Understanding Pathophysiology – ANZ Adaptation 2nd Ed By Craft – Test Bank

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Understanding Pathophysiology – ANZ Adaptation 2nd Ed By Craft – Test Bank

Craft, Gordon: Understanding Pathophysiology, 2nd Edition

 

Chapter 06: The structure and function of the neurological system

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The somatic nervous system consists of pathways that control:

 

a. the heart.
b. the spinal cord.
c. skeletal muscle.
d. smooth muscle organs.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 91

 

  1. Afferent impulses in peripheral nerves are conducted by:

 

a. sensory neurons towards the CNS.
b. sensory neurons away from the CNS.
c. motor neurons towards the CNS.
d. motor impulses away from the CNS.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 90

 

  1. Which division of the nervous system controls heart rate?

 

a. somatic
b. afferent
c. autonomic
d. sensory

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 91

 

  1. A special function of the neurofibrils in neurons is to assist:

 

a. the cell membrane control ion movement.
b. with the transport of substances along the axon.
c. with maintaining the resting membrane potential.
d. the neuron when it undergoes mitosis.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 91

 

  1. Motor neurons are structurally classified as:

 

a. unipolar neurons.
b. pseudounipolar neurons.
c. bipolar neurons.
d. multipolar neurons.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 92

 

  1. A cell was isolated from the CNS. Studies revealed that its main function was to clear cellular debris. Which of the following is the most likely cell type?

 

a. astrocyte
b. ependymal cell
c. microglial
d. Schwann cell

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 93

 

  1. All of the following are neuroglial cells, except:

 

a. astrocyte
b. oligodendrocyte
c. neuron
d. ependymal cell

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 93

 

  1. Which of the following is located in the peripheral nervous system?

 

a. astrocyte
b. ependymal cell
c. microglia
d. Schwann cell

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 93

 

  1. Which of the following neurons have the capacity for regeneration?

 

a. unmyelinated neurons in the brain
b. myelinated neurons in the spinal cord
c. myelinated peripheral neurons
d. postganglionic motor neurons

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 94

 

  1. When a neuron is resting (not sending any impulses), which ion is at a higher concentration in the neural intracellular fluid than in the extracellular fluid?

 

a. sodium
b. calcium
c. chloride
d. potassium

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 95

 

  1. Depolarisation of the neural membrane in the early phase of the axon potential occurs when:

 

a. sodium ions move into the neuron.
b. sodium ions exit the neuron.
c. potassium ions move into the neuron.
d. potassium ions exit the neuron.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 95

 

  1. A nerve is stimulated by an electrical current. Upon stimulation, neurotransmitters are released from the:

 

a. synapse.
b. synaptic vesicle.
c. synaptic cleft.
d. receptor.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 96

 

  1. Neurotransmitters interact with the postsynaptic membrane by binding to a:

 

a. receptor.
b. Nissl body.
c. glial cell.
d. neurofibril.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 96

 

  1. A 20-year-old male was brought to the ED for severe burns. He requested something for the excruciating pain he was experiencing. Blocking which of the following neurotransmitters would reduce his pain?

 

a. enkephalin
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. substance P

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 99

 

  1. Which of the following transmit a nerve impulse at the highest rate?

 

a. large nonmyelinated axons
b. large myelinated axons
c. small nonmyelinated axons
d. small myelinated axons

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 98

 

  1. The convolutions on the surface of the cerebrum are called:

 

a. sulci.
b. fissures.
c. reticular formations.
d. gyri.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 101

 

  1. The region responsible for motor aspects of speech is termed:

 

a. Wernicke’s area.
b. Broca’s area.
c. the primary speech area.
d. the insula.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 101

 

  1. A 32-year-old female suffers from severe brain damage following a motor vehicle accident. After rehabilitation she notices that her thought processes and goal-oriented behaviour are impaired. The area most likely responsible is the:

 

a. thalamus.
b. limbic.
c. prefrontal.
d. occipital.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 102

 

  1. The primary visual cortex is located in the:

 

a. frontal lobe.
b. temporal lobe.
c. occipital lobe.
d. parietal lobe.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 101

 

  1. The major somatosensory brain area is located in the:

 

a. cerebellum.
b. corpus callosum.
c. parietal lobe.
d. frontal lobe.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 101

 

  1. A 79 year old female has a stroke which leaves her paralysed down her right side. The area of her brain that is damaged is most likely the:

 

a. right motor cortex.
b. left motor cortex.
c. right post central gyrus.
d. left temporal lobe.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 101

 

  1. A 45-year-old male was previously diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. He has impaired fine repetitive motor movements. Which of the following areas is most likely damaged?

 

a. basal nuclei.
b. prefrontal area
c. hippocampus
d. temporal lobe

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 103

 

  1. The area responsible for language comprehension located mainly in the left temporal lobe is:

 

a. the insula.
b. the pre-central gyrus.
c. Broca’s area.
d. Wernicke’s area.

 

ANS: D                       REF: p 103.

 

  1. The _____ is a transverse fibre tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.

 

a. peduncle
b. corpus callosum
c. basal ganglia
d. pons

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 102

 

  1. The collection of cell bodies located deep in the white matter of each cerebral hemisphere that function in fine tuning voluntary muscle activity and inhibit unnecessary movement are the:

 

a. cerebellum.
b. cerebral tracts.
c. basal nuclei.
d. thalamus.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 103

 

  1. Maintenance of homeostasis and instinctive behavioural control arise from the:

 

a. thalamus.
b. medulla.
c. cerebellum.
d. hypothalamus.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 103

 

  1. A 19-year-old male university student complains to his doctor that he cannot stay awake in class regardless of how much sleep he gets. A drug that stimulates which of the following areas would best treat his problem?

 

a. corpora quadrigemina
b. reticular activating system
c. cerebellum
d. hypothalamus

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 105

 

  1. Reflex activities concerned with heart rate and blood pressure are controlled by the:

 

a. medulla oblongata.
b. pons.
c. midbrain.
d. cerebrum.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 105

 

  1. A patient presents with altered respiratory patterns following head trauma. A lesion in which of the following areas would cause these symptoms?

 

a. cerebrum
b. cerebellum
c. midbrain
d. medulla

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 105

 

  1. Regulation of body temperature primarily occurs in the:

 

a. cerebrum
b. brain stem
c. hypothalamus
d. pituitary gland

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 103

 

  1. The sleep control centre is located in the:

 

a. prefrontal cortex.
b. thalamus.
c. hypothalamus.
d. cerebellum.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 106

 

  1. Which sleep phase shows EEG patterns with brain activity similar to the normal awake pattern? (REM = rapid eye movement; NREM = non-rapid eye movement)

 

a. NREM stage I
b. NREM stage II
c. NREM stage III
d. REM

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 105

 

  1. Most dreams occur during:

 

a. NREM stage I sleep.
b. NREM stage IV sleep.
c. REM sleep.
d. daydreams.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 105

 

  1. Loss of temperature control occurs in:

 

a. non-REM sleep.
b. light sleep.
c. REM sleep.
d. 20 minutes after falling asleep.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 105

 

  1. REM sleep occurs about every:

 

a. 15 minutes.
b. 30 minutes.
c. 60 minutes.
d. 90 minutes.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 105

 

  1. Sensory pathways in the spinal cord include the:

 

a. corticospinal tract.
b. pyramids.
c. spinothalamic tract.
d. anterior column.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 109

 

  1. The membrane that separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum is known as the:

 

a. tentorium cerebelli.
b. falx cerebri.
c. arachnoid membrane.
d. falx cerebelli.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 109

 

  1. Corticospinal neural pathways travel from the:

 

a. motor cortex to the spinal cord to skeletal muscles.
b. skeletal muscles to the spinal cord to the motor cortex.
c. peripheral sensory receptors to the spinal cord to the cortex.
d. autonomic effector organs to the spinal cord to the cortex.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 109

 

  1. The outermost membrane surrounding the brain is the:

 

a. dura mater.
b. arachnoid mater.
c. pia mater.
d. falx cerebri.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 109

 

  1. A 12-year-old female presents with hydrocephalus, a condition where there is an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and pressure. Blockage of which of the following would cause this condition?

 

a. cerebral aqueduct
b. inferior colliculi
c. red nucleus
d. tegmentum

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 112

 

  1. CSF can accumulate around the brain when there is injury to the sites of CSF reabsorption, which are called the:

 

a. arachnoid villi.
b. epidural foramina.
c. lateral apertures.
d. choroid plexuses.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 113

 

  1. The brain receives approximately _____ of the cardiac output.

 

a. 80%
b. 20%
c. 40%
d. 10%

 

ANS: B                              REF:  p 113

 

  1. A cell that is involved in forming the blood-brain barrier is the:

 

a. microglia.
b. Schwann cell.
c. oligodendrocyte.
d. astrocyte.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 113

 

  1. The _____ ensures collateral blood flow from blood vessels supplying the brain.

 

a. carotid arteries
b. basal artery
c. circle of Willis
d. vertebral arteries

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 114

 

  1. A 40-year-old male suffers from a head trauma that affects cranial nerve I. Which of the following symptoms would be expected?

 

a. visual disturbances
b. loss of sense of smell
c. loss of ability to taste
d. hearing disturbances

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 116

 

  1. Parasympathetic motor neurons release the neurotransmitter:

 

a. adrenaline
b. serotonin.
c. acetylcholine.
d. substance P.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 120

 

  1. Stimulation of the vagus nerve causes:

 

a. increased gastrointestinal activity.
b. increased heart rate.
c. pupil constriction.
d. vasoconstriction.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 117

 

  1. An effect of b-1 receptor stimulation is:

 

a. dilation of the coronary arteries.
b. arterial vasoconstriction.
c. an increase in the strength of myocardial contraction.
d. a decrease in the rate of myocardial contraction.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 122

 

  1. A patient begins taking a new drug that causes pupil dilation, vasoconstriction, decreased gastrointestinal motility and goose bumps. Which of the following receptors are activated?

 

a. alpha 1
b. alpha 2
c. beta 1
d. beta 2

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 122

 

  1. The structure of the eye that prevents light from scattering in the eye is the:

 

a. iris.
b. pupil.
c. choroid.
d. retina.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 126

 

  1. A 50-year-old patient with diabetes experiences visual disturbances and decides to visit his GP. After examination, the GP tells the patient that the cells that allow him to see are degenerated. Which of the following structures is most likely damaged?

 

a. lens
b. pupil
c. cornea
d. retina

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 126

 

  1. Which structure connects the middle ear with the pharynx?

 

a. organ of Corti
b. eustachian tube
c. semicircular canal
d. auditory canal

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 127

 

  1. Which disease is associated with increased intraocular pressures?

 

a. glaucoma
b. ocular degeneration
c. diplopia
d. astigmatism

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 129

 

  1. A 70-year-old male presents to his GP complaining of loss of vision. He reports that he has hypertension and smokes cigarettes. Which of the following disorders is most likely causing his visual loss?

 

a. presbyopia
b. macular degeneration
c. strabismus
d. amblyopia

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 129

 

  1. Red-green color blindness most often occurs in:

 

a. males.
b. females.
c. older people.
d. children.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 129

 

  1. The most common form of sensorineural hearing loss in older people is:

 

a. conductive hearing loss.
b. acute otitis media.
c. presbycusis.
d. Ménière’s disease.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 130

 

  1. A 15-year-old female is diagnosed with an outer ear infection. Which of the following is most likely to cause this infection?

 

a. Haemophilus
b. Streptococcus pneumoniae
c. Moraxella catarrhalis
d. Escherichia coli

 

ANS: D                              REF:  p 131

 

  1. During infancy, what is the fastest growing part of the body?

 

a. spinal cord
b. limb bones
c. head
d. vertebral column

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 132

 

Craft, Gordon: Understanding Pathophysiology, 2nd Edition

 

Chapter 07: Pain

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The system responsible for an individual’s emotional and behavioral responses to pain is the:

 

a. sensory/discriminative system.
b. motivational/affective system.
c. sensory/motivational system.
d. cognitive/evaluative system.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 138

 

  1. A 55-year-old male presented to his GP complaining of severe headaches. Investigative tests suggested his pain was psychogenic in nature. This type of pain:

 

a. is associated with stimulation of internal nociceptors.
b. is caused by damage to one or more cranial nerves.
c. is attributed to damage within the central nervous system.
d. appears to have no underlying pathology.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 140

 

  1. The pain that occurs to a stimulus such as light stroking that normally does not provoke pain is termed:

 

a. hyperalgesia.
b. analgesia.
c. allodynia.
d. causalgia.

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 141

 

  1. Pain that is felt in a different body part to the source of the pain is called:

 

a. neuropathic pain.
b. referred pain.
c. psychogenic pain.
d. hyperalgesia.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 140

 

  1. Chronic pain is pain that has lasted longer than:

 

a. 1 month.
b. 3 months.
c. 1 year.
d. 2 to 3 years.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 140

 

  1. A 20-year-old female pricked her left hand while sewing. Which area in her brain would have received the pain signals and perceived them as pain?

 

a. right somatosensory cortex
b. left somatosensory cortex
c. right precentral gyrus on the frontal lobe
d. left precentral gyrus on the frontal lobe

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 142

 

  1. One location in which nociceptors can be found is the:

 

a. skin.
b. spinal cord.
c. efferent pathways.
d. hypothalamus.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 140

 

  1. Cutaneous polymodal nociceptors are activated by:

 

a. mechanical injury only.
b. thermal stimuli such as heat only.
c. light touch and gentle stroking.
d. mechanical injury, heat and chemicals.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 143

 

  1. Which CNS tract is responsible for carrying sensory information from the nociceptors to the brain?

 

a. spinothalamic
b. corticospinal
c. corticobulbular
d. reticulospinal

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 142

 

  1. Inflammation in visceral tissues activates:

 

a. thermoreceptors.
b. cutaneous nociceptors.
c. efferent pathways.
d. silent nociceptors.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 144

 

  1. Which one of the following is an excitatory neuromodulator that enhances pain transmission?

 

a. beta endorphin
b. encephalin
c. substance P
d. dynorphin

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 146

 

  1. A 15-year-old female scrapes her knee while playing soccer and complains of sharp and well-localised pain. Which of the following would most accurately characterise her pain?

 

a. chronic pain
b. referred pain
c. somatic pain
d. visceral pain

 

ANS: C                              REF: p 141

 

  1. A 5-year-old female breaks her leg after falling from a merry-go-round. Which brain area would receive the impulses that make her aware of her pain?

 

a. basal nuclei
b. cerebellum
c. precentral gyrus
d. postcentral gyrus

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 141

 

  1. A 50-year-old male crushes his hand while working in a sawmill. Long after his injury has healed he still feels burning pain in his hand. This pain is referred to as:

 

a. neuropathic pain.
b. peripheral pain.
c. psychogenic pain.
d. acute pain.

 

ANS: A                              REF: p 149

 

  1. The pain threshold in children is:

 

a. higher than that of adults.
b. lower than that of adults.
c. the same as that of adults.
d.  both b and c are correct

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 149

 

  1. The lowest intensity of a stimulus that is perceived as painful is termed:

 

a. affective-motivational aspect.
b. pain sensitisation.
c. pain threshold.
d. pain tolerance.

 

ANS: C                              REF:  p 146

 

  1. A 76-year-old female presented to her doctor complaining of burning pain extending across the right side of her upper back. On examination she had no obvious skin lesions but she did have shingles 12 months ago. The type of pain that she has is likely to be:

 

a. trigeminal neuralgia.
b. postherpetic neuralgia.
c. diabetic neuropathy.
d. psychogenic pain.

 

ANS: B                              REF: p 150

 

  1. Intravertebral disc herniations cause a lot of pain and morbidity. The majority of these occur between vertebral levels (cervical, C; thoracic, T; lumbar, L; sacral, S):

 

a. C1 to C3.
b. T1 to T4.
c. T12 to L3.
d. L4 to S1.

 

ANS: D                              REF: p 150