ashoka?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. How did the Gupta administrative practices differ from the Mauryan?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: The Fortunes of Empire in Classical India

  1. How did India fit in to the trade along the silk roads?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

  1. In what ways did the development of trade and manufacturing impact the caste system?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Indian Economic Development and Social Distinctions

 

 

 

  1. How did early Buddhism evolve into Mahayana Buddhism? How did that help spread the religion?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

  1. Why did Buddhism eventually lose popularity in India?

Answers will vary

 

Topic: Classical Indian Religions of Salvation

 

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