Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney- Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Understanding Nutrition 14th Edition by Eleanor Noss Whitney- Sharon Rady Rolfes – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 5 – The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In which form are most dietary lipids found?
a. Sterols
b. Glycerols
c. Triglycerides
d. Monoglycerides
e. Polyglycerides

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Lipids that are solid at room temperature are known as ____.
a. oils
b. fats
c. omegas
d. glycerols
e. phospholipids

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as ____.
a. oils
b. fats
c. omegas
d. glycerols
e. phospholipids

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. What is the chemical composition of fats?
a. Hexose polymers
b. Glycogen granules
c. Fatty acids and glycerol
d. Combinations of long-chain fatty acids
e. Esters of carbon and hydrogen

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which item is a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?
a. Fish
b. Eggs
c. Dairy
d. Soybeans
e. Fruit

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of ____.
a. amino acids
b. double bonds
c. saccharide units
d. peptide linkages
e. oxygen atoms

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. What is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Linolenic acid
d. Arachidonic acid
e. Lineolic acid

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which compound is missing four or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid
e. Triglycerides

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. The easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more ____.
a. lard oil
b. corn oil
c. olive oil
d. safflower oil
e. tallow oil

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. What product has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
a. Butter
b. Walnut oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
e. Chicken fat

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which product has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
a. Butter
b. Corn oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
e. Palm oil

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which product provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. Palm oil
b. Walnut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Flaxseed oil
e. Corn oil

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which product is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
a. Corn oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat
e. Olive oil

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. What is a conjugated linoleic acid?
a. A type of cis-fatty acid
b. A partially hydrogenated omega-6 lipid
c. A fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration
d. A fatty acid resulting from the partial hydrolysis of dietary phospholipids in the intestinal tract
e. A nitrogen-containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methionine.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Which statement describes a feature of trans-fatty acids?
a. In nature, most double bonds are trans.
b. Hydrogenation converts trans-fatty acids to cis-fatty acids.
c. The conversion of cis-fatty acids to trans-fatty acids is inhibited by the presence of antioxidants.
d. In the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats.
e. The hydrogen atoms are located on the same side of a double bond.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. What type of compound is lecithin?
a. Bile salt
b. Glycolipid
c. Lipoprotein
d. Phospholipid
e. Sterol

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Which statement describes is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin.
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid.
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid.
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids.
e. It has a multiple ring structure.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. About how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day?
a. 100 to 300 mg
b. 300 to 500 mg
c. 500 to 800 mg
d. 800 to 1500 mg
e. 1500 to 2500 mg

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Which food contains cholesterol?
a. Corn
b. Olives
c. Roasted turkey
d. Roasted peanuts
e. Boiled potatoes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. What is the major source of “good” cholesterol?
a. Fatty fish
b. Fatty meat
c. Endogenous synthesis
d. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids
e. Dairy foods

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?
a. It is absorbed directly into the blood
b. It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
c. It is not formed in the body when provided by the diet
d. It is found in abundance in tropical fats such as palm oil
e. It has no functions in the healthy body.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. What term may be used to describe a hydrophobic substance?
a. Lipophilic
b. Lipophobic
c. Glycerophilic
d. Glycerophobic
e. Emulsifiable

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Which statement characterizes the lipase enzymes?
a. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
b. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
c. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
d. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids
e. Pancreatic lipase forms emulsified fats from monoglycerides

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as ____.
a. enzymes
b. hormones
c. detergents
d. chylomicrons
e. macrophages

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine
e. Esophagus

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Chylomicrons are synthesized within the ____.
a. liver
b. intestinal cells
c. lymphatic system
d. storage compartment of plant seeds
e. spleen

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
a. It denatures cholesterol in the stomach.
b. It hydrolyzes cholesterol in the intestinal tract.
c. It traps cholesterol in the intestinal tract and thus inhibits its absorption.
d. It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.
e. It binds to the fats and denatures them.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

 

  1. Bile is known to assist in the absorption of ____.
a. fat
b. carbohydrate
c. protein
d. vitamins
e. minerals

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as ____.
a. micelles
b. chylomicrons
c. monolipomicrons
d. endogenous bilayer aggregates
e. polymerized lipids

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Which example characterizes enterohepatic circulation?
a. Chylomicron conversion to LDLs and HDLs
b. Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
c. Hormonal control of pancreatic digestive secretions
d. Liver secretion of eicosanoids that promote absorption of eicosanoid precursors
e. Cholesterol that is made from bile in the small intestine and transported to the liver

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains ____.
a. less lipid
b. less protein
c. more cholesterol
d. more carbohydrate
e. more triglyceride

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Which lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
a. Chylomicron
b. Low-density lipoprotein
c. High-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low-density lipoprotein
e. Very-high density lipoprotein

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. After a fat-containing meal is absorbed, about how many hours does it take the body to remove the chylomicrons from the blood?
a. 2
b. 5
c. 10
d. 14
e. 16

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. What tissue contains special receptors for removing low-density lipoproteins from the circulation?
a. Liver
b. Adipose
c. Arterial walls
d. Skeletal muscle
e. Smooth muscle

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. A high risk of heart attack correlates with high blood levels of ____.
a. free fatty acids
b. high-density lipoproteins
c. low-density lipoproteins
d. very low-density lipoproteins
e. omega-3 fatty acids

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. What are the substances resistin and adiponectin?
a. Glycolipids that regulate synthesis of lipoproteins
b. Intestinal cell hormones that regulate secretion of bile
c. Intestinal cell hormones that trigger secretion of pancreatic juice
d. Proteins secreted from fat cells that help regulate energy balance
e. Substances that dampen inflammation and decrease insulin resistance

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. An important function of fat in the body is to ____.
a. build muscle tissue
b. regulate blood glucose levels
c. protect vital organs against shock
d. provide precursors for glucose synthesis
e. facilitate reproduction

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. Which lipid is an essential nutrient?
a. Lecithin
b. Cholesterol
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid
e. Adipokine

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. Which acid is an omega-3 fat?
a. Acetic acid
b. Palmitic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Docosahexaenoic acid
e. Arachidonic acid

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. What is the immediate precursor for the eicosanoids?
a. Glucose
b. Hormones
c. Fatty acids
d. Cholesterol
e. Lipases

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. Aspirin works to reduce the symptoms of infection or pain by retarding the synthesis of
a. arachidonic acid.
b. certain eicosanoids.
c. certain saturated fatty acids.
d. certain unsaturated fatty acids.
e. certain adipokines

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. What are the precursors for synthesis of the eicosanoids?
a. Steroids
b. Short-chain fatty acids
c. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids
d. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
e. Monounsaturated fatty acids

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. What is the function of lipoprotein lipase?
a. Synthesizes lipoproteins in liver cells
b. Synthesizes triglycerides in adipose cells
c. Assembles lipid particles into chylomicrons
d. Hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells
e. Stimulates the release of triglycerides from the liver

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
a. Hydrolyzes hormones involved in fat breakdown
b. Synthesizes new adipose cells from simple fatty acids
c. Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
d. Synthesizes long-chain fatty acids to provide precursors for other cells
e. Regulation of blood pressure and blood clotting

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of the body’s energy needs at rest is supplied by fat?
a. 5
b. 25
c. 40
d. 60
e. 75

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. How much energy does one gram of fat provide?
a. 3 kcal
b. 5 kcal
c. 7 kcal
d. 9 kcal
e. 11 kcal

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. The results of blood tests that reveal a person’s total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a ____.
a. lipid profile
b. circulating fat count
c. personal lipids count
d. degenerative disease assessment
e. lipid balance ratio

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which source of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?
a. Butter
b. Canola oil
c. Coconut oil
d. Stick margarine
e. Shortening

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement best describes the nutritional value of eggs?
a. Eggs are high in both cholesterol and saturated fat.
b. High omega-3 fat eggs are now available by prescription only.
c. Although it is high in cholesterol, the egg is low in saturated fat.
d. Even in people with a healthy lipid profile, consumption of one egg/day is detrimental.
e. Egg substitutes often have higher levels of cholesterol than do eggs.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement is true of the relationship fat intake and health?
a. Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
b. High intakes of fish oil lower bleeding time and improve diabetes and wound healing
c. High intakes of short- and medium-chain fatty acids raise high-density lipoprotein levels
d. Trans-fatty acids contained in polyunsaturated fats but not in monounsaturated fats alter blood cholesterol levels
e. Trans-fatty acids are not as dangerous as once believed

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. What is the approximate average daily trans-fatty acid intake in the United States?
a. 500 mg
b. 2 g
c. 5 g
d. 12 g
e. 18 g

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. When consumed regularly, which fatty acid helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Arachidonic acid
d. Eicosapentaenoic acid
e. Linoleic acid

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Approximately how much saturated fat is in 8 ounces of whole milk?
a. 2 g
b. 5 g
c. 8 g
d. 12 g
e. 15 g

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Approximately how much saturated fat is in a plain baked potato?
a. 0 g
b. 1 g
c. 2 g
d. 3 g
e. 4 g

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. A lacto-ovo vegetarian wishing to ensure a liberal intake of linolenic acid should consume ____.
a. eggs and milk c. safflower oil margarine
b. canola oil and walnuts d. corn oil and sunflower oil

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. A person who regularly consumes fish such as shark, king mackerel, and swordfish is at risk for ingesting potentially toxic amounts of ____.
a. EPA
b. DHA
c. mercury
d. cadmium
e. dioxins

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which product is a good source of eicosapentaenoic acid?
a. Tuna
b. Butter
c. Salad oil
d. Shortening
e. Corn oil

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed ____.
a. eicosanoids
b. linolenic acid
c. docosahexaenoic acid
d. eicosapentaenoic acid
e. linoleic acid

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
a. Fat from milk does not increase risk for cancer.
b. Dietary fat initiates rather than promotes cancer formation.
c. High intakes of omega-3 fatty acids promote cancer development in animals.
d. The evidence linking fat intake with cancer is stronger than that linking it with heart disease.
e. There is a strong link between breast cancer incidence and dietary fat.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 35
d. 50
e. 60

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. For most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intake?
a. 5
b. 15
c. 20
d. 35
e. 45

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. What is the recommended range of daily fat consumption for an individual on a 2000 calorie diet?
a. 5 to 15 grams
b. 20 to 35 grams
c. 45 to 75 grams
d. 80 to 100 grams
e. 125 to 150 grams

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Surveys show that U.S. adults’ average intake of fat as a percentage of total energy intake is ____.
a. 14%
b. 24%
c. 34%
d. 44%
e. 54%

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. The average daily cholesterol intake of U.S. women is about ____.
a. 134 mg
b. 184 mg
c. 224 mg
d. 274 mg
e. 304 mg

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement is true of fat in the diet of athletes?
a. A minimum of 20% fat energy in the diet is needed.
b. Energy derived from fat has very little bearing on performance.
c. Optimal performance is found with a high-carbohydrate, 15% total fat kcalories diet.
d. Diets with at least 10% total kcalories from fat are still able to provide the recommended amounts of micronutrients.
e. It is especially important for female athletes to keep their fat intake to less than 15% of their total kcal.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement describes the lipid content of livestock?
a. The meat from grass-fed animals is similar in composition to soy protein.
b. Grass-fed animals contain more omega-3 fats in the meat than grain-fed animals.
c. Grain-fed animals contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids in the meat compared with grass-fed animals.
d. Grain-fed animals contain lower concentrations of fat in the meat compared with grass-fed animals.
e. There are no significant differences between the fat composition of grass and grain fed cattle.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. What dietary advice is appropriate for reducing fat intake?
a. Limit intake of all fried foods because they contain abundant fat.
b. Substitute crackers and cornbread for other starches because they are likely lower in fat.
c. Consume foods with more invisible fat because this type of fat is not absorbed well from the digestive tract.
d. Increase consumption of soups, such as cream-of-mushroom soup prepared with water, because the fat content is usually very low.
e. Increase dairy consumption while decreasing consumption of fats from other sources, because dairy fats do not contribute to disease.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Which statement describes a drawback of olestra consumption?
a. It yields 9 kcalories per gram.
b. It imparts off-flavors to foods.
c. It raises blood glucose levels.
d. It inhibits absorption of vitamin E.
e. It can cause severe constipation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Of the total fat content of the most commonly eaten nuts in the United States, what is the approximate percentage of monounsaturated fat?
a. 29
b. 39
c. 49
d. 59
e. 69

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-5 High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe?

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-5 Identify which fats support health and which impair it.

 

  1. A major feature of the Mediterranean diet is liberal intake of ____.
a. eggs
b. olive oil
c. lean meat
d. fortified butter
e. cheese

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   H-5 High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe?

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-5 Identify which fats support health and which impair it.

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. All ____________________ have the same basic structure—a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an acid group (COOH) at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end.

 

ANS:  fatty acids

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids and Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids attached to a(n) ____________________.

 

ANS:  glycerol

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids and Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. During ____________________, some or all of the points of unsaturation are saturated by adding hydrogen molecules.  .

 

ANS:  hydrogenation

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids and Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. The best-known phospholipid is ____________________.

 

ANS:  lecithin

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Cholesterol from outside the body is called ____________________ cholesterol.

 

ANS:  exogenous

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. Monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids are emulsified by bile, forming spherical complexes known as ____________________.

 

ANS:  micelles

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. The ____________________ are the largest and least dense of the lipoproteins.

 

ANS:  chylomicrons

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Adipose tissue actively secretes several hormones known as ____________________—proteins that help regulate energy balance and influence several body functions.

 

ANS:  adipokines

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. The body uses the longer omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to make substances known as ____________________.

 

ANS:  eicosanoids

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. The DRI suggest that linoleic acid provide ____________________ of the daily energy intake and linolenic acid ____________________.

 

ANS:  5 to 10 percent; 0.6 to 1.2 percent

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

 

 

MATCHING

 

 

a. Liver k. Oleic acid
b. Olestra l. Stearic acid
c. Micelle m. Cholesterol
d. Aspirin n. Potato chips
e. Lecithin o. Tropical oils
f. Corn oil p. Chylomicron
g. Olive oil q. Linolenic acid
h. Sardines r. Cholecystokinin
i. Pancreas s. High-density lipoprotein
j. Canola oil t. Very-low density lipoprotein

 

 

  1. An 18-carbon monounsaturated fatty acid

 

  1. A source of medium-chain saturated fatty acids

 

  1. A long-chain saturated fatty acid

 

  1. A good source of monounsaturated fats

 

  1. A phospholipid

 

  1. Major dietary precursor for vitamin D synthesis

 

  1. Source of bile

 

  1. Signals the release of bile

 

  1. Major source of lipase

 

  1. Structure assisting absorption of long-chain fats

 

  1. A lipoprotein synthesized within intestinal absorptive cells

 

  1. A lipoprotein made primarily by the liver

 

  1. The lipoprotein type with the highest percentage of protein

 

  1. Slows the synthesis of eicosanoids

 

  1. An essential fatty acid

 

  1. Common source of trans-fatty acids

 

  1. Good food source of omega-3 fatty acids

 

  1. Good food source of omega-6 fatty acids

 

  1. Fat replacement product made from fat

 

  1. Oil that is characteristic of the Mediterranean diet

 

  1. ANS:  K                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. ANS:  O                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. ANS:  L                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. ANS:  J                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. ANS:  E                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. ANS:  M                   DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols.

 

  1. ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  R                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  I                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  P                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  T                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  S                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. ANS:  Q                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. ANS:  N                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. ANS:  H                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. ANS:  F                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. ANS:  G                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   H-5 High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe?

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-5 Identify which fats support health and which impair it.

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What methods are used by the food industry to inhibit rancidity of the unsaturated lipids in foods?

 

ANS:

Manufacturers can protect fat-containing products against rancidity in three ways—none of which are perfect. First, products may be sealed in air-tight, non- metallic containers, protected from light, and refrigerated—an expensive and inconvenient storage system. Second, manufacturers may add antioxidants to compete for the oxygen and thus protect the oil (examples are the additives BHA and BHT and vitamin E). Third, products may undergo a process known as hydrogenation.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Describe the process of fat hydrogenation and discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

 

ANS:

During hydrogenation, some or all of the points of unsaturation are saturated by adding hydrogen molecules. Hydrogenation offers two advantages. First, it protects against oxidation (thereby prolonging shelf life) by making polyunsaturated fats more saturated. Second, it alters the texture of foods by making liquid vegetable oils more solid (as in margarine and shortening).  Hydrogenated fats improve the texture of foods, making margarines spreadable, pie crusts flaky, and puddings creamy. Total hydrogenation rarely occurs during food processing. Most often, a fat is partially hydrogenated, and some of the double bonds that remain after processing change their configuration from cis to trans.

 

In nature, most double bonds are cis—meaning that the hydrogens next to the double bonds are on the same side of the carbon chain. Only a few fatty acids (notably a small percentage of those found in milk and meat products) naturally occur as trans-fatty acids—meaning that the hydrogens next to the double bonds are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. In the body, trans-fatty acids behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

 

  1. Discuss the meaning and significance of trans-fatty acids in the diet. List four common food sources.

 

ANS:

In nature, most double bonds are cis—meaning that the hydrogens next to the double bonds are on the same side of the carbon chain. Only a few fatty acids (notably a small percentage of those found in milk and meat products) naturally occur as trans-fatty acids—meaning that the hydrogens next to the double bonds are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. In the body, trans-fatty acids behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.

 

Some research suggests that both naturally occurring and commercially created trans fats change blood lipids similarly; other research suggests that the negative effects are specific to only the commercial trans fats. In any case, the important distinction is that a relatively small amount of trans-fat in the diet comes from natural sources. At current levels of consumption, natural trans fats have little, if any, effect on blood lipids. Some naturally occurring trans-fatty acids, known as conjugated linoleic acids, may even have health benefits. Conjugated linoleic acids are not counted as trans fats on food labels.

 

In the body, trans fats alter blood cholesterol the same way some saturated fats do: they raise LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol. Limiting the intake of trans fats can improve blood cholesterol and lower the risk of heart disease. To that end, many restaurants and manufacturers have taken steps to eliminate or greatly reduce trans fats in foods. The decrease in trans-fatty acids in the food supply is apparent in a decrease in plasma concentrations of trans-fatty acids in consumers.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.1 The Chemist’s View of Fatty acids & Triglycerides | Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.1 Recognize the chemistry of fatty acids and triglycerides and differences between saturated and unsaturated fats. | 5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Discuss the role of dietary cholesterol and the endogenous production of cholesterol and heart disease. What is meant by “good” and “bad” cholesterol?

 

ANS:

Foods derived from both plants and animals contain sterols, but only those from animals contain significant amounts of cholesterol—meats, eggs, seafood, poultry, and dairy products. Some people, confused about the distinction between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol, have asked which foods contain the “good” cholesterol. “Good” cholesterol is not a type of cholesterol found in foods, but it refers to the way the body transports cholesterol in the blood, as explained in a later section of this chapter.

 

Sterols other than cholesterol are naturally found in plants. Being structurally similar to cholesterol, plant sterols interfere with cholesterol absorption. By inhibiting cholesterol absorption, a diet rich in plant sterols lowers blood cholesterol levels. Food manufacturers have fortified foods such as margarine with plant sterols, creating a functional food that helps to reduce blood cholesterol.

 

Many vitally important body compounds are sterols. Among them are bile acids, the sex hormones (such as testosterone androgen, and estrogen), the adrenal hormones (such as cortisol cortisone, and aldosterone), and vitamin D, as well as cholesterol itself. Cholesterol in the body can serve as the starting material for the synthesis of these compounds or as a structural component of cell membranes; more than 90 percent of all the body’s cholesterol is found in the cells. Despite common misconceptions, cholesterol is not a villain lurking in some evil foods—it is a compound the body makes and uses. The chemical structure is the same, but cholesterol that is made in the body is referred to as endogenous, whereas cholesterol from outside the body (from foods) is referred to as exogenous. Right now, as you read, your liver is manufacturing cholesterol from fragments of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. In fact, the liver makes about 800 to 1500 milligrams of cholesterol per day, thus contributing much more to the body’s total than does the diet. For perspective, the Daily Value on food labels for cholesterol is 300 milligrams per day.

 

Cholesterol’s harmful effects in the body occur when it accumulates in the artery walls and contributes to the formation of plaque. These plaque deposits lead to atherosclerosis, a disease that causes heart attacks and strokes.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.2 The Chemist’s View of Phospholipids and Sterols | Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.2 Describe the chemistry, food sources, and roles of phospholipids and sterols. | 5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Discuss in detail the digestion, absorption, and transport of dietary lipids, including the sterols.

 

ANS:

Fat digestion starts off slowly in the mouth, with some hard fats beginning to melt when they reach body temperature. A salivary gland at the base of the tongue releases an enzyme (lingual lipase) that plays an active role in fat digestion in infants, but a relatively minor role in adults. In infants, this enzyme efficiently digests the short- and medium-chain fatty acids found in milk.

 

In a quiet stomach, fat would float as a layer above the watery components of swallowed food. But whenever food is present, the stomach becomes active. The strong muscle contractions of the stomach propel its contents toward the pyloric sphincter. Some chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter periodically, but the remaining partially digested food is propelled back into the body of the stomach. This churning grinds the solid pieces to finer particles, mixes the chyme, and disperses the fat into small droplets. These actions help to expose the fat for attack by the gastric lipase enzyme—an enzyme that performs best in the acidic environment of the stomach. Still, little fat digestion takes place in the stomach; most of the action occurs in the small intestine.

 

When fat enters the small intestine, it triggers the release of the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which signals the gallbladder to release its stores of bile. (Remember that the liver makes bile, and the gallbladder stores bile until it is needed.) Among bile’s many ingredients are bile acids, which are made in the liver from cholesterol and have a similar structure. In addition, bile acids often pair up with an amino acid (a building block of protein). The amino acid end is hydrophilic, and the sterol end is hydrophobic. This structure enables bile to act as an emulsifier, drawing fat molecules into the surrounding watery fluids. There, the fats are fully digested as they encounter lipase enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine.

 

Most of the hydrolysis of triglycerides occurs in the small intestine. The major fat-digesting enzymes are pancreatic lipases; some intestinal lipases are also active. These enzymes remove each of a triglyceride’s outer fatty acids one at a time, leaving a monoglyceride. Occasionally, enzymes remove all three fatty acids, leaving a free molecule of glycerol.

 

Phospholipids are digested similarly—that is, their fatty acids are removed by hydrolysis. The two fatty acids and the remaining glycerol and phosphate fragments are then absorbed. Most sterols can be absorbed as is; if any fatty acids are attached, they are first hydrolyzed off.

 

Most of the bile is reabsorbed from the small intestine and recycled. The other possibility is that some of the bile can be trapped by dietary fibers in the large intestine and excreted. Because cholesterol is needed to make bile, the excretion of bile effectively reduces blood cholesterol. The dietary fibers most effective at lowering blood cholesterol this way are the soluble fibers commonly found in fruits, whole grains, and legumes.

 

Small molecules (glycerol and short- and medium-chain fatty acids) can diffuse easily into the intestinal cells; they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Larger molecules (monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids) are emulsified by bile, forming spherical complexes known as micelles. The micelles diffuse into the intestinal cells, where the monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids are reassembled into new triglycerides. Within the intestinal cells, the newly made triglycerides and other lipids (cholesterol and phospholipids) are packed with protein into transport vehicles known as chylomicrons. The intestinal cells then release the chylomicrons into the lymphatic system. The chylomicrons glide through the lymph until they reach a point of entry into the bloodstream at the thoracic duct near the heart. The blood carries these lipids to the rest of the body for immediate use or storage. A look at these lipids in the body reveals the kinds of fat the diet has been delivering. The blood, fat stores, and muscle cells of people who eat a diet rich in unsaturated fats, for example, contain more unsaturated fats than those of people who select a diet high in saturated fats.

 

The chylomicrons are one of several clusters of lipids and proteins that are used as transport vehicles for fats. As a group, these vehicles are known as lipoproteins, and they solve the body’s challenge of transporting fat through the watery bloodstream. The body makes four main types of lipoproteins, distinguished by their size and density. Each type contains different kinds and amounts of lipids and proteins. The more lipids, the less dense; the more proteins, the more dense.

 

The chylomicrons are the largest and least dense of the lipoproteins. They transport diet-derived lipids (mostly triglycerides) from the small intestine (via the lymph system) to the rest of the body. Cells all over the body remove triglycerides from the chylomicrons as they pass by, so the chylomicrons get smaller and smaller. Within 14 hours after absorption, most of the triglycerides have been depleted, and only a few remnants of protein, cholesterol, and phospholipid remain. Special protein receptors on the membranes of the liver cells recognize and remove these chylomicron remnants from the blood.

 

Meanwhile, in the liver—the most active site of lipid synthesis—cells are making cholesterol, fatty acids, and other lipid compounds. Ultimately, the lipids made in the liver and those collected from chylomicron remnants are packaged with proteins as a VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) and shipped to other parts of the body. As the VLDL travel through the body, cells remove triglycerides. As they lose triglycerides, the VLDL shrink and the proportion of lipids shifts. Cholesterol becomes the predominant lipid, and the lipoprotein becomes smaller and denser. As this occurs, the VLDL becomes an LDL (low-density lipoprotein), loaded with cholesterol, but containing relatively few triglycerides.

 

The LDL circulate throughout the body, making their contents available to the cells of all tissues—muscles (including the heart muscle), fat stores, the mammary glands, and others. The cells take triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids to use for energy, make hormones or other compounds, or build new membranes. Special LDL receptors on the liver cells play a crucial role in the control of blood cholesterol concentrations by removing LDL from circulation.

 

The liver makes HDL (high-density lipoprotein) to remove cholesterol from the cells and carry it back to the liver for recycling or disposal. By efficiently clearing cholesterol, HDL lowers the risk of heart disease. In addition, HDL have anti-inflammatory properties that seem to keep artery-clogging plaque from breaking apart and causing heart attacks.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Compare and contrast the digestion-absorption mechanisms for long-chain vs. short-chain fatty acids.

 

ANS:

Most of the hydrolysis of triglycerides occurs in the small intestine. The major fat-digesting enzymes are pancreatic lipases; some intestinal lipases are also active. These enzymes remove each of a triglyceride’s outer fatty acids one at a time, leaving a monoglyceride. Occasionally, enzymes remove all three fatty acids, leaving a free molecule of glycerol.

 

Phospholipids are digested similarly—that is, their fatty acids are removed by hydrolysis. The two fatty acids and the remaining glycerol and phosphate fragments are then absorbed. Most sterols can be absorbed as is; if any fatty acids are attached, they are first hydrolyzed off.

 

Small molecules (glycerol and short- and medium-chain fatty acids) can diffuse easily into the intestinal cells; they are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Larger molecules (monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids) are emulsified by bile, forming spherical complexes known as micelles. The micelles diffuse into the intestinal cells, where the monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids are reassembled into new triglycerides. Within the intestinal cells, the newly made triglycerides and other lipids (cholesterol and phospholipids) are packed with protein into transport vehicles known as chylomicrons. The intestinal cells then release the chylomicrons into the lymphatic system. The chylomicrons glide through the lymph until they reach a point of entry into the bloodstream at the thoracic duct near the heart. The blood carries these lipids to the rest of the body for immediate use or storage. A look at these lipids in the body reveals the kinds of fat the diet has been delivering. The blood, fat stores, and muscle cells of people who eat a diet rich in unsaturated fats, for example, contain more unsaturated fats than those of people who select a diet high in saturated fats.

 

The chylomicrons are one of several clusters of lipids and proteins that are used as transport vehicles for fats. As a group, these vehicles are known as lipoproteins, and they solve the body’s challenge of transporting fat through the watery bloodstream. The body makes four main types of lipoproteins, distinguished by their size and density. Each type contains different kinds and amounts of lipids and proteins. The more lipids, the less dense; the more proteins, the more dense.

 

The chylomicrons are the largest and least dense of the lipoproteins. They transport diet-derived lipids (mostly triglycerides) from the small intestine (via the lymph system) to the rest of the body. Cells all over the body remove triglycerides from the chylomicrons as they pass by, so the chylomicrons get smaller and smaller. Within 14 hours after absorption, most of the triglycerides have been depleted, and only a few remnants of protein, cholesterol, and phospholipid remain. Special protein receptors on the membranes of the liver cells recognize and remove these chylomicron remnants from the blood.

 

Meanwhile, in the liver—the most active site of lipid synthesis—cells are making cholesterol, fatty acids, and other lipid compounds. Ultimately, the lipids made in the liver and those collected from chylomicron remnants are packaged with proteins as a VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) and shipped to other parts of the body. As the VLDL travel through the body, cells remove triglycerides. As they lose triglycerides, the VLDL shrink and the proportion of lipids shifts. Cholesterol becomes the predominant lipid, and the lipoprotein becomes smaller and denser. As this occurs, the VLDL becomes an LDL (low-density lipoprotein), loaded with cholesterol, but containing relatively few triglycerides.

 

The LDL circulate throughout the body, making their contents available to the cells of all tissues—muscles (including the heart muscle), fat stores, the mammary glands, and others. The cells take triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids to use for energy, make hormones or other compounds, or build new membranes. Special LDL receptors on the liver cells play a crucial role in the control of blood cholesterol concentrations by removing LDL from circulation.

 

The liver makes HDL (high-density lipoprotein) to remove cholesterol from the cells and carry it back to the liver for recycling or disposal. By efficiently clearing cholesterol, HDL lowers the risk of heart disease. In addition, HDL have anti-inflammatory properties that seem to keep artery-clogging plaque from breaking apart and causing heart attacks.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Discuss the composition and function of the major circulating lipoproteins.

 

ANS:

The chylomicrons are the largest and least dense of the lipoproteins. They transport diet-derived lipids (mostly triglycerides) from the small intestine (via the lymph system) to the rest of the body. Cells all over the body remove triglycerides from the chylomicrons as they pass by, so the chylomicrons get smaller and smaller. Within 14 hours after absorption, most of the triglycerides have been depleted, and only a few remnants of protein, cholesterol, and phospholipid remain. Special protein receptors on the membranes of the liver cells recognize and remove these chylomicron remnants from the blood.

 

Meanwhile, in the liver—the most active site of lipid synthesis—cells are making cholesterol, fatty acids, and other lipid compounds. Ultimately, the lipids made in the liver and those collected from chylomicron remnants are packaged with proteins as a VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) and shipped to other parts of the body. As the VLDL travel through the body, cells remove triglycerides. As they lose triglycerides, the VLDL shrink and the proportion of lipids shifts. Cholesterol becomes the predominant lipid, and the lipoprotein becomes smaller and denser. As this occurs, the VLDL becomes an LDL (low-density lipoprotein), loaded with cholesterol, but containing relatively few triglycerides.

 

The LDL circulate throughout the body, making their contents available to the cells of all tissues—muscles (including the heart muscle), fat stores, the mammary glands, and others. The cells take triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids to use for energy, make hormones or other compounds, or build new membranes. Special LDL receptors on the liver cells play a crucial role in the control of blood cholesterol concentrations by removing LDL from circulation.

 

The liver makes HDL (high-density lipoprotein) to remove cholesterol from the cells and carry it back to the liver for recycling or disposal. By efficiently clearing cholesterol, HDL lowers the risk of heart disease. In addition, HDL have anti-inflammatory properties that seem to keep artery-clogging plaque from breaking apart and causing heart attacks.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               5.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Transport of Lipids

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.3 Summarize fat digestion, absorption, and transport.

 

  1. Discuss the functions of lipids in the body. What is the role of the liver in metabolizing and processing fats?

 

ANS:

First and foremost, triglycerides—either from food or from the body’s fat stores—provide the cells with energy. When a person dances all night, her dinner’s triglycerides provide some of the fuel that keeps her moving. When a person loses his appetite, his stored triglycerides fuel much of his body’s work until he can eat again.

 

Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid and the primary member of the omega-6 fatty acid family. When the body receives linoleic acid from the diet, it can make other members of the omega-6 family—such as the 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Should a linoleic acid deficiency develop, arachidonic acid, and all other omega-6 fatty acids that derive from linoleic acid, would also become essential and have to be obtained from the diet. A nonessential nutrient (such as arachidonic acid) that must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances (as in a linoleic acid deficiency) is considered a conditionally essential nutrient. Normally, vegetable oils and meats supply enough omega-6 fatty acids to meet the body’s needs.

 

Linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid and the primary member of the omega-3 fatty acid family. Like linoleic acid, linolenic acid cannot be made in the body and must be supplied by foods. Given the 18-carbon linolenic acid, the body can make small amounts of the 20- and 22-carbon members of the omega-3 family, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. These omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles in the optimal structure and function of cells. Found abundantly in the eyes and brain, the omega-3 fatty acids are essential for normal growth, visual acuity, and cognitive development. They may also play an important role in the prevention and treatment of heart disease.

 

The body uses the longer omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to make substances known as eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are a diverse group of more than 100 compounds. Sometimes described as “hormonelike,” eicosanoids differ from hormones in important ways. For one, hormones are secreted in one location and travel to affect cells all over the body, whereas eicosanoids appear to affect only the cells in which they are made or nearby cells in the same localized environment. For another, hormones elicit the same response from all their tar- get cells, whereas eicosanoids often have different effects on different cells.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. List the essential fatty acids (EFA) for human beings. What are the signs of EFA deficiency? What is the minimum amount of EFA required to prevent a deficiency? What foods are rich sources of EFA?

 

ANS:

The human body needs fatty acids, and it can make all but two of them—linoleic acid (the 18-carbon omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic acid (the 18-carbon omega-3 fatty acid). These two fatty acids must be sup- plied by the diet and are therefore essential fatty acids. The cells do not possess the enzymes to make any of the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids from scratch, nor can they convert an omega-6 fatty acid to an omega-3 fatty acid or vice versa. Cells can, however, use the 18-carbon member of an omega family from the diet to make the longer fatty acids of that family by forming double bonds (desaturation) and lengthening the chain two carbons at a time (elongation). This is a slow process because the omega-3 and omega-6 families compete for the same enzymes. Too much of a fatty acid from one family can create a deficiency of the other family’s longer fatty acids, which becomes critical only when the diet fails to deliver adequate supplies. Therefore, the most effective way to maintain body supplies of all the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is to obtain them directly from foods—most notably, from vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, fish, and other seafoods.

 

Most diets in the United States and Canada meet the minimum essential fatty acid requirement adequately. Historically, deficiencies have developed only in infants and young children who have been fed fat-free milk and low-fat diets or in hospital clients who have been mistakenly fed formulas that provided no polyunsaturated fatty acids for long periods of time. Classic deficiency symptoms include growth retardation, reproductive failure, skin lesions, kidney and liver disorders, and subtle neurological and visual problems.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body | Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids. | 5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Discuss the roles of hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase in the metabolism of fats.

 

ANS:

When meals deliver more energy than the body needs, the excess is stored as fat in the adipose cells for later use. An enzyme—lipoprotein lipase (LPL)—hydrolyzes triglycerides from circulating lipoproteins, releasing fatty acids, diglycerides, and monoglycerides into the adipose cells. Enzymes inside the adipose cells reassemble these fatty acids, diglycerides, and mono-glycerides into triglycerides again for storage.

 

After meals, the blood delivers chylomicrons and VLDL loaded with triglycerides to the body’s cells for energy. Fat supplies about 60 percent of the body’s ongoing energy needs during rest.

 

During prolonged light to moderately intense exercise or extended periods of food deprivation, fat may make a slightly greater contribution to energy needs. During energy deprivation, several lipase enzymes (most notably hormone-sensitive lipase) inside the adipose cells respond by dismantling stored triglycerides and releasing the glycerol and fatty acids directly into the blood. Energy-hungry cells anywhere in the body can then capture these compounds and take them through a series of chemical reactions to yield energy, carbon dioxide, and water.

 

A person who fasts (drinking only water) will rapidly metabolize body fat. Even with abundant fat supplies, the person has to obtain some energy from lean protein tissue because the brain, nerves, and red blood cells need glucose—and without carbohydrate, only protein and the small glycerol molecule of a triglyceride can be converted to glucose; fatty acids cannot be. Still, in times of severe hunger and starvation, a fatter person can survive longer than a thinner person thanks to this energy reserve.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               5.4 Lipids in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids.

 

  1. Explain the possible links between dietary fat intake and cancer.

 

ANS:

The links between dietary fats and cancer are not as evident as they are for heart disease. Dietary fat does not seem to initiate cancer development but, instead, may promote cancer once it has arisen. Stronger risk factors for cancer include smoking, alcohol, and environmental contaminants.

 

The relationship between dietary fat and the risk of cancer differs for various types of cancers. In the case of breast cancer, evidence has been weak and inconclusive. Some studies indicate an association between dietary fat and breast cancer; more convincing evidence indicates that body fatness contributes to the risk. In the case of colon cancer, limited evidence suggests a harmful association with foods containing animal fats.

 

The relationship between dietary fat and the risk of cancer differs for various types and combinations of fats as well. The increased risk in cancer from fat appears to be due primarily to saturated fats or dietary fat from meats (which is mostly saturated). Fat from milk or fish has not been implicated in cancer risk. Olive oil seems to have a protective effect.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.5 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Discuss the relationship of dietary fats to atherosclerosis. What dietary changes bring about the greatest reductions in blood lipids?

 

ANS:

As mentioned earlier, elevated LDL cholesterol is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As LDL cholesterol accumulates in the arteries, blood flow becomes restricted and blood pressure rises. The consequences are deadly; in fact, heart disease is the nation’s number-one killer of adults. LDL cholesterol is often used to predict the likelihood of a person’s suffering a heart attack or stroke; the higher the LDL, the earlier and more likely the tragedy. Much of the effort to prevent and treat heart disease focuses on lowering LDL cholesterol.

 

Saturated fats are most often implicated in raising LDL cholesterol. In general, the more saturated fat in the diet, the more LDL cholesterol in the blood. Not all saturated fats have the same cholesterol-raising effect, however. Most notable among the saturated fatty acids that raise blood cholesterol are lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids (12, 14, and 16 carbons, respectively). In contrast, stearic acid (18 carbons) seems to have little or no effect on blood cholesterol. Making such distinctions may be impractical in diet planning, however, because these saturated fatty acids typically appear together in the same foods. In addition to raising blood cholesterol, saturated fatty acids contribute to heart disease by promoting blood clotting. Fats from animal sources (meats, milk, and milk products) are the main sources of saturated fats in most people’s diets. Selecting lean cuts of meat, skinless poultry, and fat-free milk products helps to lower saturated fat intake and the risk of heart disease.

 

Research also suggests an association between dietary trans fats and heart disease. In the body, trans fats alter blood cholesterol the same way some saturated fats do: they raise LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol. Limiting the intake of trans fats can improve blood cholesterol and lower the risk of heart disease. To that end, many restaurants and manufacturers have taken steps to eliminate or greatly reduce trans fats in foods. The decrease in trans fatty acids in the food supply is apparent in a decrease in plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in consumers.

 

Unlike saturated fat and trans fat, dietary cholesterol raises blood cholesterol very little, if at all. Less clear is its role in heart disease.

 

Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats reduces LDL cholesterol and lowers the risk of heart disease. To replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats, sauté foods in olive oil instead of butter, garnish salads with sunflower seeds instead of bacon, snack on mixed nuts instead of potato chips, use avocado instead of cheese on a sandwich, and eat salmon instead of steak.

 

Research on the different types of fats has spotlighted the many beneficial effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Regular consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may help to prevent blood clots, protect against irregular heartbeats, improve blood lipids, and lower blood pressure, especially in people with hypertension or atherosclerosis. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids support a healthy immune system and suppress inflammation.

 

A diet that uses olive oil instead of other fats, especially butter, stick margarine, and meat fats, offers numerous health benefits. Olive oil, canola oil, and other oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids help to protect against heart disease and stroke by:

Lowering total and LDL cholesterol and not lowering HDL cholesterol or raising triglycerides

Lowering LDL cholesterol susceptibility to oxidation

Lowering blood-clotting factors

Providing phytochemicals that act as antioxidants

Lowering blood pressure

Interfering with the inflammatory response

 

Tree nuts and peanuts are traditionally excluded from low-fat diets, and for good reasons. Nuts provide up to 80 percent of their kcalories from fat, and a quarter cup (about an ounce) of mixed nuts provides more than 200 kcalories. Frequent nut consumption (1-ounce serving of nuts on five or more days a week), however, protects against heart disease.

 

Research into the health benefits of the long-chain omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids began with a simple observation: the native peoples of Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland, who eat a traditional diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, notably EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosaheaenoic acid), have a remarkably low rate of heart disease even though their diets are relatively high in fat. These omega-3 fatty acids help to protect against heart disease by:

Reducing blood triglycerides

Stabilizing plaque

Lowering blood pressure and resting heart rate

Reducing inflammation

Serving as precursors to eicosanoids

 

The number-one dietary determinant of LDL cholesterol is saturated fat. Each 1 percent increase in energy from saturated fatty acids in the diet produces a 2 percent jump in heart disease risk by elevating LDL cholesterol. Conversely, reducing saturated fat intake by  1 percent can be expected to produce a 2 percent drop in heart disease risk by the same mechanism. Even a 2 percent drop in LDL represents a significant improvement for heart health. Like saturated fats, trans fats also raise heart disease risk by elevating LDL cholesterol. A heart-healthy diet limits foods rich in these two types of fat.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.4 Lipids in the Body | Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, and Cholesterol | Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.4 Outline the major roles of fats in the body, including a discussion of essential fatty acids and the omega fatty acids. | 5.5 Explain the relationships among saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and chronic diseases, noting recommendations. | 5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. Explain the position of the American Heart Association concerning intake of butter and margarine.

 

ANS:

The American Heart Association has stated that because butter is rich in both saturated fat and cholesterol whereas margarine is made from vegetable fat with no dietary cholesterol, margarine is still preferable to butter. Be aware that soft margarines (liquid or tub) are less hydrogenated and relatively lower in trans-fatty acids; consequently, they do not raise blood cholesterol as much as the saturated fats of butter or the trans fats of hard (stick) margarines do. Many manufacturers are now offering nonhydrogenated margarines that are “trans-fat free.” In addition, manufacturers have developed margarines fortified with plant sterols that lower blood cholesterol.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   5.6 Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.5.6 Explain the relationships between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and health, noting recommendations.

 

  1. How are omega-3 fats thought to protect against heart disease?

 

ANS:

Research into the health benefits of the long-chain omega-3 poly- unsaturated fatty acids began with a simple observation: the native peoples of Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland, who eat a traditional diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, notably EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosaheaenoic acid), have a remarkably low rate of heart disease even though their diets are relatively high in fat. These omega-3 fatty acids help to protect against heart disease by:

Reducing blood triglycerides

Stabilizing plaque

Lowering blood pressure and resting heart rate

Reducing inflammation

Serving as precursors to eicosanoids

 

Research studies have provided strong evidence that increasing omega-3 fatty acids in the diet supports heart health and lowers the rate of deaths from heart disease. For this reason, the American Heart Association recommends including fish in a heart-healthy diet. People who eat some fish each week can lower their risks of heart attack and stroke.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               H-5 High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe?

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-5 Identify which fats support health and which impair it.

 

  1. Describe the content of traditional Mediterranean diets and explain the benefits of these foods to cardiovascular health.

 

ANS:

The links between good health and traditional Mediterranean eating patterns of the mid-1900s were introduced earlier with regard to olive oil. For people who eat these diets, the incidence of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, and other chronic inflammatory diseases is low, and life expectancy is high. Some research suggests that the health benefits of the Mediterranean eating pattern are partially due to its favorable effects on body weight.

Although each of the many countries that border the Mediterranean Sea has its own culture, traditions, and dietary habits, their similarities are much greater than the use of olive oil alone. In fact, no one factor alone can be credited with reducing disease risks—the association holds true only when the overall eating pattern is present. Apparently, each of the foods contributes small benefits that harmonize to produce either a substantial cumulative or synergistic effect.

The Mediterranean eating pattern features fresh, whole foods. The people select crusty breads, whole grains, potatoes, and pastas; a variety of vegetables (including wild greens) and legumes; feta and mozzarella cheeses and yogurt; nuts; and fruits (especially grapes and figs). They eat some fish, other seafood, poultry, a few eggs, and little meat. Along with olives and olive oil, their principal sources of fat are nuts and fish; they rarely use butter or encounter hydrogenated fats. They commonly use herbs and spices instead of salt. Consequently, traditional Mediterranean diets are:

Low in saturated fat

Very low in trans fat

Rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat

Rich in complex carbohydrate and fiber

Rich in nutrients and phytochemicals that support good health

 

As a result, lipid profiles improve, inflammation diminishes, and the risk of heart disease declines. People following the traditional Mediterranean diet can receive as much as 40 percent of a day’s kcalories from fat, but their limited consumption of milk and milk products and meats provides less than 10 percent from saturated fats. In addition, because the animals in the Mediterranean region pasture-graze, the meat, milk and milk products, and eggs are richer in omega-3 fatty acids than those from animals fed grain.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               H-5 High-Fat Foods—Friend or Foe?

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-5 Identify which fats support health and which impair it.

Chapter 7 – Energy Metabolism

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which process describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
a. Digestion
b. Metabolism
c. Absorption
d. Catabolism
e. Anabolism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. In photosynthesis, the plant uses energy from the sun, plus water and carbon dioxide, to synthesize ____.
a. carbohydrates only
b. fats and carbohydrates only
c. protein and carbohydrates only
d. fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
e. protein only

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. A typical cell contains “powerhouses,” which is another name for ____.
a. DNA
b. ribosomes
c. mitochondria
d. electron transport chains
e. RNA

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. A feature of catabolic reactions is that they ____.
a. involve the release of energy
b. occur only in mitochondria
c. involve consumption of energy
d. occur only during loss of body weight
e. require carbon dioxide

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. What term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?
a. Anabolic
b. Catabolic
c. Ergogenic
d. Gluconeogenic
e. Anaerobic

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. The site of lipid synthesis in the cell is the ____.
a. nucleus
b. Golgi bodies
c. mitochondria
d. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
e. exoplasm

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Which reaction is characterized as anabolic?
a. Pyruvate synthesis from glucose
b. Acetyl CoA synthesis from cholesterol
c. Carbon dioxide synthesis from citric acid
d. Cholesterol synthesis from acetyl CoA molecules
e. Hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Which reaction is characterized as catabolic?
a. Glucose formation from glycerol
b. Pyruvate formation from glucose
c. Albumin formation from amino acids
d. Palmitic acid formation from acetate
e. Formation of triglycerides from glycerol and fatty acids

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food energy to ATP energy in the body?
a. 30%
b. 50%
c. 70%
d. 90%
e. 99%

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as ____.
a. heat
b. photons
c. carbon dioxide
d. electromagnetic radiation
e. methane

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Which statement defines a coenzyme?
a. A unit consisting of an enzyme bound to reactants plus ATP
b. An organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
c. The small, active part of an enzyme that binds to the organic reactants
d. An inactive enzyme that becomes functional upon contact with specific cofactors
e. An enzyme precursor

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Which metabolic reaction occurs when a cell uses energy?
a. ATP gains a phosphate group and becomes ADP.
b. ADP gains a phosphate group and becomes ATP.
c. ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP.
d. ADP releases a phosphate group and becomes ATP.
e. ADP and ATP cycle back and forth repeatedly.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?
a. ATP
b. Glucose
c. Pyruvate
d. A kcalorie
e. Acetyl CoA

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Which statement describes a correct energy-yielding endpoint?
a. Carbohydrates yield glucose only when proteins are not available.
b. Proteins cannot yield fat stores.
c. Fatty acids yield amino acids.
d. Glycerol yields nonessential amino acids when nitrogen is present.
e. Fatty acids yield glucose.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Glycolysis is the conversion of ____.
a. glycogen to fat
b. glycogen to protein
c. glucose to pyruvate
d. glucose to glycogen
e. glycogen to glucose

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. The series of reactions involving the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is known as ____.
a. pyrolysis
b. glycolysis
c. beta-oxidation
d. coupled reaction
e. gluconeogenesis

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of aerobic metabolism?
a. Little or no oxygen is consumed.
b. Lactic acid is a major byproduct.
c. Energy is produced more slowly than in anaerobic metabolism.
d. Pyruvate is converted to glucose by reverse glycolysis to yield a net of 2 ATPs.
e. The process can only be sustained for relatively brief periods of time.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which statement describes lactate production by muscle cells?
a. It occurs only during intense exercise.
b. When rapid, it causes muscle fatigue.
c. It produces lactate that may eventually be used by the liver for glucose production.
d. It lowers the pH of the muscle cell, thereby lowering muscle performance.
e. It is an aerobic process.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. An aerobic reaction is one that requires ____.
a. alcohol
b. oxygen
c. nitrogen
d. ammonia
e. glucose

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of ____.
a. lactate and glucose
b. glucose and amino acids
c. pyruvate and citric acids
d. fatty acids and acetyl CoA
e. glycerol and glucose

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more ____.
a. lactate
b. glucose
c. citric acid
d. fatty acids
e. galactate

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What is a possible metabolic reaction in the cell?
a. Pyruvate to urea
b. Lactate to pyruvate
c. Acetyl CoA to pyruvate
d. Carbon dioxide to glycerol
e. Fatty acids to glucose

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which nutrient can be made from compounds composed of 2-carbon skeletons?
a. Glucose
b. Fructose
c. Glycogen
d. Fatty acids
e. Pyruvate

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What is a possible fate of acetyl CoA?
a. Degradation to urea
b. Synthesis to glycerol
c. Synthesis to fatty acids
d. Degradation to ammonia
e. Storage in lipids

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of ____.
a. ketones
b. fructose
c. pyruvate
d. acetyl CoA
e. lactate

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Production of excessive amounts of acetyl CoA molecules leads to the synthesis of ____.
a. fatty acids only
b. fatty acids and glucose only
c. fatty acids and fructose only
d. fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids
e. amino acids only

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What percentage (by weight) of a triglyceride molecule can be converted to glucose?
a. 0%
b. 5%
c. 25%
d. 50%
e. 75%

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. How many acetyl CoA molecules may be obtained from oxidation of a 16-carbon fatty acid?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8
e. 16

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. An immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of ____.
a. glycolysis
b. the TCA cycle
c. lactate synthesis
d. ketone formation
e. protein excretion

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Where do the TCA cycle reactions take place?
a. Golgi bodies
b. Endoplasmic reticulum
c. Nucleus of the mitochondria
d. Inner compartment of the mitochondria
e. Outer membrane of the Golgi bodies

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to ____.
a. removal of its amino group
b. removal of its carboxyl group
c. hydrolysis of its peptide bond
d. condensation of its peptide bond
e. removal of its acetyl group

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which process leads to the production of urea?
a. Oxidation of glucose
b. Oxidation of amino acids
c. Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
d. Synthesis of protein from amino acids
e. Incomplete oxidation of glycerol

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?
a. Fat only
b. Carbohydrate only
c. Fat and carbohydrate only
d. Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
e. Protein and fat only

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body’s needs for glucose, what can be converted to glucose?
a. Fatty acids
b. Acetyl CoA
c. Amino acids
d. Carbon dioxide
e. Urea

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is ____.
a. stored as fat only
b. excreted in the feces
c. stored as amino acids only
d. stored as glycogen and fat
e. excreted in the urine

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What are the products of the complete oxidation of fatty acids?
a. Urea and acetone
b. Fatty acids and glycerol
c. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
d. Water, carbon dioxide, and energy
e. Pyruvate and acetyl CoA

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
a. Water and carbon dioxide
b. Carbon, hydrogen, and urea
c. Indigestible fiber and nitrogen
d. Monosaccharides and amino acids
e. Oxygen and carbolic acid

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of the electron transport chain?
a. It captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP.
b. It pumps carbon dioxide across the mitochondrial membrane.
c. It is composed of a series of coenzymes that transfer electrons up a concentration gradient.
d. It combines oxygen from carbon dioxide with hydrogen generated from the splitting of water.
e. It facilitates the transport of sodium and calcium.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?
a. Fatty acids have a lower percentage of hydrogen-oxygen bonds.
b. Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds.
c. Other energy-yielding nutrients have a lower percentage of oxygen-carbon bonds.
d. Other energy-yielding nutrients undergo fewer metabolic reactions, thereby lowering the energy yield.
e. Other energy-yielding nutrients have a lower percentage of oxygen-hydrogen bonds.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. The number of ATP molecules that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atoms of ____.
a. carbon
b. oxygen
c. nitrogen
d. hydrogen
e. potassium

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Which of the following can be synthesized from all three energy-yielding nutrients?
a. Lactate
b. Glycogen
c. Acetyl CoA
d. Oxaloacetate
e. Glucose

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. What is the most likely explanation for the body’s higher metabolic efficiency of converting a molecule of corn oil into stored fat compared with a molecule of sucrose?
a. The enzymes specific for metabolizing absorbed fat have been found to have higher activities than those metabolizing sucrose.
b. The absorbed corn oil is transported to fat cells at a faster rate than the absorbed sucrose, thereby favoring the uptake of corn oil fat.
c. There are fewer metabolic reactions for disassembling the corn oil and re-assembling the parts into a triglyceride for uptake by the fat cells.
d. Because corn oil has a greater energy content than sucrose, conversion of these nutrients into stored fat requires a smaller percentage of the energy from the corn oil.
e. The metabolic reactions for disassembling the corn oil and re-assembling the parts into a triglyceride for uptake by the fat cells require less energy themselves.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Storing excess energy from dietary carbohydrate as body fat requires ____ percent of the ingested energy intake.
a. 5
b. 15
c. 25
d. 35
e. 45

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. If a person consumes 100 kcalories in excess of energy needs from olive oil, approximately what percentage of the kcalories are stored in the body?
a. 55%
b. 65%
c. 75%
d. 85%
e. 95%

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the metabolism of specific macronutrients?
a. The rate of fat oxidation does not change when fat is eaten in excess.
b. The rate of protein oxidation does not change when protein is eaten in excess.
c. The rate of glucose oxidation does not change when carbohydrate is eaten in excess.
d. The conversion of dietary glucose to fat is the major pathway of carbohydrate utilization.
e. The conversion of protein to muscle is hastened when protein intake exceeds protein requirements.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. How does excess carbohydrate intake contribute to obesity?
a. It is efficiently converted to storage fat.
b. It spares oxidation of body fat and dietary fat.
c. It stimulates glucagon release, resulting in inhibition of fatty acid oxidation.
d. It stimulates pancreatic lipase secretion, which results in higher dietary fat absorption.
e. It results in large amounts of glycogen storage that is increased as carbohydrate consumption increases.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. What is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?
a. Excess fat is almost all stored.
b. Excess fat promotes increased fat oxidation.
c. Excess fat spares breakdown of body proteins.
d. Conversion of excess fat to storage fat is inefficient.
e. Excess dietary fat facilitates conversion of other macronutrients to fat.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Of the total amount of glucose energy consumed by the body, approximately what percentage is used by the brain and nerve cells?
a. 10%
b. 30%
c. 50%
d. 70%
e. 90%

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?
a. Protein
b. Ketones
c. Glycogen
d. Triglycerides
e. Glycerol

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Which dietary nutrient would most rapidly reverse a state of ketosis in a starving person?
a. Nonessential fatty acids
b. Protein
c. Amino acids
d. Carbohydrate
e. Essential fatty acids

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. How soon would death occur from starvation if the body was unable to shift to a state of ketosis?
a. 3 to 5 days
b. 7 to 10 days
c. within 3 weeks
d. 4 to 6 weeks
e. 6 to 12 weeks

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Which item is used to supply some of the fuel needed by the brain only after the body has been fasting for a while?
a. Ketones
b. Glycerol
c. Fatty acids
d. Amino acids
e. Protein

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Which of the following is classified as a ketone body?
a. Sorbitol
b. Pyruvate
c. Acetyl CoA
d. Acetoacetate
e. Oxaloacetate

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. What organ is the major site for gluconeogenesis?
a. Liver
b. Brain
c. Muscle
d. Small intestine
e. Pancreas

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Nationally, what percentage of college students are frequent binge drinkers?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 20%
d. 30%
e. 50%

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What percentage of U.S. adult men are classified as drinking excessively? What percentage of women are doing the same?
a. 2%; 5%
b. 5%; 2%
c. 8%; 3%
d. 10%; 4%
e. 11%; 8%

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. The amount of ethanol in a typical “drink” is ____.
a. 0.5 ounce
b. 1 ounce
c. 1.5 ounces
d. 2 ounces
e. 4 ounces

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Approximately how many kcal are contained in 3 ounces of 80-proof rum?
a. 50 kcal
b. 100 kcal
c. 150 kcal
d. 200 kcal
e. 400 kcal

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What is one explanation for the generally lower tolerance for alcohol in women in comparison to men?
a. Women fast more often.
b. Women do not eat as much food with the alcohol.
c. Women consume more of their alcohol in sweetened drinks.
d. Women have lower amounts of stomach alcohol dehydrogenase.
e. Women are more likely to gulp their drinks.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

 

  1. What is the primary organ that oxidizes alcohol?
a. Brain
b. Liver
c. Pancreas
d. Stomach
e. Small intestine

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What would be the best method of slowing alcohol absorption?
a. Not eating
b. Eating protein snacks
c. Drinking caffeinated drinks
d. Eating carbohydrate snacks
e. Fasting 6 to 8 hours before drinking

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. The metabolism of alcohol begins in the ____.
a. liver
b. brain
c. stomach
d. intestines
e. mouth

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What is acetaldehyde?
a. An intermediate in fatty acid synthesis
b. An intermediate in alcohol metabolism
c. The first product of fatty acid catabolism
d. The TCA compound that combines with acetyl CoA
e. The final product of alcohol metabolism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. In the average healthy person, about how much time is required by the liver to process the alcohol in a typical drink?
a. 15 minutes
b. 30 minutes
c. 1 hour
d. 2 hours
e. 4 hours

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Excess alcohol intake leads to a reduction in the synthesis rate of ____.
a. liver fat
b. liver glucose
c. ketone bodies
d. acetyl CoA molecules
e. insulin

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Which functions are first to be affected when a person begins to drink alcohol?
a. Speech and vision
b. Judgment and reasoning
c. Voluntary muscle control
d. Respiration and heart function
e. Balance and coordination

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:    H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in people with chronic alcohol abuse stems primarily from a deficiency of ____.
a. folate
b. thiamin
c. antidiuretic hormone
d. alcohol dehydrogenase
e. protein

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Which statement is true regarding alcoholic beverages containing caffeine?
a. The FDA has banned their sales.
b. The time needed to be intoxicated is slowed by caffeine.
c. The presence of caffeine slows down consumption.
d. The caffeine slows the development of alcohol-induced impairment.
e. The presence of caffeine improves an individual’s judgment about his or her level of intoxication.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What is the median weekly number of alcoholic drinks consumed by college students in general?
a. 1 ½
b. 3
c. 5
d. 10
e. 14 1/2

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. What proportion of all domestic violence incidents involve alcohol use?
a. 25%
b. 35%
c. 45%
d. 55%
e. 65%

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The process by which green plants use the sun’s energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water is ____________________.

 

ANS:  photosynthesis

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Some of the energy released during the breakdown of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids is captured in the high-energy compound with three phosphate groups called ____________________.

 

ANS:  adenosine triphosphate, ATP

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. Enzyme helpers are called ____________________.

 

ANS:  coenzymes

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. In the TCA (tricarboxylic acid; Krebs) cycle, ____________________ is broken down into ____________________ and ____________________,

 

ANS:  acetyl CoA; carbon dioxide; hydrogen

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to  ____________________; when the energy expenditure is slower, pyruvate is broken down into ____________________.

 

ANS:  lactate; acetyl CoA

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2  Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Fatty acids are taken apart two carbons at a time in a series of reactions known as ____________________.

 

ANS:  fatty acid oxidation

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. The final common metabolic pathway for carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids is the ____________________.

 

ANS:  TCA cycle; Krebs cycle; tricarboxylic acid cycle; citric acid cycle

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. The making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources is called ____________________.

 

ANS:  gluconeogenesis

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. In the absence of adequate energy intake, ____________________ are formed from combining acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids.

 

ANS:  ketone bodies

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. In the first step of alcohol metabolism, alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes alcohol to ____________________.

 

ANS:  acetaldehyde

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 | Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

MATCHING

 

a. Ethyl k. Cori cycle
b. Urea l. Lactate
c. MEOS m. Acetoacetate
d. Water n. Acetyl CoA
e. Glucose o. Pyruvate
f. Enzyme p. Triglyceride
g. Glycogen q. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase
h. Glycerol r. Synthesis of pyruvate from glycogen
i. Ammonia s. Synthesis of cholesterol from acetate
j. Coenzyme t. Synthesis of acetyl CoA from glucose

 

 

  1. Example of an anabolic reaction

 

  1. Example of a catabolic reaction

 

  1. A protein that accelerates a chemical reaction

 

  1. A small non-protein organic substance that promotes optimal activity of an enzyme

 

  1. A product of glycolysis

 

  1. A product of pyruvate metabolism when oxygen is limited

 

  1. The oxidation product of pyruvate

 

  1. A recycling process of converting lactate to glucose

 

  1. An irreversible reaction

 

  1. The part of a triglyceride that is convertible to glucose

 

  1. A product of deamination

 

  1. A compound synthesized from acetyl CoA when ATP is plentiful

 

  1. The principal nitrogen-containing waste product

 

  1. Waste product of the electron transport chain

 

  1. A storage form of carbohydrate

 

  1. The major energy fuel for the central nervous system

 

  1. A ketone

 

  1. An enzyme with activity levels related to a person’s sex

 

  1. The type of alcohol in distilled spirits, wine, and beer

 

  1. A system for metabolizing drugs and alcohol

 

  1. ANS:  S                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. ANS:  R                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. ANS:  F                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. ANS:  J                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. ANS:  O                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  L                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  N                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  K                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  T                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  H                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  I                     DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  P                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  B                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  D                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember

REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. ANS:  G                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. ANS:  E                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. ANS:  M                   DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. ANS:  Q                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. ANS:  A                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. ANS:  C                    DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

ESSAY

 

  1. List four of the liver’s functions in the metabolism of each of these nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

 

ANS:

Carbohydrates

Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose

Makes and stores glycogen

Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose

Breaks down glucose for energy when needed

Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed

Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids

 

Fats

Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed

Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed

Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues

Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion

Makes ketone bodies when necessary

 

Proteins

Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply

Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids

Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion

Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA)

Makes many proteins

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.1 Chemical Reactions in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.1 Identify the nutrients involved in energy metabolism and the high-energy compound that captures the energy released during their breakdown.

 

  1. What are the major differences between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism? Give an example of an aerobic reaction and an anaerobic reaction.

 

ANS:

Aerobic reactions require oxygen; anaerobic reactions do not.

 

When the body needs energy quickly—as occurs when you run a quarter mile as fast as you can—pyruvate is converted to lactate. The breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen—it is anaerobic. This anaerobic pathway yields energy quickly, but it cannot be sustained for long—a couple of minutes at most.

 

When energy expenditure proceeds at a slower pace—as occurs when you jog around the track for an hour—pyruvate breaks down to acetyl CoA in an aerobic pathway. Aerobic pathways produce energy more slowly, but because they can be sustained for a long time, their total energy yield is greater.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Explain the roles of protein and fat as nutrients for gluconeogenesis. What are the circumstances that favor low and high rates of gluconeogenesis?

 

ANS:

During a fast, the need for glucose poses a major problem. The body can use its stores of fat, which may be quite generous, to furnish most of its cells with energy, but the red blood cells are completely dependent on glucose, and the brain and nerves prefer energy in the form of glucose. Amino acids that yield pyruvate can be used for gluconeogenesis—the making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. The liver is the major site of gluconeogenesis, but the kidneys become increasingly involved under certain circumstances, such as starvation.

 

The glycerol portion of a triglyceride and most amino acids can be used to make glucose. To obtain the amino acids, body proteins must be broken down. For this reason, protein tissues such as muscle and liver always break down to some extent during fasting. The amino acids that cannot be used to make glucose are used as an energy source for other body cells.

 

The breakdown of body protein is an expensive way to obtain glucose. In the first few days of a fast, body protein provides about 90 percent of the needed glucose; glycerol, about 10 percent. If body protein losses were to continue at this rate, death would follow within three weeks, regardless of the quantity of fat a person had stored. Fortunately, fat breakdown also increases with fasting—in fact, fat breakdown almost doubles, providing energy for other body cells and glycerol for glucose production.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. How does the electron transport chain function in the synthesis of ATP?

 

ANS:

The electron transport chain captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP. The electron transport chain consists of a series of proteins that serve as electron “carriers.” These carriers are mounted in sequence on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. As the coenzymes deliver their electrons from the TCA cycle, glycolysis, and fatty acid oxidation to the electron transport chain, each carrier receives the electrons and passes them on to the next carrier. These electron carriers continue passing the electrons down until they reach oxygen. Oxygen (O) accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms (H) to form water (H2O). That oxygen must be available for energy metabolism explains why it is essential to life. As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. The rush of hydrogen ions back into the inner compartment powers the synthesis of ATP. In this way, energy is captured in the bonds of ATP. The ATP leaves the mitochondria and enters the cytoplasm, where it can be used for energy.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.2 Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.2 Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids.

 

  1. Describe interactions among the energy nutrients when each is consumed in excess.

 

ANS:

The body cannot store excess amino acids as such; it has to convert them to other compounds. Contrary to popular opinion, a person cannot grow muscle simply by overeating protein. Lean tissue such as muscle develops in response to a stimulus such as hormones or physical activity. When a person overeats protein, the body uses the surplus first by replacing normal daily losses and then by increasing protein oxidation.

 

Compared with protein, the proportion of carbohydrate in the fuel mix changes more dramatically when a person overeats. The body handles abundant carbohydrate by first storing it as glycogen, but glycogen storage areas are limited and fill quickly. Because maintaining glucose balance is critical, the body uses glucose frugally when the diet provides only small amounts and freely when supplies are abundant. In other words, glucose oxidation rapidly adjusts to the dietary intake of carbohydrate.

Like protein, excess glucose can also be converted to fat directly. This pathway is relatively minor, however. As mentioned earlier, converting glucose to fat is energetically expensive and does not occur until after glycogen stores have been filled. Still, new body fat is made whenever carbohydrate intake is excessive.

Excess dietary carbohydrate can also displace fat in the fuel mix. When this occurs, carbohydrate spares both dietary fat and body fat from oxidation—an effect that may be more pronounced in overweight people than in lean people. The net result: excess carbohydrate contributes to obesity or at least to the maintenance of an overweight body.

 

Unlike excess protein and carbohydrate, which both increase oxidation, eating too much fat does not promote fat oxidation. Instead, excess dietary fat moves efficiently into the body’s fat stores; almost all of the excess is stored.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Discuss ways in which the body’s metabolism adapts to conditions of fasting/starvation. How do these adaptations affect the rate of weight loss when a person follows a low-kcalorie diet?

 

ANS:

During fasting, carbohydrate, fat, and protein are all eventually used for energy—fuel must be delivered to every cell. As the fast begins, glucose from the liver’s stored glycogen and fatty acids from the adipose tissue’s stored fat travel to the cells. As described earlier, these molecules are broken down to acetyl CoA, which enters the energy pathways that power the cells’ work. Several hours later, however, liver glycogen is depleted and blood glucose begins to fall. The body must adjust its normal metabolism to survive without food. Starvation demands cells to degrade their components for fuel.

 

At this point, most cells are using fatty acids for their fuel. But red blood cells and the cells of the nervous system need glucose. Glucose is their primary energy fuel. Normally, the brain and nerve cells—which weigh only about three pounds—consume about half of the total glucose used each day (about 500 kcalories’ worth). About one-fourth of the energy the adult body uses when it is at rest is spent by the brain.

 

During a fast, the need for glucose poses a major problem. The body can use its stores of fat, which may be quite generous, to furnish most of its cells with energy, but the red blood cells are completely dependent on glucose, and the brain and nerves prefer energy in the form of glucose. Amino acids that yield pyruvate can be used for gluconeogenesis—the making of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. The liver is the major site of gluconeogenesis, but the kidneys become increasingly involved under certain circumstances, such as starvation.

 

As the fast continues, the body finds a way to use its fat to fuel the brain. It adapts by combining acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids to produce an alternative energy source, ketone bodies. Normally produced and used only in small quantities, ketone bodies can efficiently provide fuel for brain cells. Ketone body production rises until, after about 10 days of fasting, it is meeting much of the nervous system’s energy needs. Still, many areas of the brain rely exclusively on glucose, and to produce it, the body continues to sacrifice protein—albeit at a slower rate than in the early days of fasting.

 

In an effort to conserve body tissues for as long as possible, the hormones of fasting slow metabolism. As the body shifts to the use of ketone bodies, it simultaneously reduces its energy output and conserves both its fat and its lean tissue. Still the lean protein tissues shrink and perform less metabolic work, reducing energy expenditures. As the muscles waste, they can do less work and so demand less energy, reducing expenditures further. Although fasting may promote dramatic weight loss, a low-kcalorie diet and physical activity better support fat loss while retaining lean tissue.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. What is ketosis and how can it be identified? What conditions typically induce a state of ketosis? What are the adverse effects of this condition?

 

ANS:

A ketone body that contains an acid group (COOH) is called a keto acid. Small amounts of keto acids are a normal part of the blood chemistry, but when their concentration rises, the pH of the blood drops. This is ketosis, a sign that the body’s chemistry is going awry. Acidic blood denatures proteins, leaving them unable to function. Elevated blood ketones (ketonemia) are excreted in the urine (ketonuria). A fruity odor on the breath (known as acetone breath) develops, reflecting the presence of the ketone acetone. Ketosis induces a loss of appetite. As starvation continues, this loss of appetite becomes an advantage to a person without access to food. When food becomes available again and the person eats, the body shifts out of ketosis and appetite returns.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. How does the body respond to a low-carbohydrate diet?

 

ANS:

When a person consumes a low-carbohydrate diet, a metabolism similar to that of fasting prevails. With little dietary carbohydrate coming in, the body uses its glycogen stores to provide glucose for the cells of the brain, nerves, and blood. Once the body depletes its glycogen reserves, it begins making glucose from the amino acids of protein (gluconeogenesis). A low carbohydrate diet may provide abundant protein from food, but the body still uses some protein from body tissues.

 

Dieters can know glycogen depletion has occurred and gluconeogenesis has begun by monitoring their urine. Whenever glycogen or protein is broken down, water is released and urine production increases. Low-carbohydrate diets also induce ketosis, and ketones can be detected in the urine. Ketones form whenever glucose is lacking and fat breakdown is incomplete.

 

Many fad diets regard ketosis as the key to losing weight, but studies comparing weight-loss diets find no relation between ketosis and weight loss. People in ketosis may experience a loss of appetite and a dramatic weight loss within the first few days. They should know that much of this weight loss reflects the loss of glycogen and protein together with large quantities of body fluids and important minerals. They need to appreciate the difference between loss of fat and loss of weight. Fat losses on ketogenic diets are no greater than on other diets providing the same number of kcalories. Once the dieter returns to well-balanced meals that provide adequate energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals, the body avidly retains these needed nutrients.  The weight will return, quite often to a level higher than the starting point. In addition to weight loss, ketogenic diets are often used in the treatment of several diseases, most notably epilepsy

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               7.3 Feasting and Fasting

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.7.3 Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.

 

  1. Compare and contrast the metabolism of alcohol in men versus women.

 

ANS:

The stomach begins to break down alcohol with its alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme. Women produce less of this stomach enzyme than men; consequently, more alcohol reaches the intestine for absorption into the bloodstream. As a result, women absorb more alcohol than men of the same size who drink the same amount of alcohol. Consequently, they are more likely to become more intoxicated on less alcohol than men. Such differences between men and women help explain why women have a lower alcohol tolerance and a lower guideline for moderate intake.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Describe the two major pathways for metabolism of alcohol in the liver. How does the liver adapt when forced to metabolize high quantities of alcohol on a daily basis?

 

ANS:

The liver is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. It can process about ½ ounce of ethanol per hour (the amount defined as a drink), depending on the person’s body size, previous drinking experience, food intake, and general health. This maximum rate of alcohol breakdown is determined by the amount of alcohol dehydrogenase available. If more alcohol arrives at the liver than the enzymes can handle, the extra alcohol travels around the body, circulating again and again until liver enzymes are finally available to process it.

 

The amount of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme present in the liver varies with individuals, depending on the genes they have inherited and on how recently they have eaten. Fasting for as little as a day prompts the body to degrade its proteins, including the alcohol-processing enzymes, and this can slow the rate of alcohol metabolism by half. Drinking after not eating all day thus causes the drinker to feel the effects more promptly for two reasons: rapid absorption and slowed breakdown.

 

The alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme breaks down alcohol by removing hydrogens in two steps. In the first step, alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes alcohol to  acetaldehyde—a highly reactive and toxic compound. High concentrations of acetaldehyde in the brain and other tissues are responsible for many of the damaging effects of alcohol abuse.

 

In the second step, a related enzyme, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, converts acetaldehyde to acetate, which is then converted to either carbon dioxide (CO2) or acetyl CoA—the compound that plays such a central role in energy metabolism. The reactions from alcohol to acetaldehyde to acetate produce hydrogens (H1) and electrons. The B vitamin niacin, in its role as a coenzyme, helpfully picks up these hydrogens and electrons and escorts them to the electron transport chain.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Discuss ways in which alcohol interferes with metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water.

 

ANS:

During alcohol metabolism, the multitude of other metabolic processes for which the niacin coenzyme is required, including glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport chain, falter. Its presence is sorely missed in these energy pathways because it is the chief carrier of the hydrogens that travel with their electrons along the electron transport chain. Without adequate coenzymes, these energy pathways cannot function. Traffic either backs up or an alternate route is taken.

 

Such changes in the normal flow of energy pathways have striking metabolic consequences. For one, the accumulation of hydrogen ions during alcohol metabolism shifts the body’s acid-base balance toward acid. For another, alcohol’s interference with energy metabolism promotes the making of lactate from pyruvate. The conversion of pyruvate to lactate uses some of the excess hydrogens, but a lactate build-up has serious consequences of its own—it adds still further to the body’s acid burden and interferes with the excretion of another acid, uric acid, causing inflammation of the joints.

 

Alcohol alters both amino acid and protein metabolism. Synthesis of proteins important in the immune system slows down, weakening the body’s defenses against infections. Evidence of protein deficiency becomes apparent, both from a diminished synthesis of proteins and from a poor diet. Normally, the cells would at least use the amino acids from the protein foods a person eats, but the drinker’s liver deaminates the amino acids and uses the carbon fragments primarily to make fat or ketone bodies. Eating well does not protect the drinker from protein depletion; a person has to stop drinking alcohol.

 

The accumulation of coenzymes with their hydrogens and electrons slows the TCA cycle, so pyruvate and acetyl CoA build up. Excess acetyl CoA then takes the pathway to fatty acid synthesis, and fat clogs the liver. As you might expect, a liver overburdened with fat cannot function properly. Liver cells become less efficient at performing a number of tasks. Much of this inefficiency impairs a person’s nutritional health in ways that cannot be corrected by diet alone. For example, the liver has difficulty activating vitamin D, as well as producing and releasing bile. The fatty liver has difficulty making glucose from protein. Without gluconeogenesis, blood glucose can plummet, leading to irreversible damage to the central nervous system. The lack of glucose together with the overabundance of acetyl CoA sets the stage for ketosis. The body uses excess acetyl CoA to make ketone bodies; their acidity pushes the acid-base balance further toward acid and suppresses nervous system activity. To overcome such problems, a person needs to stop drinking alcohol.

 

The synthesis of fatty acids accelerates with exposure to alcohol. Fat accumulation can be seen in the liver after a single night of heavy drinking. Fatty liver, the first stage of liver deterioration seen in heavy drinkers, interferes with the distribution of nutrients and oxygen to the liver cells. Fatty liver is reversible with abstinence from alcohol. If fatty liver lasts long enough, however, the liver cells will die and form fibrous scar tissue. This second stage of liver deterioration is called fibrosis. Some liver cells can regenerate with good nutrition and abstinence from alcohol, but in the most advanced stage, cirrhosis, damage is the least reversible.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Describe the effects of excess alcohol intake on folate utilization.

 

ANS:

Chronic alcohol abuse not only displaces nutrients from the diet, but it also interferes with the body’s metabolism of nutrients. Most dramatic is alcohol’s effect on the B vitamin folate. The liver loses its ability to retain folate, and the kidneys increase their excretion of it. Alcohol abuse creates a folate deficiency that devastates digestive system function. The small intestine normally releases and retrieves folate continuously, but it becomes damaged by folate deficiency and alcohol toxicity, so it fails to retrieve its own folate and misses any that may trickle in from food as well. Alcohol also interferes with the action of folate in converting the amino acid homocysteine to methionine. The result is an excess of homocysteine, which has been linked to heart disease, and an inadequate supply of methionine, which slows the production of new cells, especially the rapidly dividing cells of the intestine and the blood. The combination of poor folate status and alcohol consumption has also been implicated in promoting colorectal cancer.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Describe specific effects of alcohol on each of the following organs: heart, kidney, and brain.

 

ANS:

Heart:  In heavy drinkers, raises blood pressure, blood lipids, and the risk of stroke and heart disease; when compared with those who abstain, heart disease risk is generally lower in light-to-moderate drinkers.

 

Kidney:  Enlarges the kidneys, alters hormone functions, and increases the risk of kidney failure.

 

Brain:  Causes neuropathy and dementia; impairs balance and memory.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. Describe the interactions related to alcohol-containing beverages spiked with caffeine.

 

ANS:

The dangers of binge drinking have been amplified by the use of beverages that contain caffeine as an additive. The caffeine seems to mask the sensory cues that an individual normally relies on to determine intoxication. Consequently, individuals drinking these beverages typically consume more alcohol and become more intoxicated than they realize. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned manufacturers of packaged caffeinated alcoholic beverages to stop sales. The combination of alcohol and added caffeine has not been approved because these products are associated with risky behaviors that may lead to hazardous and life-threatening situations.

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Remember                       REF:   H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.

 

  1. List six common myths concerning alcohol use and discuss ways to dispel them.

 

ANS:

Myth: Liquors such as rum, vodka, and tequila are more harmful than wine and beer.

Truth: The damage caused by alcohol depends largely on the amount consumed. Compared with liquor, beer and wine have relatively low percentages of alcohol, but they are often consumed in larger quantities.

 

Myth: Consuming alcohol with raw seafood diminishes the likelihood of getting hepatitis.

Truth: people have eaten contaminated oysters while drinking alcoholic beverages and not gotten as sick as those who were not drinking. But do not be misled: hepatitis is too serious an illness for anyone to depend on alcohol for protection.

 

Myth: Alcohol stimulates the appetite.

Truth: For some people, alcohol may stimulate appetite, but it seems to have the opposite effect in heavy drinkers. Heavy drinkers tend to eat poorly and suffer malnutrition.

 

Myth: Drinking alcohol is healthy.

Truth: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for heart disease. Higher intakes, however, raise the risks for high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, some cancers, accidents, violence, suicide, birth defects, and deaths in general. furthermore, excessive alcohol consumption damages the liver, pancreas, brain, and heart. No authority recommends that nondrinkers begin drinking alcoholic beverages to obtain health benefits.

 

Myth: Wine increases the body’s absorption of minerals.

Truth: Wine may increase the body’s absorption of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc, but the alcohol in wine also promotes the body’s excretion of these minerals, so no benefit is gained.

 

Myth: Alcohol is legal, and, therefore, not a drug.

Truth: Alcohol is legal for adults 21 years old and older, but it is also a drug—a substance that alters one or more of the body’s functions.

 

Myth: A shot of alcohol usually warms you up.

Truth: Alcohol diverts blood flow to the skin making you feel warmer, but it actually cools the body.

 

Myth: Wine and beer are mild; they do not lead to alcoholism.

Truth: Alcoholism is not related to the kind of beverage, but rather to the quantity and frequency of consumption.

 

Myth: Mixing different types of drinks gives you a hangover.

Truth: Too much alcohol in any form produces a hangover.

 

Myth: Alcohol is a stimulant.

Truth: People think alcohol is a stimulant because it seems to relieve inhibitions, but it does so by depressing the activity of the brain. Alcohol is medically defined as a depressant drug.

 

Myth; Beer is a great source of carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fluids.

Truth: Beer does provide some carbohydrate, but most of its kcalories come from alcohol. The few vitamins and minerals in beer cannot compete with rich food sources. And the diuretic effect of alcohol causes the body to lose more fluid in urine than is provided by the beer

 

DIF:    Bloom’s: Understand                                 REF:               H-7 Alcohol in the Body

OBJ: UNUT.WHRO.16.H-7 Describe how alcohol disrupts metabolism and impairs health.