Transformations Women Gender And Psychology 2nd Edition Mary Crawford – Test Bank





Transformations Women Gender And Psychology 2nd Edition Mary Crawford – Test Bank


Sample  Questions


Chapter 03

Images of Women



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 59)The word pair “lord/lady” is an example of
    A. the defining of women.
    B. the masculine generic.
    C. terms of endearment.
    D. devaluing women.


  1. (p. 59)The devaluation of female-gender words can be seen in
    A. master/mistress.
    B. the generic “he.”
    C. Mr./Mrs.
    D. the terms male professional/female professional.


  1. (p. 60)Slang words for women often portray them as
    A. sexual objects.
    B. art objects.
    C. parts of plants.
    D. All of the above are correct.


  1. (p. 61)“Aggressive female” is an example of which sexist language practice?
    A. trivialization of female gender forms
    B. labeling the exception to the rule
    C. gender marking
    D. exclusion



  1. (p. 59)One example of sexist language is
    A. use of the term “suffragist”
    B. description of a woman vs. a man as a professor
    C. use of terms such as “poet” or “actor” for both sexes
    D. use of the term “man” to describe humans in general


  1. (p. 60)According to the textbook, research on masculine generics has shown
    A. under most conditions, they are unbiased short-cuts.
    B. they are not truly generic.
    C. they conjure male images for many, but awareness dissolves negative effects.
    D. no simple conclusions can be drawn from the research.


  1. (p. 60-61)Language has traditionally marked women as
    A. available to be consumed by men.
    B. property of men.
    C. lower status than men.
    D. All of the above are correct.


  1. (p. 60-61)Language has traditionally marked women as
    A. sexual objects for men
    B. property of men
    C. lower status than men
    D. All of the above are correct.


  1. (p. 64)The tendency for the media to feature men’s faces more often than women’s is called
    A. face-ism.
    B. body-ism.
    C. man-ism.
    D. woman-ism.



  1. (p. 65)The group with the lowest face-ism index is
    A. European women.
    B. Black men.
    C. Black women.
    D. Italian men.


  1. (p. 62)Television sexism is exemplified by the
    A. larger number of male than female characters shown.
    B. older ages of female than male characters.
    C. portrayal of more female characters than male characters as demons in disguise.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 66)When a woman is reduced to her body and sexualized, she is being
    A. sexually objectified.
    B. embodied.
    C. gender marked.
    D. scripted.


  1. (p. 68)The “ideal woman” is now size 4 hips, a size 2 waist, and a size 10 bust,
    A. is so rare it must generally be created through surgical intervention.
    B. occurs naturally in only 10% of women.
    C. is called the Barbie Ideal.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 68)Women’s self-esteems are affected by their
    A. frailties.
    B. body images.
    C. embodiments.
    D. gender marks.



  1. (p. 68)The mental pictures women have of their bodies and the feelings they have as a result are referred to as
    A. body image.
    B. objectification.
    C. appearance schematicity.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 68)Women who have been looking at idealized images of women feel bad due to the
    A. male gaze effect.
    B. social comparison process.
    C. embodiment of beauty.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 66)Research on media images of women across ethnic group suggest
    A. media images are consistent across ethnic groups.
    B. African-American women are more sexually objectified than White women.
    C. African-American and White women are equally sexually objectified.
    D. no women are sexually objectified by the media.


  1. (p. 69)When a woman feels that she is unlovable or unattractive because she hates or is embarrassed by some part of her body, she is
    A. gender marking.
    B. objectifying herself.
    C. displaying minimal investment.
    D. embodying disparagement.


  1. (p. 68)Feelings that women have about their bodies’ sizes, shapes, and attractiveness are part of their
    A. appearance schematicities.
    B. embodiment.
    C. body images.
    D. frailty myth.



  1. (p. 69)Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) believe that females learn to see themselves as objects and to constantly try to imagine how others see them; they call their theory
    A. the male gaze.
    B. gender schematicity.
    C. beauty maintenance.
    D. objectification theory.


  1. (p. 62)When articles on female politicians, athletes, and authors prioritize women’s appearances, they are
    A. objectifying them.
    B. gender marking them.
    C. embodying them.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 71)Despite changes in ideals of feminine beauty over the years, one thing remains constant:
    A. They all require alterations of women’s natural appearances through products.
    B. They all were initiated by men.
    C. They all include long hair.
    D. They all include high heels.


  1. (p. 70)U.S. ideals of female beauty have become so ___________ many women meet the criteria for ____________.
    A. curvy; a Barbie-doll body.
    B. fleshy; normal weight
    C. thin; anorexia.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 72)The “ideal” images of women make
    A. thin men actually like women more.
    B. women of color “invisible.”
    C. are strongly attainable.
    D. women of all ethnic groups empowered.



  1. (p. 73)The media reinforce the idea that it is socially acceptable to ______________ overweight women.
    A. ignore
    B. yell at
    C. ridicule
    D. slap


  1. (p. 73)On TV, poor women are often featured in stories
    A. racism.
    B. welfare reform.
    C. the need for education.
    D. illiteracy.


  1. (p. 74)Male commentators often remark upon the _____________ of women athletes, a behavior that does not carry over to men athletes.
    A. mental abilities
    B. sexiness and physical appeal (or lack thereof)
    C. privilege and power
    D. strength and training


  1. (p. 73)Afternoon talk shows typically portray working-class women as
    A. out of control.
    B. belligerent.
    C. victims of dysfunctional families.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 75)When a woman politician or “authority figure” is portrayed in the news, it is likely her ____________ will be including in the commentary, not as likely for a man.
    A. children’s names
    B. appearance
    C. parents’ occupations
    D. occupation



  1. (p. 76)Which statement most accurately describes schema? Schema are
    A. weak at birth and undeveloped until age fifteen.
    B. innate prejudices mediating cognitive and perceptual experiences.
    C. mental framework guiding people’s experiences with the world.
    D. irrational images found mostly in very neurotic people.


  1. (p. 76)Which of the following is not a gender stereotype?
    A. Women are more graceful than men.
    B. Women are innately more qualified to take care of children than are men.
    C. Men tend to be inherently physically bigger than women.
    D. Men are better managers than women.


  1. (p. 78)Stereotypes about men and women include which of the following?
    A. Both men and women are seen as androgynous.
    B. Men are seen as affective whereas women are seen as instrumental.
    C. Men & women are both equally competent.
    D. Women are seen as affective, whereas men are seen as instrumental.


  1. (p. 78)In the 1980’s, much of the research on gender stereotypes focused on subtypes of women and men. The subtypes involved women’s and men’s
    A. role behaviors.
    B. physical and personality characteristics.
    C. occupations.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 79)Strong and athletic women are likely to be stereotyped as
    A. lesbians.
    B. involved in politics.
    C. conservative.
    D. married.



  1. (p. 78)Which of the following is NOT one of the four main subtypes of the female role?
    A. housewife
    B. athletic woman
    C. sexy woman
    D. friendly competent


  1. (p. 80)African American women are often cast into biased prototypes labeled the
    A. Mammy.
    B. Jezebel.
    C. Sapphire.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 80)The modern incarnation of the African American stereotype of the Jezebel is represented
    A. as the “ho.”
    B. in characters like Aunt Jemima.
    C. in the warm, smiling nurturer.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 84)Which of the following is NOT true about stereotypes?
    A. Targets of stereotypes are easily identified and relatively powerless.
    B. Stereotypes are easy to modify when encountering disconfirming examples.
    C. People largely agree about the characteristics of a stereotyped group.
    D. Stereotypes imply a covert comparison between groups to the disadvantage of the stereotyped group.


  1. (p. 85)Important features of stereotype threat include:
    A. Stereotypes influence one’s behavior only if one believes in the stereotype.
    B. Stereotype threat effects members of any group about which there are positive or negative stereotypes.
    C. Stereotype threat most effects individuals who care about their performance in the threatened domain.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 85)Which would likely lead to stereotype threat?
    A. Tell women taking a flower arranging test there are no gender differences in test performance.
    B. Show TV ads of women in nontraditional roles before a word problem test.
    C. Tell white male college students that Asians tend to do better than whites in math before a difficult math test.
    D. Give women math tests in all-female groups rather than mixed-sex groups.


  1. (p. 84)What type of explanation does the textbook emphasize in explaining why people find it so hard to abandon stereotypes?
    A. psychodynamic
    B. social learning
    C. cognitive
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 87)Among the factors reducing stereotyping is
    A. a perceiver who is a member of a targeted group.
    B. lack of awareness of the process of stereotyping.
    C. increased information about targeted individuals.
    D. having judgments take place in single-sex groups.


  1. (p. 85)Stereotype threat in terms of math performance means
    A. women stereotype their own math abilities.
    B. fear of confirming the stereotype women are bad at math may negatively affect women’s math performance.
    C. boys and men stereotype girls’ and women’s math abilities more than girls and women do.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 87)When stereotypes are activated by our culture, less prejudiced people
    A. stop and think about the stereotypes.
    B. replace stereotypes with more accurate information.
    C. make conscious choices not to stereotype.
    D. All the above are correct.




Short Answer Questions

  1. Provide evidence of the animal = male bias.

Answer will vary


  1. Provide examples of terms originally intended to relay respect for women, and explain how they have taken on new meaning and become lower in status.

Answer will vary


  1. How do our society’s norms about appearance and social roles for women and men relate to stereotypes about gays and lesbians?

Answer will vary


  1. Are attitudes toward women and men changing? Support your answer with evidence.

Answer will vary


  1. Give examples of negative or trivializing views of women encoded in language.

Answer will vary


  1. During a family discussion, 12-year-old Brian mentions that all ugly girls are stupid. Explain Brian’s statement in relation to stereotypes. What factors (familial, societal, cultural, etc.) may have encouraged Brian’s statement?

Answer will vary



  1. Stereotypes about women have common features from one culture to another. What are some of these features? What might account for some of the similarities?

Answer will vary


  1. Describe briefly how the representation of women in language, advertising, and popular romance novels contributes to stereotypes of femininity.

Answer will vary


  1. Stereotypic traits of males are said to comprise an instrumental dimension, whereas those of females are defined as affective. Explain what this means.

Answer will vary


  1. What characteristics are most important in eliciting stereotypic judgments about women and men? What relationships do these characteristics have to the resistance of stereotypes to change?

Answer will vary


  1. It has been suggested that media messages about sexuality combine sexist and social class biases. Describe what this statement means.

Answer will vary


  1. Male generic terms such as “he” and “mankind” have been shown not to be truly generic. Discuss the research evidence.

Answer will vary



  1. Explain what face-ism is and provide examples.

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the meanings and implications of face-ism.

Answer will vary


  1. Trace the racist and sexist images of African American women back to slavery, and provide modern examples of these stereotypes.

Answer will vary


  1. Discuss the media’s over reliance on the expertise of men and the effects of this bias on women.

Answer will vary


  1. Citing research described in the textbook, respond to the statement: “Those feminists shouldn’t make such a big deal about sexism on TV. After all, it’s only entertainment!”

Answer will vary


  1. Explain why women are traditionally expected to take their husbands’ names, and why the word Ms. has created such controversy.

Answer will vary

Chapter 07

Sex, Love, and Romance



Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 197)Sexuality, as described by Crawford, is
    A. a biological drive that is instinctive to all human beings.
    B. always the same in all cultures.
    C. shaped by gender and culture.
    D. based only on internal factors such as personality, preferences, values, etc.


  1. (p. 197)The repertoire of sexual acts recognized by a particular social group, the rules or guidelines for expected behavior, and the expected punishments for violating the rules are the bases for a
    A. gender script.
    B. sexual script.
    C. cultural code of sexuality.
    D. fixed action pattern.


  1. (p. 197)Which of the following statements about sexual scripts is NOT correct?
    A. There are no differences between the scripts of women and men.
    B. They are internalized by individuals.
    C. There are expected punishments for violating the rules.
    D. They are regulated by law and/or religion.


  1. (p. 197)Sexual scripts operate at the ____________ levels.
    A. societal, interactional, and individual
    B. intimate, subjective, and objective
    C. interpersonal and intrapersonal
    D. sociocultural and cultural



  1. (p. 200)In the majority of the world, which of the following is NOT true about marriage and love?
    A. Marriages are arranged by family members.
    B. Romantic love is seen as necessary to marriage.
    C. Romantic love is secondary to decision-making.
    D. a and c


  1. (p. 200)A study comparing Asian and non-Asian students in a Canadian university showed that Asian students
    A. were more likely to have had sexual intercourse.
    B. were more likely to have masturbated.
    C. had had fewer partners if sexually active.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 200)When researchers asked an ethnically diverse sample of young adolescent girls in the U.S. the “best” age for a girl to have sex for the first time, which group gave the highest average age?
    A. African-Americans
    B. Asians
    C. Hispanics
    D. Whites


  1. (p. 203)Researchers who study sexual behaviors cross-culturally have found
    A. humans have very similar sexual behaviors cross-culturally.
    B. there is much diversity in human sexual experiences cross-culturally.
    C. there is no variation among sexual experiences, cross-culturally.
    D. there is more variation among men’s than women’s sexual experiences.


  1. (p. 204)Sexual scripts
    A. are regulated by law and religion.
    B. are internalized by individuals.
    C. affect whether particular sexual scenarios are seen as exciting or disgusting.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 203)Among teens, the strongest predictor of sexual activity is
    A. the perceived level of sexual activity of one’s friends.
    B. parental attitudes about sex.
    C. peers’ actual behaviors.
    D. hormonal levels.


  1. (p. 204)The main reason couples in the US do not use condoms is
    A. condoms are expensive.
    B. they believe safer sex is not romantic or spontaneous.
    C. condoms significantly affect the experience of sexual pleasure.
    D. they are unaware of the effectiveness of condoms as a birth control method.


  1. (p. 204)Almost 80% of US AIDS cases in women are found among
    A. white women.
    B. heterosexual women.
    C. lesbian and bisexual women.
    D. women under the age of 18.


  1. (p. 204)The most effective means of preventing HIV infection during heterosexual contact is/are
    a. the Pill.
    b. IUDs.
    c. Depo-Provera and Norplant.
    d. condoms.




Multiple Choice Questions


  1. (p. 204)Most college students tend to underestimate their HIV/AIDS risk because
    A. they do not realize that HIV/AIDS can be passed in heterosexual relationships.
    B. of using faulty decision, based on faulty assumptions about their partners.
    C. they have not received adequate education about HIV/AIDS.
    D. they can’t find their condoms.


  1. (p. 202)Premarital sex has ____________ over the last century.
    A. decreased significantly for women
    B. decreased significantly for men
    C. increased significantly for women
    D. increased significantly for both men and women


  1. (p. 202)Though boys reach puberty later than girls, they still
    A. have sex at about the same age.
    B. have sex at an earlier age.
    C. tend to choose partners who are at least five years older than they.
    D. tend to choose partners who are at least five years younger than they.


  1. (p. 204)Sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, genital warts, and HIV/AIDS are transmitted by ___________ contact.
    A. genital
    B. anal
    C. oral
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 204)For teen boys and girls, one of the strongest predictors of sexual activity is
    A. actual level of sexual activity of their best friends
    B. perceived level of sexual activity of their best friends
    C. raging hormones
    D. b and c



  1. (p. 204)Which is NOT a reason teens often cite for not using condoms?
    A. Fear of destroying the romance
    B. Concern that the partner would react negatively
    C. Lack of education about condom effectiveness
    D. Their partners don’t “look” sick


  1. (p. 204)In the US, the most common way for a woman to contract HIV is
    A. use of intravenous drugs.
    B. unprotected sex with a woman.
    C. unprotected sexual intercourse with a man.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 206)When Shere Hite asked women questions about their orgasms, she found
    A. many women were unsure if they’d had an orgasm.
    B. this format, unlike a closed-ended question format, allowed women the chance to write lengthy and detailed answers.
    C. most women could not put their feelings into words.
    D. women gave more honest answers about how often they had orgasms than they did with closed-ended questions.


  1. (p. 208)College students’ descriptions of orgasms
    A. described women’s orgasms having more emotional imagery than men’s.
    B. described men’s orgasms had more power imagery than women’s.
    C. included more details from women’s than men’s.
    D. show women and men experienced similar orgasms.


  1. (p. 206)The majority of young people today believe masturbation
    A. is not harmful.
    B. can lead to insanity.
    C. is harmful for women’s reproductive health.
    D. is more likely to cause insanity among women than among men.



  1. (p. 206)A prominent view of masturbation in the past was
    A. it was acceptable since it was pleasurable.
    B. it was necessary for a healthy sex life.
    C. it could cause insanity.
    D. it could inhibit sexuality.


  1. (p. 206)While masturbating, a woman is most likely to
    A. focus on her body rather than fantasize about sexual encounters.
    B. stimulate her vagina rather than her clitoris.
    C. stimulate her clitoris rather than her vagina.
    D. focus on an imaginary partner’s body rather than on her own body.


  1. (p. 208)Some women who masturbate report __________ than women who don’t.
    A. higher body satisfaction.
    B. lower body satisfaction.
    C. more problems with self-esteem.
    D. more guilt


  1. (p. 208)Recent surveys of masturbation among women and men have shown
    A. women begin to masturbate at the same age as men.
    B. masturbation usually takes the place of sexual fantasies.
    C. women who had experienced orgasm through self-gratification had more orgasms with their partners.
    D. a greater percentage of women have been masturbating since Kinsey’s survey.


  1. (p. 208)Women who masturbate report having
    A. greater sexual desire.
    B. greater marital satisfaction.
    C. higher self-esteem.
    D. All the above are correct.



  1. (p. 209)All of the following are true about the history of lesbianism EXCEPT
    A. during the 1800’s, women’s intense relationships with other women were normal.
    B. during the early 1900’s, lesbianism was defined as pathological.
    C. in the early 1900’s, when friendships among women had the possibility of leading to women’s independence, these friendships were stigmatized.
    D. the term “homosexual,”, has a lengthy historical record of use.


  1. (p. 209)Traditionally, researchers and clinicians have considered bisexuality
    A. as an intermediate step for people who will eventually be homosexual.
    B. as a state of confusion about one’s desire to be gay or straight.
    C. as a pathology more serious than homosexuality.
    D. a and b


  1. (p. 209)______________ in particular were likely to be stigmatized as “suffering from the newly invented disease of lesbianism.”
    A. “Spinsters”
    B. Black women
    C. Feminists
    D. a and b


  1. (p. 209)In discussing lesbian sex, some sex researchers have suggested
    A. women are, on average, better at making love to women than men are.
    B. women are as good as men at making love to women.
    C. lesbians have more satisfying relationships than do heterosexuals.
    D. a and c


  1. (p. 211)Student responses about sexual identities and sexual experiences showed
    A. sexual identity accurately predicted sexual experience.
    B. most people had not decided upon a sexual identity.
    C. most people had had a same-sex sexual experience.
    D. sexual identity and sexual experience did not match as well as expected.



  1. (p. 213)Micaela is a Latina lesbian. She is reluctant to tell her family and friends about her orientation, because lesbianism is not highly approved in her culture. If she does “come out” to her family, it is likely that they will
    A. disown her.
    B. tolerate but not openly accept the situation.
    C. support her decision, believing that the ability to love is more important than who is the object of that love.
    D. prevent her from forming relationships with women.


  1. (p. 214)Asian-American lesbians report feeling more comfortable within the lesbian community than within the Asian community. This is probably because
    A. sexuality is considered healthy but private, in most Asian cultures.
    B. Asian religions are only mildly supportive of homosexuality.
    C. women experience more discrimination as lesbians than as Asian women.
    D. None of the above is correct.


  1. (p. 214)Over 150 _________________ cultures have recognized a third-sex category, “two spirit people”.
    A. European
    B. Mexican
    C. Eskimo
    D. Native American


  1. (p. 216)The heroines of most romance novels
    A. are cautious about becoming too emotionally involved with the heroes
    B. are overwhelmed by attraction to the heroes, but try to fight it
    C. plot and plan to attract the heroes.
    D. a and c



  1. (p. 216)Romance novels
    A. provide a reassuring fable of women transforming men.
    B. provide an escape from humdrum reality.
    C. help women learn the cultural script about love.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 216)If a woman shows token resistance to a man’s sexual advances and then “gives in,” she is doing all of the following EXCEPT
    A. communicating honestly with her partner.
    B. perpetuating restrictive gender stereotypes.
    C. encouraging behaviors that may lead to date and acquaintance rape.
    D. teaching men to disregard women’s refusals.


  1. (p. 216)Token resistance to men’s sexual advances
    A. may be given to prevent men from taking their partners for granted.
    B. may be given to try to add interest to a boring relationship.
    C. may teach men to disregard women’s refusals.
    D. All the above are correct


  1. (p. 218)The Hispanic ideal of men showing manhood by being strong, demonstrating sexual prowess and asserting their authority and control over women is called
    A. virilismo.
    B. marianismo.
    C. machismo.
    D. testosterone poisoning.


  1. (p. 218)For Latina women, the cultural ideal of marianismo includes all of the following cultural imperatives EXCEPT
    A. virginity.
    B. martyrdom.
    C. subordination.
    D. fragility.



  1. (p. 219)Attractive women
    A. are seen as more honest than unattractive women.
    B. seen as more desirable prospective sexual partner or potential mate.
    C. take attention away from their partners.
    D. do not have to work at relationships and often date more than one man at a time.


  1. (p. 220)Women with disabilities confront the following stereotypes EXCEPT
    A. they compensate for their limited sex lives by being devoted partners.
    B. they need caretakers, not lovers.
    C. they’re all heterosexual and should be grateful for any man who wants them.
    D. they’re too fragile to have a sex life.


  1. (p. 220)Which is NOT true about disabled women compared to women without disabilities?
    A. Disabled women were less satisfied with the frequency of dating.
    B. Disabled women were less satisfied with perceived personal and societal barriers to dating relationships.
    C. Disabled women were grateful to any man who wanted them.
    D. a and b.


  1. (p. 222)The female equivalent to the term, male “stud,” is
    A. hussy.
    B. nympho.
    C. tramp.
    D. Non-existent—no such term exists.


  1. (p. 221)Which of the following is not an example of sexist language about sex?
    A. reference to male genitals as “cock” versus female genitals as “down there”
    B. the many terms describing women in specifically sexual ways
    C. use of the word “intercourse” to refer to sexual penetration
    D. the double meaning of the term “screw” for sexuality and harm



  1. (p. 222)The belief men are allowed to have a variety of sexual experiences, but women should save their sexuality for marriage, is known as
    A. the double bind.
    B. the double standard.
    C. the double whammy.
    D. the double blind.


  1. (p. 222)Women are often divided into two separate categories: “bad” women who are sexually active and “virtuous” women who are not. This is known as
    A. a double-blind situation.
    B. the Madonna/whore dichotomy.
    C. a Darwinian division, based on reproduction.
    D. the tramp/stud double standard.


  1. (p. 226)Removal of part or the clitoris is called
    A. clitoridectomy.
    B. excision.
    C. infibulation.
    D. intubation.


  1. (p. 226)Cutting away part or all of the inner lips of the vulva in addition t the clitoris is called
    A. clitoridectomy.
    B. excision.
    C. infibulation.
    D. intubation.


  1. (p. 226)Sewing the outer lips of the vulva together to cover urinary and vaginal entrances with only a small opening for urine and menstrual blood is called
    A. clitoridectomy
    B. excision
    C. infibulation
    D. intubation.



  1. (p. 226)Long-term health consequences of female genital mutilation, especially for infibulated women, include
    A. chronic pelvic and urinary tract infections.
    B. childbirth complications.
    C. depression.
    D. All the above are correct.


  1. (p. 226)Female genital mutilation is recognized by the Amnesty International as
    A. a human rights issue.
    B. a safe medical practice.
    C. a valid cultural practice.
    D. illegal.



Short Answer Questions

  1. According to Hugh Hefner, the founder of Playboy magazine, there’s been a “sexual revolution.” Women can now enjoy sexuality without ambivalence. Discuss.

Answer will vary


  1. Societal norms and expectations play an important role in women’s conceptions of love. Discuss their specific impacts on women and relationships.

Answer will vary


  1. Define what is meant by the terms “sexual script” and “double standard.”

Answer will vary



  1. How do sexual scripts affect people’s behaviors? How does culture play a role in these sexual scripts?

Answer will vary


  1. Are egalitarian heterosexual dating relationships possible? Are they possible at your college or university? Discuss.

Answer will vary


  1. Describe briefly how the representation of women in language, advertising, and popular romance novels contributes to stereotypes of femininity.

Answer will vary


  1. Why is the relationship between romantic love and sexual activity important? How is this relationship communicated?

Answer will vary


  1. The ideal of physical attractiveness in women exposes them to yet another form of the double bind. Explain, briefly, what is meant by this statement.

Answer will vary


  1. How is acceptance of traditional sexual scripts implicated in women’s sexual dysfunction?

Answer will vary



  1. What is a lesbian? What are some of the problems in trying to produce a definition of such women?

Answer will vary


  1. What is bisexuality? What does recent research on bisexuality tell us about this orientation?

Answer will vary


  1. Explain how traditional stereotypes are played out in heterosexual dating relationships. Provide examples in your discussion.

Answer will vary


  1. Describe the many biological and social influences on adolescents’ sexuality and how they affect sexual activity. How does women’s ambivalence about their sexuality affect their relationships?

Answer will vary


  1. Why don’t teens use condoms consistently, despite the fact that they know about condom effectiveness for preventing pregnancy and STDs?

Answer will vary


  1. Describe a few ways different cultures control women’s sexuality.

Answer will vary



  1. How might romantic scripts and cultural influences affect a woman’s ability to become aroused or be satisfied by sex?

Answer will vary


  1. Describe the pros and cons of sex education for girls and women.

Answer will vary


  1. How is sex education affected and limited by the traditional stereotypes and stigmatisms against female sexuality? If you were to develop a sex education program for women, what would you include and why?

Answer will vary