Understanding Food Principles and Preparation 5th Edition Amy Christine Brown – Test Bank

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Understanding Food Principles and Preparation 5th Edition Amy Christine Brown – Test Bank

Test Bank[1] for Chapter 6 – Meal Management

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Planning psychologically and physiologically satisfying meals requires a basic knowledge of
  2. food preparation.
  3. nutrition.
  4. presentation strategies.
  5. all of the above

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 121

 

  1. Effective meal planning includes efficient management of
  2. money.
  3. time.
  4. energy.
  5. all of the above

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 121

 

  1. In Escoffier’s system of organization via stations, the pantry chef is also called the
  2. saucier.
  3. entremetier.
  4. rotisseur.
  5. grillardin.
  6. garde manger.
  7. tournant.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 122

 

  1. Which of the following organizational groups established new standards for school lunches after passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010?
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  3. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  4. Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association
  5. individual state and local health departments

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 124-125

 

  1. Requirements for becoming a registered dietitian include
  2. completing an approved 4-year college degree.
  3. passing an exam.
  4. completing an internship.
  5. ongoing continuing education.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 123

 

  1. Cycle menus are those menus that
  2. follow a prescribed set of foods each day.
  3. consist of two or more weeks that cycle or repeat.
  4. remain consistent from day to day.
  5. are most appropriate for commercial restaurants.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 125

 

  1. Increasing the portion size of a meal in a restaurant increases the perceived value, but what does it do to the nutrient value of most meals?
  2. It usually increases the caloric value of the meal and contributes to excessive kcalorie consumption.
  3. It usually brings the nutritional value in line with meals eaten at home.
  4. It contributes more vitamins and minerals to the diet and therefore is beneficial.
  5. It does nothing to the nutrient value of the diet.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 126-129

 

  1. The trend toward healthier eating has contributed to the suggestion of a national “fat tax” aimed at
  2. snack foods sold at the grocery store.
  3. bakeries.
  4. fast-food restaurants.
  5. high-end, sit-down restaurants.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 129

 

  1. Ideally, the percentage of kcalories from carbohydrates in a portion size of food should be approximately
  2. less than 30 percent.
  3. 30 to 45 percent.
  4. 45 to 65 percent.
  5. 65 to 80 percent.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 128

 

  1. Complex carbohydrates should provide at least _____ grams of fiber per day for healthy women and _____ grams per day for healthy men.
  2. 10, 20
  3. 20, 25
  4. 25, 38
  5. 38, 50

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 129

 

  1. In the early 1900s, large city _____ began allowing retailers of individual products to sell merchandise from inside booths.
  2. food cooperatives
  3. health food stores
  4. grocery stores
  5. warehouses

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. Which of the following is not a common item that may be used to visualize the specified portion size?
  2. card deck = 3 ounces of meat/chicken
  3. soda can = 12 fluid ounces of a beverage
  4. palm of hand = 1 ounce of fish
  5. golf ball = ¼ cup of ice cream
  6. all of the above may be used to visualize the portion sizes listed

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 128

 

  1. A membership arrangement that cuts out the middle, retail level by purchasing foods in bulk at wholesale prices to sell to members is called a
  2. farmer’s market.
  3. road-side stand.
  4. food cooperative.
  5. food service vendor.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. Forecast refers to
  2. the amount the food will cost compared to the menu cost.
  3. a percentage obtained by dividing the raw food cost by the menu cost.
  4. the predicted amount of food that will be necessary to have on hand.
  5. the predicted amount of food that will be needed within a given period of time.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 129

 

  1. Most often a large food-service establishment will depend on which supplier for food-stuffs?
  2. supermarkets
  3. food service vendors
  4. smaller outlets
  5. warehouse stores
  6. co-ops

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. Less tender cuts of meat are _____ tender cuts.
  2. just as nutritious as
  3. often less fatty than
  4. less expensive than
  5. only answers a and c are correct
  6. answers a, b, and c are correct

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. Comparison of food prices is based on
  2. edible portion.
  3. as purchased portion.
  4. cost per serving.
  5. delivery charges.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. The most common areas where food waste occurs include
  2. over-purchasing of perishable produce and other foods.
  3. food preparation losses.
  4. food cooking losses.
  5. plate waste.
  6. all of the above

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 131

 

  1. Pull dates are
  2. the last day a store will sell an item.
  3. the last day the product will be of optimum quality.
  4. the last day a food should be consumed.
  5. often used by stores, which need to know when to rotate stock.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 131

 

  1. If my portion size for a banquet with 200 guests is 4 ounces of cooked meat and I purchase 200 4-ounce portions for a total of 50 pounds of raw meat, I have
  2. purchased just what I need.
  3. over-purchased.
  4. under-purchased.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 131-132

 

  1. Food in its raw state, minus that which is discarded—bones, fat, skins, and/or seeds—is called
  2. as purchased (AP).
  3. edible portion (EP).
  4. percentage yield.
  5. portion control.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 131

 

  1. The ratio of edible food to food as purchased is called
  2. percentage yield.
  3. portion control.
  4. as purchased (AP).
  5. edible portion (EP).

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 131

 

  1. Measured portions are described
  2. by weight.
  3. by number.
  4. by size.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 132

 

  1. The _____ recipe style lists all ingredients and amounts with the instructions in numerical order.
  2. descriptive
  3. action
  4. standard
  5. narrative

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 133|134

 

  1. Which of the following recipe styles lists ingredients in the sequence in which they are used? This method displays the ingredient, amount, and directions in three columns, which makes it easy to read.
  2. narrative
  3. descriptive
  4. action
  5. standard

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 133|134

 

  1. Food service establishments rely on _____ for serving a large number of guests.
  2. descriptive recipes
  3. standard recipes
  4. action recipes
  5. narrative recipes
  6. standardized recipes

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 133

 

  1. During which of the following types of meal service is a napkin or silver crumber typically used to brush the crumbs off the tablecloth?
  2. Russian
  3. French
  4. English
  5. American

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. Which of the following types of table service is useful for no more than about six or eight people?
  2. French
  3. American
  4. Russian
  5. English

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. Flatware has assigned positions on the table setting
  2. depending on the type of table service.
  3. depending on whether a linen table cloth is being used or not.
  4. depending on the type of meal being served.
  5. that remain the same, no matter the type of meal being served.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 136

 

  1. Which placement of a butter knife on a bread and butter plate is considered appropriate?
  2. the knife positioned in a horizontal manner, with the blade facing down, at the top of the plate
  3. the knife positioned in a horizontal manner, with the blade facing down, in the middle of the plate
  4. the knife positioned in a vertical manner, toward the right-hand side of the plate, with the blade facing toward the left
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 136

 

  1. Which of the following statements about centerpieces is false?
  2. Centerpieces should be the predominant visual piece that overpowers the dining room.
  3. Centerpieces should not keep guests from being able to see each other across the table.
  4. Centerpieces should be in scale with the table.
  5. all of the above are true statements

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 136

 

 

True/False

 

  1. In hospitals, dietitians provide medical nutrition therapy.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 123

 

  1. The purpose of a mechanically altered diet is to provide food the patient is able to eat.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 123

 

  1. The Dietary Guidelines, the ChooseMyPlate.gov website, and the Exchange Lists all provide consumer guidance for regulating micronutrient intake.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 127

 

  1. Food costs account for approximately 50% of the costs incurred in a food service operation.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 129

 

  1. Oily foods such corn oil and peanut butter contain cholesterol.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 129

 

  1. The biggest expense in the food budget is meat.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. Quinoa is a nonmeat substitute high in complex carbohydrates and an excellent source of plant protein.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. When price shopping, convenience foods are almost guaranteed to be less expensive than fresh, unprocessed forms.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 130

 

  1. When estimating the amount of preparation time needed for a meal, one should start at the serving time and work backwards.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 133

 

  1. No matter what type of meal service is used, dessert is always placed on a cleared table.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. In Russian table service, a chilled sorbet is served after the main entrée to refresh the palate by clearing any lingering flavors.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. The cover in table settings refers to the linens used.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. Silence cloths are used to help absorb the noise of loud laughter and talking during the meal.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 135

 

  1. Dinnerware must always match, and the patterns should harmonize.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 136

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. health professional who counsels people about medical nutrition therapies and may have administrative responsibilities.
  2. a system of organization of a food production facility using heads with particular skills or expertise.
  3. organized list of duties used for finding qualified applicants, training, performance evaluation, defining authority, and determining salary.
  4. descriptive diagram showing the administrative structure of an organization.
  5. person in charge of kitchen administration, hiring, budgeting, purchasing, work scheduling, and menu planning.

 

  1. organizational chart
  2. job description
  3. Escoffier’s system of organization
  4. executive chef
  5. dietitian

 

Key:

  1. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 121
  2. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 121
  3. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 122-123
  4. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 123
  5. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 123

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. Efficient meal management is a complicated process, and one that can be improved by effective time management. List the nine (9) steps of meal preparation and indicate how each of the steps improves efficiency.

 

ANS: See p. 133. The answer should include the following list: (1) menu planning; (2) developing a purchasing list; (3) purchasing food; (4) storing the food; (5) planning the order of food preparation; (6) preparing the food; (7) preparing the table; (8) serving; and (9) cleaning up. The answer should include at least one or two logical arguments as to how each step improves and/or impedes efficient meal management.

 

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 133

 

  1. List the types of meal service generally seen in food service facilities and briefly describe the characteristics of each.

 

ANS: See p. 135. The list should include: (1) Russian; (2) French; (3) English; (4) American; (5) family; and (6) buffet. The answer should also include a minimum of 3 differences among and/or characteristics of each type of service.

 

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 135

 

  1. Plan a seven-day cycle menu for a nursing home or school cafeteria including breakfast, lunch, and dinner and morning, afternoon, and evening snacks. For lunch and dinner, be sure to include appetizer, soup, salad, main entrée, starch, vegetable, bread, and dessert. Make a checklist to evaluate your menu cycle.

 

ANS: See pp. 124-126.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 124-126

 

  1. Regarding purchasing foods and supplies, what are the differences and advantages and disadvantages when obtaining your deliveries from supermarkets, warehouses, food cooperatives, farmers’ markets, and specialty food vendors?

 

ANS: See pp. 129-130.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 129-130

 

  1. Describe the many ways to keep food costs down when purchasing foods. What are the common areas where waste occurs? What do the following terms mean? Explain their relationship to food cost and portion control: as purchased (AP), edible portion (EP), and percentage yield.

 

ANS: See pp. 129-132.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 129-132

 

  1. There are various dates on foods including 1) freshness or quality assurance, 2) pull, 3) expiration, and 4) pack dates. Explain the meaning of each date.

 

ANS: See p. 131.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 131

 

  1. List the four different styles of recipe writing; then take any recipe and adapt it to each style.

 

ANS: See pp. 133 and 134.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 133|134

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 6 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Planning psychologically and physiologically satisfying meals requires a basic knowledge of
  2. food preparation.
  3. nutrition.
  4. presentation strategies.
  5. all of the above

 

  1. Effective meal planning includes efficient management of
  2. money.
  3. time.
  4. energy.
  5. all of the above

 

  1. In Escoffier’s system of organization via stations, the pantry chef is also called the
  2. saucier.
  3. entremetier.
  4. rotisseur.
  5. grillardin.
  6. garde manger.
  7. tournant.

 

  1. Which of the following organizational groups established new standards for school lunches after passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010?
  2. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  3. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  4. Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association
  5. individual state and local health departments

 

  1. Requirements for becoming a registered dietitian include
  2. completing an approved 4-year college degree.
  3. passing an exam.
  4. completing an internship.
  5. ongoing continuing education.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Cycle menus are those menus that
  2. follow a prescribed set of foods each day.
  3. consist of two or more weeks that cycle or repeat.
  4. remain consistent from day to day.
  5. are most appropriate for commercial restaurants.

 

  1. Increasing the portion size of a meal in a restaurant increases the perceived value, but what does it do to the nutrient value of most meals?
  2. It usually increases the caloric value of the meal and contributes to excessive kcalorie consumption.
  3. It usually brings the nutritional value in line with meals eaten at home.
  4. It contributes more vitamins and minerals to the diet and therefore is beneficial.
  5. It does nothing to the nutrient value of the diet.

 

  1. The trend toward healthier eating has contributed to the suggestion of a national “fat tax” aimed at
  2. snack foods sold at the grocery store.
  3. bakeries.
  4. fast-food restaurants.
  5. high-end, sit-down restaurants.

 

  1. Ideally, the percentage of kcalories from carbohydrates in a portion size of food should be approximately
  2. less than 30 percent.
  3. 30 to 45 percent.
  4. 45 to 65 percent.
  5. 65 to 80 percent.

 

  1. Complex carbohydrates should provide at least _____ grams of fiber per day for healthy women and _____ grams per day for healthy men.
  2. 10, 20
  3. 20, 25
  4. 25, 38
  5. 38, 50

 

  1. In the early 1900s, large city _____ began allowing retailers of individual products to sell merchandise from inside booths.
  2. food cooperatives
  3. health food stores
  4. grocery stores
  5. warehouses

 

  1. Which of the following is not a common item that may be used to visualize the specified portion size?
  2. card deck = 3 ounces of meat/chicken
  3. soda can = 12 fluid ounces of a beverage
  4. palm of hand = 1 ounce of fish
  5. golf ball = ¼ cup of ice cream
  6. all of the above may be used to visualize the portion sizes listed

 

  1. A membership arrangement that cuts out the middle, retail level by purchasing foods in bulk at wholesale prices to sell to members is called a
  2. farmer’s market.
  3. road-side stand.
  4. food cooperative.
  5. food service vendor.

 

  1. Forecast refers to
  2. the amount the food will cost compared to the menu cost.
  3. a percentage obtained by dividing the raw food cost by the menu cost.
  4. the predicted amount of food that will be necessary to have on hand.
  5. the predicted amount of food that will be needed within a given period of time.

 

  1. Most often a large food-service establishment will depend on which supplier for food-stuffs?
  2. supermarkets
  3. food service vendors
  4. smaller outlets
  5. warehouse stores
  6. co-ops

 

  1. Less tender cuts of meat are _____ tender cuts.
  2. just as nutritious as
  3. often less fatty than
  4. less expensive than
  5. only answers a and c are correct
  6. answers a, b, and c are correct

 

  1. Comparison of food prices is based on
  2. edible portion.
  3. as purchased portion.
  4. cost per serving.
  5. delivery charges.

 

  1. The most common areas where food waste occurs include
  2. over-purchasing of perishable produce and other foods.
  3. food preparation losses.
  4. food cooking losses.
  5. plate waste.
  6. all of the above

 

  1. Pull dates are
  2. the last day a store will sell an item.
  3. the last day the product will be of optimum quality.
  4. the last day a food should be consumed.
  5. often used by stores, which need to know when to rotate stock.

 

  1. If my portion size for a banquet with 200 guests is 4 ounces of cooked meat and I purchase 200 4-ounce portions for a total of 50 pounds of raw meat, I have
  2. purchased just what I need.
  3. over-purchased.
  4. under-purchased.

 

  1. Food in its raw state, minus that which is discarded—bones, fat, skins, and/or seeds—is called
  2. as purchased (AP).
  3. edible portion (EP).
  4. percentage yield.
  5. portion control.

 

  1. The ratio of edible food to food as purchased is called
  2. percentage yield.
  3. portion control.
  4. as purchased (AP).
  5. edible portion (EP).

 

  1. Measured portions are described
  2. by weight.
  3. by number.
  4. by size.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. The _____ recipe style lists all ingredients and amounts with the instructions in numerical order.
  2. descriptive
  3. action
  4. standard
  5. narrative

 

  1. Which of the following recipe styles lists ingredients in the sequence in which they are used? This method displays the ingredient, amount, and directions in three columns, which makes it easy to read.
  2. narrative
  3. descriptive
  4. action
  5. standard

 

  1. Food service establishments rely on _____ for serving a large number of guests.
  2. descriptive recipes
  3. standard recipes
  4. action recipes
  5. narrative recipes
  6. standardized recipes

 

  1. During which of the following types of meal service is a napkin or silver crumber typically used to brush the crumbs off the tablecloth?
  2. Russian
  3. French
  4. English
  5. American

 

  1. Which of the following types of table service is useful for no more than about six or eight people?
  2. French
  3. American
  4. Russian
  5. English

 

  1. Flatware has assigned positions on the table setting
  2. depending on the type of table service.
  3. depending on whether a linen table cloth is being used or not.
  4. depending on the type of meal being served.
  5. that remain the same, no matter the type of meal being served.

 

  1. Which placement of a butter knife on a bread and butter plate is considered appropriate?
  2. the knife positioned in a horizontal manner, with the blade facing down, at the top of the plate
  3. the knife positioned in a horizontal manner, with the blade facing down, in the middle of the plate
  4. the knife positioned in a vertical manner, toward the right-hand side of the plate, with the blade facing toward the left
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following statements about centerpieces is false?
  2. Centerpieces should be the predominant visual piece that overpowers the dining room.
  3. Centerpieces should not keep guests from being able to see each other across the table.
  4. Centerpieces should be in scale with the table.
  5. all of the above are true statements

 

 

True/False

 

  1. In hospitals, dietitians provide medical nutrition therapy.

 

  1. The purpose of a mechanically altered diet is to provide food the patient is able to eat.

 

  1. The Dietary Guidelines, the ChooseMyPlate.gov website, and the Exchange Lists all provide consumer guidance for regulating micronutrient intake.

 

  1. Food costs account for approximately 50% of the costs incurred in a food service operation.

 

  1. Oily foods such corn oil and peanut butter contain cholesterol.

 

  1. The biggest expense in the food budget is meat.

 

  1. Quinoa is a nonmeat substitute high in complex carbohydrates and an excellent source of plant protein.

 

  1. When price shopping, convenience foods are almost guaranteed to be less expensive than fresh, unprocessed forms.

 

  1. When estimating the amount of preparation time needed for a meal, one should start at the serving time and work backwards.

 

  1. No matter what type of meal service is used, dessert is always placed on a cleared table.

 

  1. In Russian table service, a chilled sorbet is served after the main entrée to refresh the palate by clearing any lingering flavors.

 

  1. The cover in table settings refers to the linens used.

 

  1. Silence cloths are used to help absorb the noise of loud laughter and talking during the meal.

 

  1. Dinnerware must always match, and the patterns should harmonize.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. health professional who counsels people about medical nutrition therapies and may have administrative responsibilities.
  2. a system of organization of a food production facility using heads with particular skills or expertise.
  3. organized list of duties used for finding qualified applicants, training, performance evaluation, defining authority, and determining salary.
  4. descriptive diagram showing the administrative structure of an organization.
  5. person in charge of kitchen administration, hiring, budgeting, purchasing, work scheduling, and menu planning.

 

  1. organizational chart
  2. job description
  3. Escoffier’s system of organization
  4. executive chef
  5. dietitian

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. Efficient meal management is a complicated process, and one that can be improved by effective time management. List the nine (9) steps of meal preparation and indicate how each of the steps improves efficiency.

 

  1. List the types of meal service generally seen in food service facilities and briefly describe the characteristics of each.

 

  1. Plan a seven-day cycle menu for a nursing home or school cafeteria including breakfast, lunch, and dinner and morning, afternoon, and evening snacks. For lunch and dinner, be sure to include appetizer, soup, salad, main entrée, starch, vegetable, bread, and dessert. Make a checklist to evaluate your menu cycle.

 

  1. Regarding purchasing foods and supplies, what are the differences and advantages and disadvantages when obtaining your deliveries from supermarkets, warehouses, food cooperatives, farmers’ markets, and specialty food vendors?

 

  1. Describe the many ways to keep food costs down when purchasing foods. What are the common areas where waste occurs? What do the following terms mean? Explain their relationship to food cost and portion control: as purchased (AP), edible portion (EP), and percentage yield.

 

  1. There are various dates on foods including 1) freshness or quality assurance, 2) pull, 3) expiration, and 4) pack dates. Explain the meaning of each date.

 

  1. List the four different styles of recipe writing; then take any recipe and adapt it to each style.

 

Test Bank[2] for Chapter 7 – Meats

 

Key to question information: ANS = correct answer; DIF = question difficulty; REF = page reference

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Meat from herbivores serves as an important source of _____ in the North American diet.
  2. carbohydrates
  3. complete proteins
  4. fiber
  5. incomplete proteins

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 140

 

  1. Beef from cattle is classified according to
  2. composition.
  3. age and sex.
  4. inspection and grading.
  5. moist-heat or dry-heat preparation.
  6. all of the above

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 140

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Bulls are castrated when young so that they will gain weight quickly.
  3. Stag meat is typically used for processed meats and pet foods.
  4. The meat from cows is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.
  5. Calves’ meat is also referred to as “baby beef.”

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 140-141

 

  1. A major source of beef in the United States is _____, male cattle that are castrated when young.
  2. bulls
  3. heifers
  4. cows
  5. steers

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 140

 

  1. Veal is meat from
  2. beef calves between the ages of three weeks and three months.
  3. swine between the ages of three weeks and three months.
  4. lambs under three years of age.
  5. beef heifers under the age of three months.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. What is the primary difference between lamb and mutton?
  2. Lamb is from older animals.
  3. Lamb is from sheep and mutton is from goats.
  4. Lamb is from sheep under 14 months and mutton is from sheep over 14 months.
  5. Lamb is the same thing as mutton; there is no difference.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. If one does not know the age of a sheep carcass, one way to tell if the meat is lamb or mutton is that
  2. lamb legs snap above the joint, while mutton legs will break in the joint.
  3. mutton has a lighter and more delicate flavor than lamb.
  4. lamb is darker and tougher than mutton.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. Pork is generally defined as
  2. old swine of either gender regardless of age.
  3. old swine over 2 and under 4 years of age.
  4. young male swine between 1 and 2 years of age.
  5. young swine of either gender between 5 ½ and 7 months of age.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. What part of the animal is the main source of meat for consumption?
  2. adipose tissue
  3. collagen
  4. connective tissue
  5. muscle tissue

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. Connective tissue in the animal and ultimately in the meat is part of
  2. adipose tissue, which acts as the “glue” for muscle fibers.
  3. collagen, adenosine triphosphate, and lignin.
  4. elastin, which is related to reticulin and holds muscles to tendons.
  5. tendons and ligaments and the “glue” that holds muscle cells together.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 142

 

  1. The most abundant protein in connective tissue is
  2. collagen.
  3. elastin.
  4. reticulin.
  5. mucopolysaccharide.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 142

 

  1. _____ is tough and fibrous, but converts to a gel when exposed to moist heat.
  2. Elastin
  3. Collagen
  4. Reticulin
  5. all of the above

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 142

 

  1. Cuts of meat high in connective tissue
  2. are naturally tender.
  3. are found in less exercised muscles.
  4. are more flavorful than the tender cuts.
  5. are usually more expensive and require dry-heat cookery methods.
  6. all of the above

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143

 

  1. The relationship between exercise, connective tissue, and the tenderness of the meat is that the
  2. less the muscle is exercised, the greater the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.
  3. more the muscle is exercised, the less the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.
  4. more the muscle is exercised, the less the connective tissue content, and the more tender the meat.
  5. more the muscle is exercised, the greater the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 142-143

 

  1. You cooked a beautiful cut of meat from the shoulder of a steer and now, as you are sitting down and eating dinner, you feel small, rubbery bits in your mouth as you chew your meat. Why is this affecting the tenderness and your enjoyment of this piece of meat?
  2. The shoulder cut should have been cooked by a moist-heat cookery method.
  3. The shoulder cut should have been cooked by a dry-heat cookery method.
  4. You neglected to remove the collagen before cooking.
  5. You neglected to remove the elastin before cooking.
  6. You neglected to remove the reticulin before cooking.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 142-143

 

  1. The fat content of meat varies with
  2. the source animal’s genetics and age.
  3. the source animal’s diet and exercise.
  4. the cut of the meat.
  5. all of the above

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143

 

  1. The appearance of the fat in an older animal is influenced by the presence of _____ pigments in the feed.
  2. anthocyanin
  3. anthoxanthin
  4. betalains
  5. carotenoid
  6. flavonoid

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143-144

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Marbling in muscle appears as little white streaks or drops.
  3. The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the texture of fat.
  4. Fat is white in younger animals and turns progressively more yellow in color as the animals age.
  5. Feeding swine a diet containing fats that are primarily saturated will yield pork fat that is harder as compared to that from animals fed more polyunsaturated fats.
  6. Lamb fat is very different from the hard, more brittle, and dense fat observed in beef.

 

ANS: e       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143-144

 

  1. Yellow marrow
  2. does not supply a lot of flavor.
  3. contains many blood vessels.
  4. is found in the short bones.
  5. is found in the long bones.
  6. is the hard fatty material found in the center of most bones.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 144

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Over three-fourths of North American cattle are treated with hormones.
  3. Organic beef has been treated with hormones to stimulate growth and improve yield.
  4. When meat is labeled “natural,” this means that hormones were not used.
  5. Meat with added ingredients can be called “natural.”

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 145

 

  1. Which of the following bones will be identified with the sirloin cut of meat?
  2. backbone, rib bone, T-bone
  3. arm bone, blade bone
  4. pin bone, flat bone, wedge bone
  5. round bone, breast and rib bones

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 144

 

  1. Which of the following pigments in fresh meat is brownish-red in color?
  2. myoglobin
  3. metmyglobin
  4. oxymyoglobin
  5. nitrosylmyoglobin

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 146

 

  1. Which of the following is a false statement about pigments?
  2. Myoglobin receives oxygen from the blood and stores it in the muscles.
  3. Hemoglobin transports oxygen throughout the body and is found primarily in the bloodstream.
  4. The higher the concentration of hemoglobin in raw meat, the more intense is its bright color.
  5. Heavily exercised muscles have a higher demand for oxygen, so they are redder in color than the less exercised muscles.
  6. The red color of meat increases as the animal ages.

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 145-146

 

  1. Collagen’s molecular structure consists of
  2. three polypeptide strands twisted together.
  3. strands held together by hydrogen and covalent bonds.
  4. strands that are high in proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine.
  5. all of the above
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143

 

  1. Meat derives some of its flavor from _____ compounds called extractives.
  2. carbon
  3. hydrogen
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen
  6. fat-soluble

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 146

 

  1. The _____ made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce.
  2. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service
  3. Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906
  4. Wholesale Meat Act of 1967
  5. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 146

 

  1. Which of the following is not found in meat?
  2. high-quality protein, fat, and some B vitamins
  3. about 75 percent water
  4. iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus
  5. soluble and insoluble fiber

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 147

 

  1. Meat tenderness is affected by factors such as
  2. the muscle from which it came.
  3. age and fat content.
  4. enzymes, salts, and acids.
  5. mechanical and electrical treatments.
  6. preparation times and temperatures.
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: f        DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 149

 

  1. Which wholesale beef cut is not appropriate for broiling?
  2. rib
  3. brisket
  4. short loin
  5. none of the above; all are preferred for broiling

 

ANS: b       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 150|153|165

 

  1. Retail beef cuts appropriate for pot roasts include all of the following except
  2. chuck shoulder.
  3. bottom round.
  4. top rib.
  5. brisket.
  6. short plate.
  7. none of the above; all of these cuts may be cooked as pot roasts

 

ANS: f        DIF: Application-based                        REF: 153|167

 

  1. _____ has an exceptionally milky flavor, pale color, and tender texture.
  2. Lamb
  3. Veal
  4. Pork
  5. Mutton
  6. Beef

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. Which of the following is a cut of fatty tissue from a pig often used as a flavoring agent?
  2. sparerib
  3. tenderloin
  4. Canadian-style bacon
  5. salt pork

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 141

 

  1. Which of the following is not a method of aging meats?
  2. rigor mortis
  3. fast or wet
  4. vacuum
  5. none of the above because all of the answers are methods of aging meats

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 150-151

 

  1. Regarding slaughter conditions,
  2. if an animal is under stress, its muscle cells obtain extra oxygen.
  3. if cells switch to aerobic energy sources, which produce lactic acid, this causes the pH to become more alkaline.
  4. if glycogen stores are depleted before death, insufficient lactic acid will be produced during rigor mortis.
  5. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 151

 

  1. Sweetbreads are obtained from
  2. steers and bulls.
  3. heifers and cows.
  4. calves or young beef.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 156

 

  1. Which form of pork would be the best for larding or barding?
  2. Canadian bacon
  3. prosciutto
  4. ham hocks
  5. cutlets
  6. bacon

 

ANS: e       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 162

 

  1. Which of the following is the best cooking method for a tender cut of meat?
  2. frying
  3. braising
  4. stewing
  5. steaming

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 161

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding meat preparation is false?
  2. Surface moisture on meat should be wiped before cooking.
  3. For best results, frozen meats should be thoroughly thawed at room temperature before cooking.
  4. A frozen roast may take up to three times longer to prepare than a thawed roast.
  5. Frozen cuts are more difficult to heat evenly and the center may remain frozen even though the outside looks perfectly done.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 161

 

  1. Exposing meat to high temperatures for too long of a time period will do all of the following except
  2. lengthen muscle fibers.
  3. denature proteins.
  4. cause meat to dehydrate.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 161

 

  1. Which of the following statements about searing meat is true?
  2. Searing decreases the flavor of meat.
  3. Searing will help to keep the juices inside a piece of meat as it cooks.
  4. To sear, place the meat in a cold pan on the stove and slowly increase the heat until the meat begins to caramelize on the outside.
  5. Trying to move the meat too early in the searing process will destroy the crust formation.

 

ANS: d       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 162

 

  1. During cooking, at what temperature does connective tissue shrink while moisture is lost and the meat appears pinkish-brown and visibly loses juices?
  2. 100 degrees F
  3. 120 degrees F
  4. 140 degrees F
  5. 150 degrees F
  6. 170 degrees F

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 161

 

  1. Warmed-over meat flavor is an example of _____.
  2. the Maillard reaction
  3. protein coagulation
  4. fatty acid oxidation
  5. none of the above answers is correct

 

ANS: c       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 162

 

  1. Which of the following statements about flavor enhancements is incorrect?
  2. All professional chefs recommend that salt should be added at the beginning of the cooking process.
  3. Self-basting can be achieved by barding.
  4. Seasoning prior to heating may improve flavor if the seasoning becomes part of the crust.
  5. Basting meat helps it retain both moisture and flavor.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 162

 

  1. When meat is heated, the muscle fiber proteins denature, unfold, coagulate, and toughen at around
  2. 100 degrees F.
  3. 120 degrees F.
  4. 140 degrees F.
  5. 150 degrees F.
  6. 170 degrees F.

 

ANS: a       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 161-162

 

  1. _____ is a brown sauce made with mushrooms, tomato sauce, and tarragon.
  2. Bordelaise
  3. Chasseur
  4. Mornay
  5. Robert

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 162

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false regarding carryover cooking?
  2. Carryover cooking can result in an average temperature increase of 10 to 15 degrees F for average-sized roasts and up to a 25 degree F increase for very large roasts.
  3. Meat cooked at a high temperature such as 375 to 400 degrees F will experience only minimal carryover cooking.
  4. Depending on their size, roasts should be allowed to stand for 15 to 30 minutes in order to distribute the heat and juices.
  5. All of the above statements are true.

 

ANS: b       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 163-164

 

 

True/False

 

  1. Bones in a cut of meat serve as landmarks for identifying the various cuts from a carcass.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 144

 

  1. A high-polyunsaturated fat diet will yield pork that is high in saturated fat.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 144

 

  1. When the meat is a bright cherry red, it means that it is fresh and still capable of picking up nitrogen from the air.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Application-based                        REF: 145-146

 

  1. Federal laws require the inspection of an animal carcass that is going to be sold commercially.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 146

 

  1. To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, grading is mandatory.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 146

 

  1. The Wholesale Meat Act of 1967 ensured that meat sold intrastate meets the same standards as federally inspected meat.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 147

 

  1. Quality grades reflect the amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other edible parts.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 147-149

 

  1. Yield grades are the USDA standards for beef, veal, lamb, and mutton.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 149

 

  1. The factor that has the greatest impact on the tenderness of meat is the location of the muscle on the animal.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 150

 

  1. The two major types of meat cuts purchased are wholesale and retail.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 152

 

  1. Variety meats are meats from other cuisines served as an entrée.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 156

 

  1. Processing methods for meat in the United States include canning, curing, smoking, and drying.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 157-158

 

  1. The degree of doneness can be determined by pressing lightly on the lean tissue to determine whether the meat is rare, medium, or well done.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 164

 

  1. In general, it usually takes 12 to 15 minutes of roasting time for every pound of meat.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 165

 

  1. Less-tender cuts of meat are usually prepared by dry-heat cookery methods.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 164|166

 

  1. When broiling thick steaks or those to be well done, the door of an electric oven should be left open while a gas broiler door should be left closed.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 165

 

  1. Liver should be salted before it is sautéed or else it will toughen and shrivel.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 166

 

  1. Braising a pot roast can transform a meat’s texture from tough to fork-tender.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Simmered or stewed meat is cooked partially submerged in liquid.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Fricassees are stews in which the meat is first browned in fat and then served in its own cooking liquid, thickened or not, as desired.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Microwave ovens should not be used for thawing and reheating leftovers.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. One limitation of cooking in a microwave oven is that meats do not taste the same as when prepared by other methods, primarily because browning does not occur.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Meats should be carved with the grain, to lengthen the muscle fiber, making the meat easier to chew.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Meats are best refrigerated between 32 degrees F and 36 degrees F and stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator.

 

ANS: T       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 167

 

  1. Frozen meat should be wrapped and stored at 32 degrees F or lower for a maximum of 18 months.

 

ANS: F       DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 168

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. another name for the fatty tissue of an animal
  2. another name for the intramuscular fat found in meat
  3. the primary pigment in muscle fibers
  4. the cooking and heat transfer that continue after meat is removed from the heat
  5. an effect of the oxidation of meat’s unsaturated fatty acids

 

  1. adipose tissue
  2. marbling
  3. myoglobin
  4. warmed-over meat flavor
  5. carryover cooking

 

Key:

  1. ANS: a DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143
  2. ANS: b DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 143
  3. ANS: c DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 145
  4. ANS: e DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 162
  5. ANS: d DIF: Knowledge-based                         REF: 163

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What part of the composition of meat influences the preparation method chosen for a particular cut of meat? What happens to this component upon heating?

 

ANS: See pp. 161-162.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 161-162

 

  1. How should meat(s) be stored and what are the time limits on the types of storage? What can happen to meat when it is improperly stored?

 

ANS: See pp. 167-169.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 167-169

 

  1. This morning you went to the butcher and purchased a beautiful cut of meat. You grilled it for dinner tonight and it was tough as shoe leather. What happened? Begin with purchasing. What will you do differently the next time that you grill steaks so that they are perfect?

 

ANS: See pp. 149-154 and 161-165.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 149-154|161-165

 

  1. You are going to make a boneless rump roast (rolled) for pot roast this weekend. Taking into consideration what cut of meat this is, discuss the best way to prepare this roast.

 

ANS: See pp. 142-143, 152-153, 161-162, and 166-167.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 142-143|152-153|161-162|166-167

 

  1. Discuss the pros and cons of giving antibiotics and hormones to livestock.Optional: Use the Internet to locate opposing opinions.

 

ANS: See p. 145.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 145

 

  1. Explain the differences between larding and barding. Where would you use one over the other?

 

ANS: See p. 162.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 162

 

  1. Why does the color of meat vary among animals and individual muscles? What is a meat pigment? Explain the effect of oxygen and heat on the color of red meat. How do nitrites affect color? Why is this knowledge important to us in the food business?

 

ANS: See pp. 145-146 and 158-160.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 145-146|158-160

 

  1. How do the various treatments applied to meats, including enzymes, salts, acids, and mechanical methods such as grinding or pounding, increase tenderness? Discuss the positive and negative aspects of each.

 

ANS: See pp. 151-152.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 151-152

 

  1. There is a difference of opinion among some professional chefs about salting meat before cooking the meat. Why is there some question over it? What is your opinion?

 

ANS: See p. 162.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 162

 

  1. What specific pathogenic bacteria are we concerned with when working with meats? What precautions should be taken to prevent these foodborne illnesses?Optional: Use the Internet to obtain additional information not provided in the text (E. coli O157:H7).

 

ANS: See pp. 146-147.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 146-147

 

  1. How does the cut of meat influence the selection of either dry- or moist-heat preparation methods? What type of cuts should be cooked with dry-heat preparation? What types are more appropriate for moist-heat preparation? List and describe cooking methods included in each group.

 

ANS: See pp. 141-144, 149-150, 152-156, and 161-167.

DIF: Application-based                                          REF: 141-144|149-150|152-156|161-167

 

 

Ready-to-Use Chapter 7 Test

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Meat from herbivores serves as an important source of _____ in the North American diet.
  2. carbohydrates
  3. complete proteins
  4. fiber
  5. incomplete proteins

 

  1. Beef from cattle is classified according to
  2. composition.
  3. age and sex.
  4. inspection and grading.
  5. moist-heat or dry-heat preparation.
  6. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Bulls are castrated when young so that they will gain weight quickly.
  3. Stag meat is typically used for processed meats and pet foods.
  4. The meat from cows is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.
  5. Calves’ meat is also referred to as “baby beef.”

 

  1. A major source of beef in the United States is _____, male cattle that are castrated when young.
  2. bulls
  3. heifers
  4. cows
  5. steers

 

  1. Veal is meat from
  2. beef calves between the ages of three weeks and three months.
  3. swine between the ages of three weeks and three months.
  4. lambs under three years of age.
  5. beef heifers under the age of three months.

 

  1. What is the primary difference between lamb and mutton?
  2. Lamb is from older animals.
  3. Lamb is from sheep and mutton is from goats.
  4. Lamb is from sheep under 14 months and mutton is from sheep over 14 months.
  5. Lamb is the same thing as mutton; there is no difference.

 

  1. If one does not know the age of a sheep carcass, one way to tell if the meat is lamb or mutton is that
  2. lamb legs snap above the joint, while mutton legs will break in the joint.
  3. mutton has a lighter and more delicate flavor than lamb.
  4. lamb is darker and tougher than mutton.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Pork is generally defined as
  2. old swine of either gender regardless of age.
  3. old swine over 2 and under 4 years of age.
  4. young male swine between 1 and 2 years of age.
  5. young swine of either gender between 5 ½ and 7 months of age.

 

  1. What part of the animal is the main source of meat for consumption?
  2. adipose tissue
  3. collagen
  4. connective tissue
  5. muscle tissue

 

  1. Connective tissue in the animal and ultimately in the meat is part of
  2. adipose tissue, which acts as the “glue” for muscle fibers.
  3. collagen, adenosine triphosphate, and lignin.
  4. elastin, which is related to reticulin and holds muscles to tendons.
  5. tendons and ligaments and the “glue” that holds muscle cells together.

 

  1. The most abundant protein in connective tissue is
  2. collagen.
  3. elastin.
  4. reticulin.
  5. mucopolysaccharide.

 

  1. _____ is tough and fibrous, but converts to a gel when exposed to moist heat.
  2. Elastin
  3. Collagen
  4. Reticulin
  5. all of the above

 

  1. Cuts of meat high in connective tissue
  2. are naturally tender.
  3. are found in less exercised muscles.
  4. are more flavorful than the tender cuts.
  5. are usually more expensive and require dry-heat cookery methods.
  6. all of the above

 

  1. The relationship between exercise, connective tissue, and the tenderness of the meat is that the
  2. less the muscle is exercised, the greater the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.
  3. more the muscle is exercised, the less the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.
  4. more the muscle is exercised, the less the connective tissue content, and the more tender the meat.
  5. more the muscle is exercised, the greater the connective tissue content, and the less tender the meat.

 

  1. You cooked a beautiful cut of meat from the shoulder of a steer and now, as you are sitting down and eating dinner, you feel small, rubbery bits in your mouth as you chew your meat. Why is this affecting the tenderness and your enjoyment of this piece of meat?
  2. The shoulder cut should have been cooked by a moist-heat cookery method.
  3. The shoulder cut should have been cooked by a dry-heat cookery method.
  4. You neglected to remove the collagen before cooking.
  5. You neglected to remove the elastin before cooking.
  6. You neglected to remove the reticulin before cooking.

 

  1. The fat content of meat varies with
  2. the source animal’s genetics and age.
  3. the source animal’s diet and exercise.
  4. the cut of the meat.
  5. all of the above

 

  1. The appearance of the fat in an older animal is influenced by the presence of _____ pigments in the feed.
  2. anthocyanin
  3. anthoxanthin
  4. betalains
  5. carotenoid
  6. flavonoid

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Marbling in muscle appears as little white streaks or drops.
  3. The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the texture of fat.
  4. Fat is white in younger animals and turns progressively more yellow in color as the animals age.
  5. Feeding swine a diet containing fats that are primarily saturated will yield pork fat that is harder as compared to that from animals fed more polyunsaturated fats.
  6. Lamb fat is very different from the hard, more brittle, and dense fat observed in beef.

 

  1. Yellow marrow
  2. does not supply a lot of flavor.
  3. contains many blood vessels.
  4. is found in the short bones.
  5. is found in the long bones.
  6. is the hard fatty material found in the center of most bones.

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Over three-fourths of North American cattle are treated with hormones.
  3. Organic beef has been treated with hormones to stimulate growth and improve yield.
  4. When meat is labeled “natural,” this means that hormones were not used.
  5. Meat with added ingredients can be called “natural.”

 

  1. Which of the following bones will be identified with the sirloin cut of meat?
  2. backbone, rib bone, T-bone
  3. arm bone, blade bone
  4. pin bone, flat bone, wedge bone
  5. round bone, breast and rib bones

 

  1. Which of the following pigments in fresh meat is brownish-red in color?
  2. myoglobin
  3. metmyglobin
  4. oxymyoglobin
  5. nitrosylmyoglobin

 

  1. Which of the following is a false statement about pigments?
  2. Myoglobin receives oxygen from the blood and stores it in the muscles.
  3. Hemoglobin transports oxygen throughout the body and is found primarily in the bloodstream.
  4. The higher the concentration of hemoglobin in raw meat, the more intense is its bright color.
  5. Heavily exercised muscles have a higher demand for oxygen, so they are redder in color than the less exercised muscles.
  6. The red color of meat increases as the animal ages.

 

  1. Collagen’s molecular structure consists of
  2. three polypeptide strands twisted together.
  3. strands held together by hydrogen and covalent bonds.
  4. strands that are high in proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine.
  5. all of the above
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Meat derives some of its flavor from _____ compounds called extractives.
  2. carbon
  3. hydrogen
  4. oxygen
  5. nitrogen
  6. fat-soluble

 

  1. The _____ made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce.
  2. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service
  3. Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906
  4. Wholesale Meat Act of 1967
  5. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System

 

  1. Which of the following is not found in meat?
  2. high-quality protein, fat, and some B vitamins
  3. about 75 percent water
  4. iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus
  5. soluble and insoluble fiber

 

  1. Meat tenderness is affected by factors such as
  2. the muscle from which it came.
  3. age and fat content.
  4. enzymes, salts, and acids.
  5. mechanical and electrical treatments.
  6. preparation times and temperatures.
  7. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Which wholesale beef cut is not appropriate for broiling?
  2. rib
  3. brisket
  4. short loin
  5. none of the above; all are preferred for broiling

 

  1. Retail beef cuts appropriate for pot roasts include all of the following except
  2. chuck shoulder.
  3. bottom round.
  4. top rib.
  5. brisket.
  6. short plate.
  7. none of the above; all of these cuts may be cooked as pot roasts

 

  1. _____ has an exceptionally milky flavor, pale color, and tender texture.
  2. Lamb
  3. Veal
  4. Pork
  5. Mutton
  6. Beef

 

  1. Which of the following is a cut of fatty tissue from a pig often used as a flavoring agent?
  2. sparerib
  3. tenderloin
  4. Canadian-style bacon
  5. salt pork

 

  1. Which of the following is not a method of aging meats?
  2. rigor mortis
  3. fast or wet
  4. vacuum
  5. none of the above because all of the answers are methods of aging meats

 

  1. Regarding slaughter conditions,
  2. if an animal is under stress, its muscle cells obtain extra oxygen.
  3. if cells switch to aerobic energy sources, which produce lactic acid, this causes the pH to become more alkaline.
  4. if glycogen stores are depleted before death, insufficient lactic acid will be produced during rigor mortis.
  5. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Sweetbreads are obtained from
  2. steers and bulls.
  3. heifers and cows.
  4. calves or young beef.
  5. all of the above answers are correct
  6. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which form of pork would be the best for larding or barding?
  2. Canadian bacon
  3. prosciutto
  4. ham hocks
  5. cutlets
  6. bacon

 

  1. Which of the following is the best cooking method for a tender cut of meat?
  2. frying
  3. braising
  4. stewing
  5. steaming

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding meat preparation is false?
  2. Surface moisture on meat should be wiped before cooking.
  3. For best results, frozen meats should be thoroughly thawed at room temperature before cooking.
  4. A frozen roast may take up to three times longer to prepare than a thawed roast.
  5. Frozen cuts are more difficult to heat evenly and the center may remain frozen even though the outside looks perfectly done.
  6. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Exposing meat to high temperatures for too long of a time period will do all of the following except
  2. lengthen muscle fibers.
  3. denature proteins.
  4. cause meat to dehydrate.
  5. all of the above answers are correct

 

  1. Which of the following statements about searing meat is true?
  2. Searing decreases the flavor of meat.
  3. Searing will help to keep the juices inside a piece of meat as it cooks.
  4. To sear, place the meat in a cold pan on the stove and slowly increase the heat until the meat begins to caramelize on the outside.
  5. Trying to move the meat too early in the searing process will destroy the crust formation.

 

  1. During cooking, at what temperature does connective tissue shrink while moisture is lost and the meat appears pinkish-brown and visibly loses juices?
  2. 100 degrees F
  3. 120 degrees F
  4. 140 degrees F
  5. 150 degrees F
  6. 170 degrees F

 

  1. Warmed-over meat flavor is an example of _____.
  2. the Maillard reaction
  3. protein coagulation
  4. fatty acid oxidation
  5. none of the above answers is correct

 

  1. Which of the following statements about flavor enhancements is incorrect?
  2. All professional chefs recommend that salt should be added at the beginning of the cooking process.
  3. Self-basting can be achieved by barding.
  4. Seasoning prior to heating may improve flavor if the seasoning becomes part of the crust.
  5. Basting meat helps it retain both moisture and flavor.

 

  1. When meat is heated, the muscle fiber proteins denature, unfold, coagulate, and toughen at around
  2. 100 degrees F.
  3. 120 degrees F.
  4. 140 degrees F.
  5. 150 degrees F.
  6. 170 degrees F.

 

  1. _____ is a brown sauce made with mushrooms, tomato sauce, and tarragon.
  2. Bordelaise
  3. Chasseur
  4. Mornay
  5. Robert

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false regarding carryover cooking?
  2. Carryover cooking can result in an average temperature increase of 10 to 15 degrees F for average-sized roasts and up to a 25 degree F increase for very large roasts.
  3. Meat cooked at a high temperature such as 375 to 400 degrees F will experience only minimal carryover cooking.
  4. Depending on their size, roasts should be allowed to stand for 15 to 30 minutes in order to distribute the heat and juices.
  5. All of the above statements are true.

 

 

True/False

 

  1. Bones in a cut of meat serve as landmarks for identifying the various cuts from a carcass.

 

  1. A high-polyunsaturated fat diet will yield pork that is high in saturated fat.

 

  1. When the meat is a bright cherry red, it means that it is fresh and still capable of picking up nitrogen from the air.

 

  1. Federal laws require the inspection of an animal carcass that is going to be sold commercially.

 

  1. To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, grading is mandatory.

 

  1. The Wholesale Meat Act of 1967 ensured that meat sold intrastate meets the same standards as federally inspected meat.

 

  1. Quality grades reflect the amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other edible parts.

 

  1. Yield grades are the USDA standards for beef, veal, lamb, and mutton.

 

  1. The factor that has the greatest impact on the tenderness of meat is the location of the muscle on the animal.

 

  1. The two major types of meat cuts purchased are wholesale and retail.

 

  1. Variety meats are meats from other cuisines served as an entrée.

 

  1. Processing methods for meat in the United States include canning, curing, smoking, and drying.

 

  1. The degree of doneness can be determined by pressing lightly on the lean tissue to determine whether the meat is rare, medium, or well done.

 

  1. In general, it usually takes 12 to 15 minutes of roasting time for every pound of meat.

 

  1. Less-tender cuts of meat are usually prepared by dry-heat cookery methods.

 

  1. When broiling thick steaks or those to be well done, the door of an electric oven should be left open while a gas broiler door should be left closed.

 

  1. Liver should be salted before it is sautéed or else it will toughen and shrivel.

 

  1. Braising a pot roast can transform a meat’s texture from tough to fork-tender.

 

  1. Simmered or stewed meat is cooked partially submerged in liquid.

 

  1. Fricassees are stews in which the meat is first browned in fat and then served in its own cooking liquid, thickened or not, as desired.

 

  1. Microwave ovens should not be used for thawing and reheating leftovers.

 

  1. One limitation of cooking in a microwave oven is that meats do not taste the same as when prepared by other methods, primarily because browning does not occur.

 

  1. Meats should be carved with the grain, to lengthen the muscle fiber, making the meat easier to chew.

 

  1. Meats are best refrigerated between 32 degrees F and 36 degrees F and stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator.

 

  1. Frozen meat should be wrapped and stored at 32 degrees F or lower for a maximum of 18 months.

 

 

Matching

 

Definition choices:

  1. another name for the fatty tissue of an animal
  2. another name for the intramuscular fat found in meat
  3. the primary pigment in muscle fibers
  4. the cooking and heat transfer that continue after meat is removed from the heat
  5. an effect of the oxidation of meat’s unsaturated fatty acids

 

  1. adipose tissue
  2. marbling
  3. myoglobin
  4. warmed-over meat flavor
  5. carryover cooking

 

 

Discussion

 

  1. What part of the composition of meat influences the preparation method chosen for a particular cut of meat? What happens to this component upon heating?

 

  1. How should meat(s) be stored and what are the time limits on the types of storage? What can happen to meat when it is improperly stored?

 

  1. This morning you went to the butcher and purchased a beautiful cut of meat. You grilled it for dinner tonight and it was tough as shoe leather. What happened? Begin with purchasing. What will you do differently the next time that you grill steaks so that they are perfect?

 

  1. You are going to make a boneless rump roast (rolled) for pot roast this weekend. Taking into consideration what cut of meat this is, discuss the best way to prepare this roast.

 

  1. Discuss the pros and cons of giving antibiotics and hormones to livestock.Optional: Use the Internet to locate opposing opinions.

 

  1. Explain the differences between larding and barding. Where would you use one over the other?

 

  1. Why does the color of meat vary among animals and individual muscles? What is a meat pigment? Explain the effect of oxygen and heat on the color of red meat. How do nitrites affect color? Why is this knowledge important to us in the food business?

 

  1. How do the various treatments applied to meats, including enzymes, salts, acids, and mechanical methods such as grinding or pounding, increase tenderness? Discuss the positive and negative aspects of each.

 

  1. There is a difference of opinion among some professional chefs about salting meat before cooking the meat. Why is there some question over it? What is your opinion?

 

  1. What specific pathogenic bacteria are we concerned with when working with meats? What precautions should be taken to prevent these foodborne illnesses?Optional: Use the Internet to obtain additional information not provided in the text (E. coli O157:H7).

 

  1. How does the cut of meat influence the selection of either dry- or moist-heat preparation methods? What type of cuts should be cooked with dry-heat preparation? What types are more appropriate for moist-heat preparation? List and describe cooking methods included in each group.

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

[2] By Dr. Joan Aronson of New York University. A ready-to-use test (the same questions reformatted for printing out as a test) is provided at the end of this document.

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