Understanding Nursing Research  Building An Evidence-Based Practice 6th Edition by Susan K. Grove-Jennifer R. Gray -Nancy Burns – Test Bank  

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Understanding Nursing Research  Building An Evidence-Based Practice 6th Edition by Susan K. Grove-Jennifer R. Gray -Nancy Burns – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 05: Research Problems, Purposes, and Hypotheses

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The most important initial step when developing a research study is to:
a. develop the problem statement.
b. explore the background for the research problem.
c. identify the research problem.
d. state the research purpose.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
B The background for the research problem is written to identify what is known about the research problem.
C The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
D The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 131

 

  1. A nursing researcher determines that there is little information about the use of complementary practices in treating obesity. This represents the research:
a. design.
b. problem.
c. purpose.
d. significance.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A The research design is the type of study that will be conducted to study the research problem.
B The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
C The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.
D The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified. The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 131-132

 

  1. When writing a proposal for a research study, the researcher includes a problem statement that serves to:
a. define the specific focus of a study.
b. describe what is known about the research problem.
c. identify a gap in knowledge needed for practice.
d. indicate the importance of the problem to nursing.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.
B The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
C The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
D The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 131-132

 

  1. In a research proposal, the researcher states that the proposed study will explore children’s feelings about chemotherapy side effects. This statement describes the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. research problem.
d. research purpose.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
B The significance of the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.
C The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
D The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 131-132

 

  1. Which is included in a statement of a research study purpose?
a. A description of gaps in knowledge about the research problem.
b. A discussion of the significance of the research problem.
c. A review of what is known about the research problem.
d. A statement about how the research problem will be studied.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
B The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline.
C The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
D The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 131-132

 

  1. The statement in the introduction of a research study report—“while children who have higher asthma control scores tend to have fewer emergency department visits for asthma exacerbations, it is unclear how nursing interventions can impact these scores”—represents the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. research problem.
d. research purpose.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
B The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline and to health care and the health of individuals and families.
C The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
D The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   pp. 131-132

 

  1. The statements in the introductory paragraphs of a research report that cite results of previous studies about a research problem represent the:
a. problem background.
b. problem significance.
c. problem statement.
d. research purpose.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The problem background identifies what is already known about the topic. The problem statement is written after the research problem has been identified.
B The significance for the research identifies how important the knowledge is to the discipline and to health care and the health of individuals and families.
C The problem provides the basis for developing the research purpose and identifies gaps in knowledge needed for nursing practice.
D The research purpose derives from the research problem and identifies specific goals for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 132

 

  1. Which statement is a research purpose for a correlational study?
a. “This study will compare the effects of an oral antidiabetic medication to effects of a placebo on glucose control in groups of randomly assigned subjects.”
b. “This study will examine whether pre-appointment telephone reminders increase show rate among patients in an ambulatory well-patient clinic.”
c. “This study will use direct observation to identify methods parents use to discipline children in public places.”
d. “This study will use questionnaires and school transcripts to examine the relationship of dietary habits to grades among school-age children.”

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A study looking at the effects of an experimental intervention on randomly assigned subjects to affect a specific outcome is an experimental study.
B A study to look at the effects of an intervention on an outcome is a quasi-experimental study.
C A study to observe and describe behaviors without examining relationships among variables and without manipulation of the variables by researchers is a descriptive study.
D Correlational research is conducted to examine whether there is a positive or negative relationship among variables without attributing cause and effect.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 134

 

  1. The nurse researcher states that a research purpose is to measure the effects of bar code medication administration on medication errors. This is a study purpose for which type of research?
a. Correlational
b. Grounded theory
c. Outcomes
d. Quasi-experimental

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Correlational research is conducted to determine whether there are relationships among variables.
B Grounded theory research is designed to determine how theory explains phenomena being studied.
C Outcomes studies are conducted to examine the end results of care.
D Quasi-experimental research requires some manipulation of variables and comparison of groups.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 140

 

  1. Which statement in a study about preoperative education and postoperative recovery times represents a research question?
a. “What are the types of preoperative education materials that may be used?”
b. “What are the constructs that facilitate adult learning among patients?”
c. “What preoperative teaching will shorten postoperative recovery time?”
d. “What is already known about preoperative teaching and postoperative recovery?”

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The characteristic of a variable is given in the operational definition.
B The theoretical framework identifies constructs and theories about the research study.
C A research question focuses on description of variables or concepts, examination of relationships among variables, and determination of differences between two or more groups regarding selected variables.
D The background about what is already known about the topic for conducting is described in the literature review.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 147

 

  1. What type of hypothesis is the following?

“Children with cystic fibrosis who use a cough assist device will experience less anxiety about their disease and have fewer inpatient hospital admissions per year.”

a. Complex, directional
b. Complex, null
c. Simple, associative
d. Simple, nondirectional

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A complex hypothesis predicts the relationship among three or more variables. In this example, the variables are cough assist devices (independent), hospital admissions (dependent), and anxiety (dependent). A directional hypothesis states the nature of the interaction between two or more variables. In this example, the direction is indicated by the prediction “experience less anxiety.”
B A complex hypothesis is correct, but the null hypothesis predicts no difference.
C This study has more than two variables (not simple) and indicates a direction and not just an association.
D A simple hypothesis has only two variables (this study has more than two), and there is a direction predicted (experiencing less anxiety and having fewer inpatient hospital admissions).

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   pp. 149-150

 

  1. A statement about the significance of a study describes the:
a. influence of results on nursing practice.
b. relationship among study variables.
c. study design and methods.
d. validity of the study measurement tools.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The statement about the significance of the study identifies its importance to the body of knowledge and to nursing practice.
B The research purpose and research question identify proposed relationships among study variables.
C The study design and methods describe the type of study, sampling techniques, and tools used to evaluate data.
D The validity of measurement tools is determined by whether the tools measure what they claim to measure.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   pp. 140-141

 

  1. A reviewer assesses a potential researcher’s credentials and experience, the availability of funding and resources, and ethical considerations of a potential study. This represents evaluation of a study’s:
a. expertise.
b. feasibility.
c. purpose.
d. significance.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Expertise refers to the researcher’s qualifications, credentials, and experience.
B The feasibility of a study is determined by examining the researcher’s qualifications, the funding and resources available to conduct the study, the availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment, and ethical considerations.
C The study purpose identifies the focus and goals of the study.
D The significance identifies the importance of the study to the body of knowledge and to practice.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   pp. 143-144

 

  1. Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis:

“Mothers of infants born with spina bifida who participate in support groups report higher levels of confidence when caring for their infants than do mothers who do not participate in support groups.”

a. Confidence in caring for their infants
b. Infants with spina bifida
c. Mothers of infants with spina bifida
d. Support group participation

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Infants with spina bifida is part of the criteria for inclusion in the study.
B The level of confidence in caring for their infants is the dependent variable. It is measured as a response to whether or not the mothers received the “treatment” of using a support group.
C The mothers of infants with spina bifida are criteria for inclusion as subjects in the study and are not variables.
D An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, use of support groups is the “treatment” that is being used to manipulate levels of confidence in caring for their infants.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   pp. 153-154

 

  1. In a research proposal, the author describes what is already known about the research topic. This would be included in the discussion of the study’s:
a. background.
b. feasibility.
c. purpose.
d. significance.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The background section describes research about the problem performed to date.
B In the section about a study’s feasibility, the researcher’s expertise, funding resources, availability of subjects and settings, and ethical considerations are examined.
C The research purpose identifies specific goals and the focus of the study.
D The study’s significance discusses the importance of the study to the discipline.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 143-144

 

  1. Which component of a research study is exemplified in the statement, “This study identifies various themes associated with parenting children who have chronic disease?”
a. Aim or objective
b. Hypothesis
c. Research methodology
d. Research problem

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A research objective or aim is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present tense and which focuses on one or two variables, indicating whether they are to be identified or described.
B The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables.
C The research methodology identifies sampling and measurement techniques.
D The research problem identifies gaps in knowledge.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 145-146

 

  1. The statement, “Do patients who receive care in a Patient-Centered Medical Home have fewer emergency department visits than those who do not?” is an example of a research:
a. aim.
b. hypothesis.
c. method.
d. question.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The research objective or aim is a clear, concise, declarative statement that is expressed in the present tense and which focuses on one or two variables, indicating whether they are to be identified or described.
B The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables.
C The research methodology identifies sampling and measurement techniques.
D A research question is a concise interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense, includes one or more variables, and guides the implementation of studies by asking whether or not there is a relationship between the variables.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 147-148

 

  1. All of the following aspects of a research proposal are part of the research hypothesis except:
a. methodology.
b. outcomes.
c. population.
d. variables.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The methodology is not described in the research hypothesis statement.
B The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.
C The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.
D The hypothesis is a formal statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables. It will mention the expected outcomes, the population being studied, and the specific variables.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   pp. 149-150

 

  1. In a study comparing the effects of complementary therapies on pain scores and narcotic analgesic use in homeless women and women who own homes, which of the following is a demographic variable?
a. Complementary therapies
b. Homeless women
c. Narcotic analgesic use
d. Pain scores

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Complementary therapy is the independent variable.
B Demographic variables are characteristics or attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.
C Narcotic analgesic use and pain scores are dependent variables.
D Pain scores are a dependent variable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 157

 

  1. The statement, “In this study, elevated blood glucose is a value greater than 110 mg/dL,” is an example of a(n):
a. associative hypothesis.
b. conceptual definition.
c. operational definition.
d. problem statement.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A hypothesis indicates the researcher’s educated guess at what the outcome of the research will be. An associative hypothesis describes a predicted relationship that the researcher develops between the established variables being studied. This statement is an operational definition, not a hypothesis.
B A conceptual definition is the theoretical meaning of a variable.
C An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable. An operational definition is developed so that a variable can be measured or manipulated in a concrete situation. In this example, pain is the sensory impression being measured on a numerical scale.
D The problem statement indicates the gap in knowledge needed for practice and provides a basis for the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 155

 

  1. Which is true about a causal hypothesis?
a. It describes the effects of independent variables on dependent variables.
b. It predicts a negative or positive interaction between variables.
c. It proposes positive or negative relationships among variables.
d. It states that a relationship exists between variables without indicating direction.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between two or more variables.
B An associative hypothesis states that a relationship exists among variables.
C A correlational hypothesis proposes negative or positive interactions between variables.
D A causal hypothesis indicates direction.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   pp. 149-150

 

  1. Which is an example of a directional, correlational hypothesis?
a. “Increasing hours spent in study groups is associated with an increase in GPA among nursing students.”
b. “Increased use of study groups will result in an increase in GPA among nursing students.”
c. “Nursing students who use study groups are among groups of students who have higher GPAs.”
d. “Studying in study groups is related to GPA levels in nursing students.”

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A directional hypothesis states whether a positive or negative interaction will occur between variables. A correlational hypothesis indicates an association without attributing cause.
B Stating that increased use of study groups will result in increased GPA makes this statement a cause-and-effect hypothesis.
C The third and fourth statements are nondirectional because they do not state whether or not there is a positive or negative interaction.
D The third and fourth statements are nondirectional because they do not state whether or not there is a positive or negative interaction.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 149-151

 

  1. The statistical (null) hypothesis in a research study states that there is:
a. a causal relationship between variables.
b. a statistically significant relationship between variables.
c. an implied relationship between variables.
d. no relationship between variables.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.
B Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.
C Any hypothesis stating a statistically significant relationship, an implied relationship, or a causal relationship among variables is a research hypothesis.
D The null hypothesis is the converse of the research hypothesis and states that there is no relationship among variables.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF:   pp. 150-151

 

  1. Which is an important feature of a testable hypothesis?
a. It may differ from the variables and population identified in the research purpose.
b. Methods of sampling, measurement, and data analysis are included in the hypothesis statement.
c. Relationships among the study variables must be causative.
d. Variables in a testable hypothesis are measurable or able to be manipulated.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Variables stated in a research hypothesis are those identified in the research purpose.
B The testable hypothesis does not identify methodological points to avoid limiting the hypothesis to those methods.
C Relationships in a testable hypothesis may be associative or correlational.
D A testable hypothesis is one that clearly predicts the relationships among variables and contains variables that are measurable or able to be manipulated in a study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 152

 

  1. Which statement differentiates research variables from research concepts?
a. Concepts are more abstract than variables.
b. Concepts are usually studied in quantitative research.
c. Variables are less subject to manipulation and measurement.
d. Variables cannot be concisely defined or clearly described.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Concepts are more abstract than variables and are usually studied in qualitative research.
B Concepts are more abstract than variables and are usually studied in qualitative research.
C Variables are qualities, properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that can be manipulated, and measured.
D Variables are qualities, properties, or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that change or vary and can be concisely defined, and described.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   pp. 153-154| p. 156

 

  1. A researcher wishes to study the effects of a low-fat diet on self-esteem, weight, and energy levels among obese women over age 40. Which is the independent variable in this study?
a. Low-fat diet
b. Obesity
c. Self-esteem, weight, and energy levels
d. Women over 40

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The independent variable in a study is the variable that can be manipulated to determine whether a specific outcome or result is achieved.
B Obesity and women over 40 are demographic variables.
C Self-esteem, weight, and energy levels are dependent variables, based on the presence or absence of the independent variable.
D Obesity and women over 40 are demographic variables.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 153

 

  1. Which is true about a dependent variable in a research study? It is:
a. manipulated by the researcher to test the research hypothesis.
b. the cause of changes in other variables in a research study.
c. the experimental variable in a research study.
d. the outcome the researcher wishes to predict.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Changes in the dependent variable are presumed to be caused by the independent variables.
B The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.
C The independent variable is also referred to as the experimental variable.
D The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 153

 

  1. Which type of variable is used in a descriptive study?
a. Dependent variable
b. Independent variable
c. Research variable
d. Treatment variable

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.
B The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.
C Research variables are the qualities, properties, or characteristics identified in a descriptive or correlational study.
D The independent variable is sometimes called the treatment variable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 153

 

  1. During a study to measure the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, the researchers learned that a portion of the subjects lived in homes with one or more alcoholic parents. In this study, the presence of an alcoholic parent is a(n):
a. confounding variable.
b. dependent variable.
c. independent variable.
d. unrecognized variable.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that is not recognized until the study is in process or is recognized before beginning the study, but cannot be controlled.
B The dependent variable is the outcome that the researcher wishes to predict or explain.
C The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and is presumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.
D An unrecognized variable is a type of extraneous variable that is not noted during the study, but may or may not influence the outcome.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 153

 

  1. To reduce or eliminate the influence of environmental variables on study results, the researcher may:
a. completely describe all environmental settings encountered in the study.
b. discuss these variables in the study results.
c. use a research unit in a hospital or laboratory.
d. use a qualitative study design to conduct the study.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Describing the environmental variables or discussing them in the study results does not eliminate the influence of the environment on the study outcomes.
B Describing the environmental variables or discussing them in the study results does not eliminate the influence of the environment on the study outcomes.
C Environmental variables are a type of extraneous variable present in the setting in which the study is conducted. In order to control for environment, the researcher will use a laboratory setting or a research unit in a hospital.
D Using a qualitative study design noes not eliminate the influence of the environment on study outcomes.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 153

 

  1. Which is an example of a conceptual definition of a dependent variable in a study evaluating the effects of home nursing on coping among patients with chronic illness?
a. “Coping is a set of actions and strategies used by individuals to reduce the stressors associated with chronic disease management.”
b. “Coping skills were measured using a five-point Likert scale with higher scores indicating higher coping skills.”
c. “Home nursing can include registered nurse and nursing assistant management of treatments provided at home.”
d. “Home nursing was measured in the number of hours per week and the number of hours per day of in-home care.”

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A conceptual definition provides the theoretical meaning of a variable. The dependent variable in this study is “coping.”
B Operational definitions describe the actions the researcher will take to identify the characteristics of the variable.
C “Home nursing” is the independent variable in this study.
D “Home nursing” is the independent variable in this study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 155

 

  1. Which is true about an operational variable in quantitative research?
a. It is developed so that the degree of its existence can be measured.
b. It is often derived from a theoretical definition of a related concept.
c. It is specific to the time and setting of the research study.
d. It provides the theoretical meaning of a variable.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable.
B The conceptual definition is derived from the theoretical definition of a related concept.
C Operational definitions need to be independent of time and setting.
D The conceptual definition provides theoretical meaning for a variable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 155

 

  1. In a qualitative study, which is true about the definition of research concepts?
a. They are measureable variables that help illustrate theoretical concepts.
b. They are often defined or described as a result of the study.
c. They are written to provide a concise measure of theoretical concepts.
d. They must be clearly described to proceed with the study.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Unlike variables in a quantitative study, they usually are not easily measured.
B In many qualitative studies, the focus of the study is to define or describe the concept.
C They are developed as the study unfolds and do not have to be clearly described in order to proceed with the study.
D They are developed as the study unfolds and do not have to be clearly described in order to proceed with the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 156

 

  1. Which type of variable is used in a summary of sample characteristics?
a. Demographic variables
b. Dependent variables
c. Independent variables
d. Research variables

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Demographic variables are attributes of subjects that are collected to describe the sample.
B Dependent variables are variables that change as a result of manipulation of the independent variable.
C Independent variables are variables that are manipulated to observe effects on dependent variables.
D Research variables are variables used in qualitative studies.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 157

 

  1. Which is true about a statement of the research purpose?
a. It describes the background for the subject of the research study.
b. It includes a discussion of the significance of the study.
c. It includes the research problem statement.
d. It provides a concise description of the study’s focus.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The review of the literature provides background for the subject of a research study.
B The study’s significance is a part of the overall purpose of the study.
C The research problem statement is a separate statement and includes a discussion of the study’s significance.
D The research purpose is a concise, clear statement of the specific goal of focus of the study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF:   p. 158

 

  1. An examination of the researcher’s plan for using measurement tools to examine relationships among variables helps determine the:
a. research hypothesis.
b. research objectives.
c. study feasibility.
d. study purpose.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The research hypothesis is determined through the research question and is a statement about the relationship among the research variables.
B The research objectives are identified in the research purpose.
C The study feasibility is determined by the researcher’s expertise, the available funding, measurement tools and sample population availability, and ethical considerations.
D The study purpose is a statement identifying what will be measured in a particular study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 158

 

  1. Which is true about a research hypothesis?
a. It defines the various research variables and describes how they will be measured.
b. It explains the relationship of the research purpose to theory development.
c. It includes the research problem, purpose, and research questions.
d. It links the research problem statement to the study design and data analysis.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The problem statement can link the research purpose to theory development.
B The introduction contains the research problem, purpose, and research questions.
C The research purpose links the problem statement to the study design and data analysis.
D The research hypothesis is the formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 158

 

  1. In a research proposal, a statement about expected relationships among variables is the:
a. conceptual definition.
b. operational definition.
c. research hypothesis.
d. research problem.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The conceptual definition is derived from the theoretical definition of a related concept and provides theoretical meaning for a variable.
B An operational definition is derived from a set of procedures or progressive acts that a researcher performs to receive sensory impressions that indicate the existence or degree of existence of a variable.
C The research hypothesis is the formal statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables in a specified population.
D The research problem identifies gaps in knowledge.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 158

 

  1. Which type of variable is manipulated by the researcher?
a. Demographic
b. Dependent
c. Independent
d. Research

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Demographic variables are attributes of members of a sample population.
B The dependent variable is the outcome variable and is the variable researchers wish to predict based on manipulation of the independent variable.
C The independent, or experimental variable, is manipulated by the researcher in order to observe possible effects on the dependent variable.
D A research variable is used in qualitative studies.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF:   p. 158

 

  1. In a study of adolescent children using a group of high school football players and junior-high school cyclists, researchers compared the length of recovery from concussion between those wearing brand X helmets and those wearing brand Y helmets. In this study “high school football players” represent which type of variable?
a. Demographic
b. Dependent
c. Independent
d. Research

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Demographic variables are attributes of members of a sample population.
B The dependent variable is the outcome variable and is the variable researchers wish to predict based on manipulation of the independent variable.
C The independent, or experimental variable, is manipulated by the researcher in order to observe possible effects on the dependent variable.
D A research variable is used in qualitative studies.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 157

Chapter 07: Understanding Theory and Research Frameworks

Grove: Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which is true about a study framework?
a. It guides nurses in clinical practice.
b. It explains a portion of a theory.
c. It is one of the major ideas of a theory.
d. It is the underlying methodology used in research.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A The knowledge gained from testing theories is used to guide nursing practice.
B A study framework is a brief explanation of a theory or those portions of a theory that are to be tested in a study.
C Concepts are the major ideas contained in a theory.
D The framework is not the methodology, which consists of sampling techniques, tools, and measures used to gather and analyze data.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 190

 

  1. Which statement is true about theory and qualitative studies?
a. Qualitative studies rely on conceptual frameworks and not on theory.
b. Qualitative studies are not based on theory.
c. Qualitative studies may be used to create theory.
d. Qualitative studies use theory in the same way as quantitative studies.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Qualitative studies do not rely on conceptual frameworks.
B Qualitative studies may be based on theory.
C Qualitative studies may be based on a theory or may be designed to create a theory.
D Quantitative studies are designed to test the components of a theory, while qualitative studies may merely be based on or seek to create a theory.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 190

 

  1. A researcher is studying how anxiety affects coping with chronic disease and theorizes that measures to reduce anxiety will improve subjects’ ability to cope with day-to-day demands of self-care. In this example, anxiety and coping are:
a. assumptions.
b. concepts.
c. philosophies.
d. theories.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.
B Concepts are terms that abstractly describe and name an object, idea, experience, or phenomenon and are defined in specific ways to present the ideas relevant to a theory.
C Philosophies are rational intellectual explorations of truths or principles and describe viewpoints on what reality is and which ethical ideas should guide practice.
D Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 190-191

 

  1. When reviewing various theoretical frameworks, the nurse researcher identifies several viewpoints about how nurses should engage with terminally ill patients. These viewpoints represent:
a. abstract ideas.
b. assumptions.
c. concrete ideas.
d. philosophies.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A An abstract idea focuses on a general view of a phenomenon.
B Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.
C A concrete idea focuses on a particular instance.
D A philosophy is an idea that explores truths or principles and describes which ethical ideas should guide practice.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 190-191

 

  1. A nurse researcher develops a study to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to lose weight by altering eating patterns. The researcher states, “Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus desire to control weight to gain better glycemic control.” This statement is a(n):
a. assumption.
b. concept.
c. philosophy.
d. theory.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.
B Concepts are terms that abstractly describe and name an object, idea, experience, or phenomenon and are defined in specific ways to present the ideas relevant to a theory.
C Philosophies are rational intellectual explorations of truths or principles and describe viewpoints on what reality is and which ethical ideas should guide practice.
D Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 190-191

 

  1. A nurse researcher will measure the effects of infant and parent bonding on infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life. The nurse will evaluate the number of times each day that the parent holds the infant. This measure is an example of a(n):
a. abstract idea.
b. concept.
c. concrete idea.
d. phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A An abstract idea is a general view of a phenomenon, such as parent/infant bonding.
B A concept is a term that abstractly describes a phenomenon.
C Concrete ideas refer to realities or actual instances, focusing on the particular and not the general.
D A phenomenon is the appearance or aspect of reality as it is experienced.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 191-192

 

  1. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activities—such as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per night—as components of self-care. In this example, “self-care” is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
B A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
C Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 191-192

 

  1. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activities—such as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per night—as components of self-care. In this example, “health promotion” is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
B A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
C Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 191-192

 

  1. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activities—such as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per night—as components of self-care. In this example, “hours of sleep” is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
B A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
C Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 191-193

 

  1. The nurse researcher plans to evaluate self-care and its effects on disease prevention. The nurse identifies various health promotion activities—such as proper diet, exercise, and hours of sleep per night—as components of self-care. In this example, “effects of self-care on disease prevention” is a:
a. concept.
b. construct.
c. theory.
d. variable.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
B A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
C Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon. A conceptual map includes all of the major concepts in a theory or framework.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   pp. 191-192

 

  1. Which is an important characteristic of a variable?
a. It is broad and encompasses several ideas.
b. It is constant from one instance to another.
c. It is less specific than a concept.
d. It is measurable and changeable.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Variables are narrow in their definition.
B Variables vary from one instance to another.
C Variables are more specific than are concepts.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 191

 

  1. Which is true about a conceptual definition in a research study?
a. It defines how a concept can be manipulated in a study.
b. It describes how a concept may be measured in a study.
c. It is comprehensive and includes associative meanings.
d. It is more specific than a dictionary definition.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The operational definition describes how the concept may be manipulated in a study.
B The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured in a study.
C A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.
D A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 192

 

  1. In a study about childhood obesity, the researcher discusses the concept of overweight in terms of weight for height measures, body mass index (BMI), body image, self-esteem, and social norms. When discussing body image, self-esteem, and social norms, the researcher is describing the:
a. conceptual definition.
b. dependent variable.
c. independent variable.
d. operational definition.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.
B The dependent variable is a measurable variable that is hypothesized to change as a result of manipulation or difference in the independent variable.
C The independent variable is a measurable variable that is manipulated by the researcher to observe possible changes in the dependent variable.
D The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 192

 

  1. In a study about childhood obesity, the researcher discusses the concept of overweight in terms of weight for height measures, body mass index (BMI), body image, self-esteem, and social norms. The researcher states that a BMI > the 95th percentile represents overweight. This statement is a(n):
a. conceptual definition.
b. dependent variable.
c. independent variable.
d. operational definition.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.
B The dependent variable is a measurable variable that is hypothesized to change as a result of manipulation or change in the independent variable.
C The independent variable is a measurable variable that is manipulated by the researcher to observe possible changes in the dependent variable.
D The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 192

 

  1. A researcher discusses how endorphins released during aerobic exercise cause a heightened sense of well-being in subjects. This discussion is a:
a. conceptual definition.
b. operational definition.
c. relational statement.
d. theoretical framework.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have.
B The operational definition describes how the concept may be measured or manipulated in a study.
C A relational statement clarifies the type of relationship that exists between concepts.
D A theoretical framework describes abstract concepts and phenomena and is used to guide nurses in clinical practice.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 193

 

  1. When a researcher analyzes data obtained from study variables for possible significant relationships among these variables, the researcher is testing the:
a. abstract ideas.
b. conceptual definitions.
c. relationship statements.
d. study assumptions.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A An abstract idea focuses on a general view of a phenomenon.
B A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have. It does not identify relationships.
C A relational statement clarifies the type of relationship that exists between concepts.
D Assumptions are statements in a philosophy or theory that are taken for granted or considered to be true.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 193

 

  1. Which statement is true about the hypothesis in a research study?
a. It clearly identifies concepts.
b. It is written at a higher level of abstraction than a general proposition.
c. It is not testable.
d. It makes a statement about specific relationships among variables.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The hypothesis does not define concepts.
B The hypothesis is written at a lower level of abstraction than a framework or proposition.
C Hypotheses are written to be tested in a study and make predictions about the relationships among variables.
D Hypotheses are written to be tested in a study and make predictions about the relationships among variables.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 193

 

  1. Which nursing theorist developed a grand nursing theory?
a. Brennaman
b. Orem
c. Pender
d. Swanson

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Brennaman developed mid-level nursing theories.
B Orem’s theory is a grand nursing theory.
C Pender developed mid-level nursing theories.
D Swanson developed mid-level nursing theories.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Remembering (Knowledge)

REF:   p. 194

 

  1. A nurse researcher discusses a theory about the stigma of chronic illness in children and describes aspects of chronic illness including aesthetic qualities, causes of the condition, and concealability of the disease as dimensions of this stigma. In this case, “aesthetic qualities, causes of the condition, and concealability of the disease” are:
a. concepts.
b. constructs.
c. theories.
d. variables.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
B A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
C Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.
D A variable is more specific than a concept and is variable and measurable.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Analyzing (Analysis)

REF:   p. 194

 

  1. The level of theory often derived from evidence-based guidelines is:
a. grand theory.
b. grounded theory.
c. mid-range theory.
d. practice theory.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A A grand theory is an abstract nursing theory.
B Grounded theory is theory derived from the analysis of data.
C A mid-range theory is narrower in scope than a grand theory.
D A specific type of mid-range theory is a prescriptive, or practice theory. These are often derived from evidence-based guidelines and are specific to situations.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 195

 

  1. In the introduction to a study, the researcher explains why self-esteem is expected to affect obesity. The explanation of this relationship represents which aspect of the study?
a. Concept
b. Construct
c. Framework
d. Theory

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A concept is more abstract than a variable and represents the name for an object or phenomenon of interest. A concept is the most abstract element of all.
B A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
C A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning identifying how one variable is expected to affect another.
D Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Applying (Application)

REF:   p. 198

 

  1. Which will the researcher use to display the concepts and relationships in a theoretical framework?
a. Construct
b. Graph
c. Model
d. Theory

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A construct is a concept that has been created for the study. A construct is a broader category or idea that may encompass several concepts.
B A graph may be used in a model to depict variables.
C A model is a diagram or map that graphically displays concepts and relationships in a theory.
D Theories are sets of concepts that present a view of a phenomenon.

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive level: Understanding (Comprehension)

REF:   p. 198

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