Vander’s Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

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Vanders Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function 12th Edition By Widmaier – Test Bank

Chapter 06

Neuronal Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is/are functions of the human nervous system?
    A. Receiving, storing and processing information on the internal and external environments
    B.  Bringing about changes in physiology and/or behavior to ensure optimal functions of homeostatic mechanisms
    C.  Secretion of hormones
    D.  Coordination of movement
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which is not true of myelin?
    A.Is a fatty membranous sheath
    B. Is formed by glial cells
    C. Influences the rate of conduction of the electrical signal down an axon
    D. Myelin covers all parts of the neuron: axon, cell body and dendrites
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not true about axon transport?
    A.It refers to the passage of materials from the cell body of a neuron to the axon terminals
    B. It refers to the passage of materials from axon terminals to the cell body of a neuron
    C. It refers to the transport of materials across the axonal membrane
    D. It is especially important for maintaining the integrity of neurons with long axons

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A given neuron can
    A.Be either a presynaptic neuron or a postsynaptic neuron
    B. Receive information from more than one other neuron
    C. Transmit information to more than one other neuron
    D. Simultaneously release more than one type of neurotransmitter
    E. Do all of these things

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of glial cells?
    A.They form the myelin for axons
    B. Neurons outnumber glial cells 10 to 1 in the nervous system
    C. They deliver fuel molecules to neurons and remove the waste products of metabolism
    D. They are important for the growth and development of the nervous system
    E. They regulate the composition of the extracellular fluid in the CNS

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The difference in electrical charge between two points
    A.Is called the potential difference between those points
    B. Is called the diffusion potential between those points
    C. Depends upon charge flow between those points
    D. Is the same for all ions

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Ohm’s law (I = E/R) states that current increases with
    A.Increasing voltage or increasing resistance
    B. Decreasing voltage or decreasing resistance
    C. Increasing voltage or decreasing resistance
    D. Decreasing voltage or increasing resistance
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Compartments A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to K+ but not to Cl. At time zero, a solution of KCl is poured into compartment A and pure H2O is poured into compartment B. At equilibrium,
    A. The concentration of K+ in A will be lower than it was at time zero
    B.  Diffusion of K+ from A to B will be equal to the diffusion of K+ from B to A
    C.  There will be a potential difference across the membrane, with side A negative relative to side B
    D.  The electrical and diffusion potentials for K+ will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Compartments A and B are separated by a membrane that is permeable to K+ but not to Cl. At time zero, a solution of KCl is poured into compartment A and pure H2O is poured into compartment B. Now they are emptied and the membrane replaced with one that is permeable to both K+ and Cl, but no other ions. At time zero, a solution of NaCl is poured into compartment A and a solution of KA (A is an anion other than Cl) is poured into compartment B. At equilibrium,
    A. Compartment A will be negatively charged relative to B
    B.  There is a net flux of K+ from B to A
    C.  There is a concentration gradient favoring Cl diffusion from A to B and this gradient is balanced by an electric force favoring diffusion from B to A
    D.  Both there is a net flux of K+ from B to A and there is a concentration gradient favoring Cl diffusion from A to B and this gradient is balanced by an electric force favoring diffusion from B to A are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The resting membrane potential
    A. Requires very few ions to be distributed unevenly
    B.  Is the same in all cells
    C.  Is oriented so that the cell’s interior is positive with respect to the extracellular fluid
    D.  Occurs only in nerve and muscle cells
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In a resting neuron,
    A.The plasma membrane is freely permeable to sodium ion
    B. The concentration of sodium ion is greater inside the cell than outside
    C. The permeability of the plasma membrane to potassium ion is about 50 times greater than its permeability to sodium ion
    D. The plasma membrane is completely impermeable to sodium ion
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The membrane potential of most neurons at rest is
    A.Equal to the equilibrium potential of potassium ion
    B. Equal to the equilibrium potential of sodium ion
    C. Slightly more negative than the equilibrium potential of potassium ion
    D. Slightly more positive than the equilibrium potential of potassium ion
    E. Both equal to the equilibrium potential of sodium ion and slightly more negative than the equilibrium potential of potassium ion

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The diffusion potential for Na+ across a nerve cell membrane
    A. Favors its movement into the cell at resting potential
    B.  Favors its movement out of the cell at resting potential
    C.  Is equal and opposite to the electrical potential acting on sodium at resting potential
    D.  Is in the same direction as the diffusion potential for potassium
    E.  Both favors its movement into the cell at resting potential and is equal and opposite to the electrical potential acting on sodium at resting potential are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An increase in the extracellular concentration of K+ above normal would result in
    A. A decrease in intracellular K+
    B.  An increase in intracellular K+
    C.  A decrease in intracellular Na+
    D.  An increase in intracellular Na+
    E.  No change in intracellular ion concentrations

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An increase in the extracellular concentration of K+ above normal would result in
    A. Depolarization of resting nerve cells
    B.  Hyperpolarization of resting nerve cells
    C.  No change in the resting membrane potential

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The Na, K-ATPase in a nerve cell
    A. Maintains an electrical gradient such that the inside is negative with respect to the outside
    B.  Maintains a concentration gradient for K+ such that diffusion forces favor movement of K+ into the cell
    C.  Maintains an electrical gradient at the equilibrium potential of K+
    D.  Transports an equal number of sodium and potassium ions
    E.  Both maintains an electrical gradient such that the inside is negative with respect to the outside and transports an equal number of sodium and potassium ions are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. If the concentration of ATP were depleted in a typical nerve cell, the
    A. Resting membrane potential would increase (become more negative)
    B.  Resting membrane potential would decrease (become less negative)
    C.  Concentration gradient for Na+ would remain the same
    D.  Resting membrane potential would eventually become positive inside with respect to outside
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The equilibrium potential of a given ion across a membrane is
    A. A function of the concentration of that ion on both sides of the membrane
    B.  The potential at which there is no net movement of that ion across the membrane
    C.  The potential difference across the membrane that creates an electric force favoring diffusion of the ion in one direction that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the diffusion force provided by the concentration difference of the ion across the membrane
    D.  Both a function of the concentration of that ion on both sides of the membrane and the potential at which there is no net movement of that ion across the membrane are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The equilibrium potential of K ions in nerve cells is about -90 mV. The membrane potential of typical nerve cells at rest is -70 mV. Therefore
    A. Increasing the permeability of a resting neuronal membrane to K ions will increase the membrane potential (that is, make it more negative, inside with respect to outside)
    B.  In nerve cells at rest, there is a net diffusion of K ions out of the cell
    C.  Increasing the membrane potential of a nerve cell would slow the diffusion of K ions out of it
    D.  Potassium is not the only permeant ion at rest
    E.  All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the permeability of a typical nerve cell membrane at rest is true?
    A.The permeability to Na ion is very much greater than the permeability to K ion
    B. All of the K ion channels in the membrane are open
    C. The voltage-gated Na ion channels are inactivated
    D. The voltage-gated Na ion channels are closed
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Graded potentials
    A.Include receptor potentials and postsynaptic potentials
    B. Are conducted decrementally
    C. Include depolarizing and hyperpolarizing potentials
    D. Can be summed
    E. Are described by all of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An action potential in a neuronal membrane differs from a graded potential in that
    A. An action potential requires the opening of Ca+2 channels, whereas a graded potential does not
    B.  An action potential is propagated without decrement, whereas a graded potential is not
    C.  An action potential has a threshold and is an all-or-none phenomenon, whereas a graded potential does not have a threshold and is not all-or-none
    D.  Both an action potential requires the opening of Ca+2 channels, whereas a graded potential does not and an action potential is propagated without decrement, whereas a graded potential is not are correct
    E.  Both an action potential is propagated without decrement, whereas a graded potential is not and an action potential has a threshold and is an all-or-none phenomenon, whereas a graded potential does not have a threshold and is not all-or-none are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A threshold stimulus applied to an excitable membrane is one that is just sufficient to
    A.Trigger a graded potential in the membrane
    B. Cause a change in membrane potential
    C. Cause net inward movement of positive charge through the membrane
    D. Be conducted to the axon hillock
    E. Depolarize a dendrite

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. For an action potential to occur,
    A. The stimulus must reach or exceed threshold
    B.  Na+ influx must exceed K+ efflux
    C.  The membrane must be out of the relative refractory period
    D.  Both the stimulus must reach or exceed threshold and Na+ influx must exceed K+ efflux must happen
    E.  All of the choices must happen

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. When an axon is stimulated to threshold, the voltage-gated
    A. K+ channels open before the voltage-gated Na+ channels
    B.  Na+ channels are activated and then inactivated
    C.  K+ channels open at the same time as the voltage-gated Na+ channels
    D.  K+ channels are opened when Na+ binds to the channel
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. During the rising (depolarizing) phase of an action potential,
    A. PK+ becomes much greater than PNa+
    B.  PNa+ becomes much greater than PK+
    C.  PK+ is the same as PNa+
    D.  Na+ efflux (flow out of the cell) occurs
    E.  None of the choices occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. During the rising phase of an action potential, voltage-gated
    A. Na+ channels open
    B.  K+ channels open
    C.  Na+ channels close
    D.  K+ channels close
    E.  Both Na+ channels open and K+ channels close are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. At the peak of the action potential,
    A. The electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell
    B.  The concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell
    C.  The permeability for K+ greatly increases
    D.  Both the electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell and the concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell occur
    E.  The electrical gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell, the concentration gradient for K+ tends to move this ion out of the cell and the permeability for K+ greatly increases occur

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is responsible for the falling (repolarizing) phase of the action potential?
    A. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are opened
    B.  The Na+, K+ pump restores the ions to their original locations inside and outside of the cell
    C.  The permeability to Na+ increases greatly
    D.  ATPase destroys the energy supply that was maintaining the action potential at its peak
    E.  The permeability to K+ increases greatly while that to Na+ decreases

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Action potentials are said to be “all-or-none” in character because
    A. The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength
    B.  They are associated with an absolute refractory period
    C.  A supra-threshold stimulus is required to stimulate an action potential during the relative refractory period
    D.  The amplitude of an action potential generated in any given neuron is the same, regardless of the stimulus strength
    E.  All of these statements describe the “all-or-none” character of action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the phases of an action potential are correct?
    A.During the hyperpolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ion is greater than its permeability at rest
    B. During the hyperpolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ion is greater than its permeability at rest
    C. During the repolarizing phases, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ion is greater than its permeability at rest
    D. Both during the hyperpolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to sodium ion is greater than its permeability at rest and during the repolarizing phases, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ion is greater than its permeability at rest are correct
    E. Both during the hyperpolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ion is greater than its permeability at rest and during the repolarizing phases, the permeability of the membrane to potassium ion is greater than its permeability at rest are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the phases of an action potential is correct?
    A. During the depolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to Na+ is greater than its permeability at rest
    B.  During the repolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to K+ is greater than its permeability at rest
    C.  The relative refractory period of the membrane coincides with the hyperpolarized and second repolarizing phases
    D.  Both during the depolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to Na+ is greater than its permeability at rest and during the repolarizing phase, the permeability of the membrane to K+ is greater than its permeability at rest are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about the refractory period of a membrane is true?
    A. The absolute refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential cannot be initiated in that part of the membrane that has just undergone an action potential, no matter how great the strength of the stimulus
    B.  The relative refractory period refers to the period of time during which another action potential can be initiated in that part of the membrane that has just undergone an action potential, if the stimulus is strong enough
    C.  The refractory period prevents the action potential from spreading back over the part of the membrane that just underwent an action potential
    D.  The refractory period places an upper limit on the frequency with which a nerve cell can conduct action potentials
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The relative refractory period of an axon coincides with the period of
    A. Activation and inactivation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels
    B.  Increased Na+ flux into the cell
    C.  Increased K+ flux into the cell
    D.  Increased K+ flux out of the cell
    E.  Increased Na+ flux out of the cell

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Axons typically have abundant
    A. Voltage-regulated channels for Na+ that open in response to depolarization
    B.  Voltage-regulated channels for K+ that open in response to hyperpolarization
    C.  Receptor-mediated channels for Na+
    D.  Both voltage-regulated channels for Na+ that open in response to depolarization and voltage-regulated channels for K+ that open in response to hyperpolarization are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding action potentials generated in a membrane is not true?
    A. Action potentials travel decrementally down the membrane
    B.  An action potential generates a new action potential in an adjacent area of membrane
    C.  An action potential generates a local current that depolarizes adjacent membrane to threshold potential
    D.  The first action potential generated is the same size as the action potential ultimately generated at the end of the membrane
    E.  An action potential generated by a threshold stimulus is the same size as one generated by a supra-threshold stimulus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the properties of action potentials is true?
    A.The rate of propagation of an action potential down an axon is independent of stimulus strength
    B. Action potentials can be summed
    C. A supra-threshold stimulus is required to stimulate an action potential during the absolute refractory period
    D. Action potentials are conducted decrementally down the axon
    E. None of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The neural code that signals stimulus strength is
    A.The size of action potentials
    B. The frequency of action potentials
    C. The duration of action potentials
    D. Both the size of action potentials and the frequency of action potentials
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the rate of action potential propagation is true?
    A.It is faster in large-diameter axons than in small-diameter ones
    B. It is faster for a strong stimulus than for a weak one
    C. It is faster in myelinated nerve fibers than in nonmyelinated ones
    D. Both it is faster in large-diameter axons than in small-diameter ones and it is faster in myelinated nerve fibers than in nonmyelinated ones are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An action potential does not restimulate the adjacent membrane that was previously depolarized because
    A.Stimulation is inhibited by the myelin sheath
    B. It is impossible for an action potential to be propagated along an axon toward the nerve cell body
    C. The resting membrane potential of the axon is too high
    D. The resting membrane potential of the axon is too low
    E. This area of membrane is absolutely refractory to depolarization

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The regions of axon membrane that lie between regions of myelin are the
    A.Islets of Langerhans
    B. Nodes of Ranvier
    C. Synaptic membranes
    D. Glial cells
    E. Dendrites

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Interneurons are said to function as integrators of information because they
    A.Receive synaptic input from many other neurons
    B. Sum excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input
    C. Are presynaptic to many other neurons
    D. Both receive synaptic input from many other neurons and sum excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Exocytosis of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft is triggered by an influx of ______ in response to the arrival of an action potential in the axon terminal.
    A. K+
    B.  Na+
    C.  Ca2+
    D.  ATP
    E.  Cl

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The role of calcium ion at chemical synapses is to
    A. Depolarize the axon terminal of the presynaptic cell
    B.  Bind to neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic cell
    C.  Cause fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane of the axon terminal
    D.  Interfere with IPSPs in the postsynaptic cell
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. At an excitatory synapse,
    A. There is increased permeability of the postsynaptic cell to both Na+ and K+
    B.  A small hyperpolarization occurs
    C.  An action potential in the presynaptic neuron always causes an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron
    D.  Both there is increased permeability of the postsynaptic cell to both Na+ and K+ and a small hyperpolarization occurs are correct
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential
    A. Is produced by an increased permeability to both Na+ and K+
    B.  Is produced by an increased permeability to Cl and/or K+
    C.  Is a small depolarization in a postsynaptic cell
    D.  Can be summed with other IPSPs to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell
    E.  Both is produced by an increased permeability to both Na+ and K+ and can be summed with other IPSPs to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about EPSPs is false?
    A. They are produced by the opening of chemically regulated sodium channels
    B.  They can be conducted only a short distance
    C.  They are depolarizing
    D.  They are able to summate
    E.  Their amplitude is all-or-none

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. An EPSP in a membrane
    A. Is a direct result of the opening of ligand-sensitive channels for Na+ and K+ ions in the membrane
    B.  Is a direct result of the opening of voltage-gated channels for Na+ and K+ ions in the membrane
    C.  Stabilizes the membrane to remain at its resting potential
    D.  Both is a direct result of the opening of ligand-sensitive channels for Na+ and K+ ions in the membrane and stabilizes the membrane to remain at its resting potential are correct
    E.  Both is a direct result of the opening of voltage-gated channels for Na+ and K+ ions in the membrane and stabilizes the membrane to remain at its resting potential are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Temporal summation on a postsynaptic membrane
    A. Refers to the effect on the membrane of one (or more) synaptic event before the effects of a previous synaptic event have died away
    B.  Refers only to addition of EPSPs
    C.  Refers only to the effect of stimulating different synapses repeatedly
    D.  Inevitably leads to action potentials in the axon
    E.  Is described by none of these choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs – from neurons X, Y and Z. When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously and repeatedly, the postsynaptic neuron reaches threshold and undergoes an action potential. When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. What can you tell about presynaptic neurons Y and Z?
    A. They are probably both excitatory
    B.  They are probably both inhibitory
    C.  Y is probably excitatory and Z is probably inhibitory
    D.  Z is probably excitatory and Y is probably inhibitory

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6C.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A postsynaptic neuron has three presynaptic inputs – from neurons X, Y and Z. When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously and repeatedly, the postsynaptic neuron reaches threshold and undergoes an action potential. When X and Z are stimulated simultaneously, however, there is no change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. The simultaneous stimulation of X and Y is an example of
    A.Temporal summation
    B. Presynaptic inhibition
    C. Spatial summation
    D. Neuronal divergence
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6C.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The significance of the initial segment of axons is that
    A.Its threshold potential is higher than that of the cell body and dendrites
    B. Its threshold potential is lower than that of the cell body and dendrites
    C. Synapses close to it are more effective in influencing whether an action potential will be generated in that axon than are synapses farther away from the initial segment
    D. Both its threshold potential is higher than that of the cell body and dendrites and synapses close to it are more effective in influencing whether an action potential will be generated in that axon than are synapses farther away from the initial segment are correct
    E. Both its threshold potential is lower than that of the cell body and dendrites and synapses close to it are more effective in influencing whether an action potential will be generated in that axon than are synapses farther away from the initial segment are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A presynaptic synapse
    A.Is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite
    B. Is a synapse between axons
    C. May be either stimulatory or inhibitory
    D. Both is a synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite and may be either stimulatory or inhibitory are correct
    E. Both is a synapse between axons and may be either stimulatory or inhibitory are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Neuron X makes inhibitory axon-axon synaptic contact with neuron Y at the synapse of Y and neuron Z. Stimulation of action potentials in X
    A.Will inhibit propagation of action potentials in Y
    B. Inhibit release of neurotransmitter by Y
    C. Make the Y-Z synapse more effective (i.e., increase the size of the postsynaptic potential in Z)
    D. Both will inhibit propagation of action potentials in Y and inhibit release of neurotransmitter by Y are correct
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6C.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not known to be an important neurotransmitter in the CNS?
    A.Dopamine
    B. Acetylcholine
    C. Morphine
    D. Glutamate
    E. Substance P

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about acetylcholine is correct?
    A.Acetylcholine binds to cholinergic receptors
    B. Acetylcholine binds to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
    C. Acetylcholine synthesis is catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase
    D. Both acetylcholine binds to cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine binds to nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are correct
    E. Both acetylcholine binds to cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine synthesis is catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding neurotransmitters is true?
    A.Acetylcholine is broken down by enzymes present on postsynaptic cell membranes
    B. Acetylcholine that is released at synapses binds to adrenergic receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane
    C. Catecholamines are the most abundant neurotransmitters in the central nervous system
    D. Opiate drugs, such as morphine, are antagonists of a class of neurotransmitters called endorphins
    E. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter for
    A.Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    B. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    C. Motor neurons
    D. Preganglionic sympathetic neurons and postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    E. Preganglionic sympathetic neurons and motor neurons

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about norepinephrine is not correct?
    A.Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter
    B. Norepinephrine binds to adrenergic receptors
    C. Norepinephrine binds to catecholaminergic receptors
    D. Dopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine
    E. Epinephrine is a precursor to norepinephrine

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is secreted by adrenergic neurons?
    A.Acetylcholine
    B. Dopamine
    C. Endorphins
    D. Norepinephrine
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following enzymes is/are important for the metabolism of catecholamines?
    A.Tyrosine hydroxylase
    B. Monoamine oxidase
    C. Acetylcholinesterase
    D. Both tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Nicotine is
    A.A cholinergic antagonist
    B. A beta-adrenergic agonist
    C. A cholinergic agonist
    D. An alpha-adrenergic antagonist
    E. A neurotransmitter

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Serotonin
    A.Is a neuromodulator
    B. Facilitates incoming sensory stimuli in the CNS
    C. Activity in the brain is highest during sleep
    D. Both is a neuromodulator and facilitates incoming sensory stimuli in the CNS are correct
    E. Both is a neuromodulator and activity in the brain is highest during sleep are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following drugs would not enhance the activity of serotoninergic neurons?
    A.A drug that increases the uptake of tryptophan into neurons
    B. A drug that inhibits enzymes that break down serotonin
    C. A drug that facilitates reuptake of serotonin by serotoninergic neurons
    D. A drug that up-regulates serotonin receptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Alzheimer’s disease is thought to involve primarily
    A.Loss of neurons that secrete or respond to catecholamines
    B. Loss of adrenergic neurons
    C. Loss of cholinergic neurons
    D. Loss of neurons that secrete or respond to dopamine
    E. The inevitable loss of brain function with aging

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. One of the major inhibitory neurotransmittors in the CNS is
    A.Glutamate
    B. Dopamine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    E. Beta-endorphin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. One of the most abundant excitatory neurotransmittors in the CNS is
    A.Glutamate
    B. Dopamine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    E. Endorphin

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The major known classes of neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators include each of the following except
    A. Amino acids
    B. Cyclic nucleotides
    C. Neuropeptides
    D. ACh
    E. Biogenic amines

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The central nervous system includes the
    A.Afferent nerves and spinal cord
    B. Efferent nerves and spinal cord
    C. Autonomic nervous system and the brain
    D. Brain stem and the autonomic nervous system
    E. Brain and spinal cord

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The portion of the peripheral nervous system that is composed of nerve fibers that innervate skeletal muscle is the
    A. Afferent nervous system
    B.  Sympathetic nervous system
    C.  Parasympathetic nervous system
    D.  Somatic motor nervous system
    E.  Autonomic nervous system

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The region of the brain most closely associated with homeostasis and survival of the individual is
    A.The thalamus
    B. The hippocampus
    C. The cerebrum
    D. The cerebellum
    E. The hypothalamus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following kinds of neurons are not cholinergic?
    A.Motor neurons
    B. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    C. Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
    D. Preganglionic sympathetic neurons
    E. Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The binding of nicotine with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can trigger each of the following effects, except
    A.A mild form of skeletal muscle paralysis to create a more relaxed state
    B. Mediation of signal transmission at neuromuscular junctions
    C. Generation of excitatory signals within autonomic ganglia
    D. The release of norepinephrine, dopamine and epinephrine
    E. Facilitation of the release of multiple neurotransmitters within the brain, including the “reward pathway” involving dopamine

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not true of neuromodulators? They may
    A.Influence synaptic effectiveness
    B. Act through second messengers
    C. Be released with neurotransmitters
    D. Be the same molecules as neurotransmitters
    E. Be none of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Drug X interferes with the action of norepinephrine at synapses. Which of the following mechanisms would not explain the effects of X?
    A.X inhibits synthesis of norepinephrine at the axon terminal
    B. X inhibits norepinephrine release from the terminal
    C. X blocks reuptake of norepinephrine by the terminal
    D. X is a norepinephrine antagonist
    E. X stimulates the catabolism of norepinephrine

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Synthesis of neuropeptides differs from that of other neurotransmitters because it
    A.Takes place in the axon terminals of neurons
    B. Takes place in the cell bodies of neurons
    C. Involves synthesis of precursor molecules
    D. Both takes place in the axon terminals of neurons and involves synthesis of precursor molecules are correct
    E. Both takes place in the cell bodies of neurons and involves synthesis of precursor molecules are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Glial cells
    A.Help to form the blood-brain barrier
    B. Outnumber neurons in the central nervous system
    C. Form the myelin sheath of neuronal axons
    D. Both help to form the blood-brain barrier and outnumber neurons in the central nervous system are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The reticular formation of the brain
    A.Is part of the cerebellum
    B. Is essential for life
    C. Sends and receives information from all regions of the CNS
    D. Both is part of the cerebellum and sends and receives information from all regions of the CNS are correct
    E. Both is essential for life and sends and receives information from all regions of the CNS are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The cerebellum
    A.Is important for coordinating body movement
    B. Has a cortex
    C. Is part of the brain stem
    D. Both is important for coordinating body movement and has a cortex are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The limbic system is
    A.Composed of several parts of the diencephalon and cerebrum
    B. Composed of white and gray matter
    C. Associated with emotional responses and learning
    D. Composed of several parts of the diencephalon and cerebrum and associated with emotional responses and learning
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid
    A.Has the same composition as blood plasma
    B. Acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord
    C. Is secreted by cells lining the ventricles
    D. Both acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord and is secreted by cells lining the ventricles are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The blood-brain barrier
    A.Is formed by cells lining tiny blood vessels in the brain
    B. Is present in all parts of the brain
    C. Prevents entry of all lipid-insoluble molecules into the brain
    D. Both is formed by cells lining tiny blood vessels in the brain and prevents entry of all lipid-insoluble molecules into the brain are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following characteristics is not attributed to the sympathetic division of the ANS?
    A.Preganglionic neurons tend to be long, with the ganglion located in or near the effector target tissue(s)
    B. Preganglionic neurons are short and synapse in ganglia located near the spinal cord
    C. Preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine at synapses with postganglionic neurons
    D. Postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine at their neuroeffector junctions
    E. Postganglionic neuron cell bodies are located in the collateral chain ganglia or vertebral ganglia

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Postganglionic neuron cell bodies of the autonomic nervous system have which category of neurotransmitter receptor?
    A.Adrenergic receptor
    B. Serotonin receptors
    C. M-AchR receptors
    D. N-AchR receptors
    E. Dopamine receptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. A myelinated axon is shielded from direct contact with the extracellular fluid all along its length.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The most numerous cells in the CNS are interneurons.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Neuron cell division and nervous system growth continue throughout life.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The lipid portion of a cell’s plasma membrane constitutes a barrier to current.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Ions other than Na+, K+ and Cl play no role in generating the resting membrane potential of a cell.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The maintenance of a resting potential in a neuron depends upon the functioning of the Na, K-ATPase pumps in the membrane.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The resting membrane potential of a neuron is constant because the components of the extracellular and intracellular fluid are in equilibrium.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A graded potential in a membrane results in an electric current along an adjacent area of membrane and this current diminishes with distance from the site of the initial potential change.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. During a hyperpolarizing graded potential, positively charged ions flow away from the site of the initial hyperpolarization on the outside of membrane and toward this site on the inside.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Because so many Na ions move into a cell during an action potential and so many K ions move out, no further action potentials can be generated in a given membrane until the Na, K-ATPase pumps can restore the concentration gradient.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The Na+ and K+ channels that open during an action potential are voltage regulated, both responding to hyperpolarization of the membrane.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. SNARE receptor protein complexes in presynaptic neurons function as inhibitors of calcium transport to dampen or reduce the amount of neurotransmitter vesicles which participate in exocytosis.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The action potential elicited by a supra-threshold stimulus is larger than one elicited by a threshold stimulus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The refractory period of an excitable membrane refers to the period of time during which no stimulus, however strong, will elicit a second action potential in the membrane.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The absolute refractory period of an excitable membrane roughly corresponds to the period when sodium channels are opening and closing.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Two neurons joined by an electric synapse function as a single neuron.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Because all parts of a neuronal cell body have the same threshold, no one synapse on the cell is more important than any other.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The frequency of action potentials in a postsynaptic cell is directly related to the degree of postsynaptic depolarization of the cell.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. During a high-frequency burst of action potentials down an axon, the amount of neurotransmitter released with each action potential increases (for a finite time).
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Catecholamines are the most abundant neurotransmitters in the CNS.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Opioid drugs, such as morphine, are agonists of a class of neurotransmitters called endorphins.
    TRUE

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Neuroeffector communication is similar to synaptic communication except that, in the former, the effector cells are not neurons.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.07
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The most common neurotransmitters for neuroeffector communication are dopamine and acetylcholine.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6C.07
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of efferent neurons.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Spinal nerves are composed of the axons of both afferent and efferent neurons.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Although nerve cells in each cerebral hemisphere make connections with other cells in the same hemisphere, there is no crossover of information between the two hemispheres.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The cerebrum consists only of gray matter.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The basal ganglia are important subcortical nuclei in the cerebrum.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The thalamus is the single most important control area for regulating the internal environment.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system leave the CNS at the level of the brain and sacral portions of the spinal cord.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Most of the parasympathetic ganglia lie in chains along the spinal cord called sympathetic trunks.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Responses made possible by motor signals transmitted by the parasympathetic nervous system tend to be displayed throughout the body simultaneously because there is much divergence of nerve pathways and close anatomical association between presynaptic neurons and their ganglia as well as accessory activity with the adrenal glands.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is arranged so that it acts largely as a unit, whereas the components of the parasympathetic division generally act independently.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. “Dual innervation of effectors” refers to the innervation of the same effector organs by somatic and autonomic nerves.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6D.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. A solution of water and ions is a (good/poor) conductor of electricity and thus offers (low/high) resistance to charge flow. These electrical properties are due to the ions in the solution, called ________.
    good, low, electrolytes

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The two enzymes that catalyze breakdown of catecholamines are called ________ (MAO) and (COMT). Catecholamine catabolism differs from the breakdown of acetylcholine in that the enzymes for the former are found primarily (inside/outside) the cell and those for the latter are found (inside/outside).
    monoamine oxidase, catecholamine O methyl transferase, inside, outside

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 6C.06
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The most abundant cells in the CNS are __________ cells.
    glial

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Are propagated decrementally describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Amplitude depends on stimulus strength describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Amplitude independent of stimulus strength describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Are propagated without decrement describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Result in current flow describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Have a threshold describes
    A.Graded potentials
    B. Action potentials
    C. Both graded potentials and action potentials
    D. Neither graded potentials nor action potentials

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 6B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

Chapter 07

Sensory Physiology

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements regarding sensory systems is correct?
    A.All sensory information that reaches the brain can be experienced as a conscious sensation
    B. Sensory information that leads to conscious awareness of the stimulus is called a sensation
    C. The term, “sensory unit,” refers to a group of receptors that receive a particular stimulus and the afferent neuron associated with those receptors
    D. Both all sensory information that reaches the brain can be experienced as a conscious sensation and the term, “sensory unit,” refers to a group of receptors that receive a particular stimulus and the afferent neuron associated with those receptors are correct
    E. Both sensory information that leads to conscious awareness of the stimulus is called a sensation and the term, “sensory unit,” refers to a group of receptors that receive a particular stimulus and the afferent neuron associated with those receptors are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A given sensory receptor
    A.Responds to nonspecific physical or chemical changes in its environment
    B. Transduces several forms of energy to electrical impulses
    C. Is found at the peripheral endings of efferent neurons
    D. Is described by all of the choices
    E. Is described by none of the choices

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The receptor potential
    A.Is an action potential
    B. May trigger action potentials
    C. Varies in magnitude with stimulus strength
    D. Is both an action potential and varies in magnitude with stimulus strength
    E. Is both may trigger action potentials and varies in magnitude with stimulus strength

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A sensory unit is
    A.All of the sensory receptors in a given area of the body that respond to the same stimulus
    B. A single receptor ending and its afferent nerve fiber
    C. A single afferent neuron and all its receptor endings
    D. An afferent neuron and its postsynaptic interneurons
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The receptive field of an afferent neuron
    A.Refers to the number of interneurons with which the central process of the afferent neuron makes synaptic contact via divergence
    B. Refers to the body surface that, when stimulated by a specific stimulus, gives rise to graded potentials in the receptors of that neuron
    C. Is determined by the number and length of branches of the peripheral terminals of that neuron
    D. Both refers to the number of interneurons with which the central process of the afferent neuron makes synaptic contact via divergence and is determined by the number and length of branches of the peripheral terminals of that neuron are correct
    E. Both refers to the body surface that, when stimulated by a specific stimulus, gives rise to graded potentials in the receptors of that neuron and is determined by the number and length of branches of the peripheral terminals of that neuron are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Adaptation in sensory receptors
    A.Refers to the decrease or cessation of receptor potentials despite maintenance of a stimulus
    B. Occurs to the same extent in all receptors
    C. May be rapid or slow, depending on the receptor
    D. Both refers to the decrease or cessation of receptor potentials despite maintenance of a stimulus and occurs to the same extent in all receptors are correct
    E. Both refers to the decrease or cessation of receptor potentials despite maintenance of a stimulus and may be rapid or slow, depending on the receptor are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The primary cortical receiving areas for sensory information are
    A. Composed of the first neurons in the cerebral cortex to receive sensory information from specific ascending pathways
    B.  The only cerebral cortex neurons that process specific sensory information
    C.  Located in anatomically specific areas of the brain according to stimulus type
    D.  Both composed of the first neurons in the cerebral cortex to receive sensory information from specific ascending pathways and located in anatomically specific areas of the brain according to stimulus type are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding the ascending pathways in the sensory system,
    A. Specific pathways for all sensory information ultimately synapse in the cerebral cortex
    B.  Specific pathways for all sensory information ultimately synapse in the somatosensory cortex
    C.  Specific pathways for olfaction ultimately synapse in the limbic system
    D.  Both specific pathways for all sensory information ultimately synapse in the cerebral cortex and specific pathways for olfaction ultimately synapse in the limbic system are correct
    E.  Both specific pathways for all sensory information ultimately synapse in the somatosensory cortex and specific pathways for olfaction ultimately synapse in the limbic system are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Polymodal neurons are
    A.Afferent neurons
    B. Interneurons that receive synaptic input from different kinds of sensory units
    C. Part of specific ascending sensory pathways
    D. Unimportant because they do not convey specific sensory information
    E. Both afferent neurons and part of specific ascending sensory pathways

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not true regarding cortical association areas?
    A.They may receive sensory information directly from primary sensory areas
    B. They may receive sensory information directly from the thalamus
    C. They may integrate two or more types of sensory information
    D. They are found in each lobe of the cerebral cortex
    E. They are involved with complex processing of sensory information

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is important for the determination of stimulus type?
    A.The relative sensitivity of different receptors to different stimulus energies
    B. The presence of polymodal neurons in the sensory pathway
    C. The location of the highest-order neuron in the specific ascending pathway
    D. Both the relative sensitivity of different receptors to different stimulus energies and the presence of polymodal neurons in the sensory pathway are correct
    E. Both the relative sensitivity of different receptors to different stimulus energies and the location of the highest-order neuron in the specific ascending pathway are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. One reason you can distinguish between a needle prick on the foot and an ice cube on the wrist is that
    A.The ice cube stimulates a different class of receptors than the needle prick, even though both signals go to exactly the same location in the brain
    B. The nerve impulse from the needle prick is inherently different from the impulse generated by the ice cube
    C. The region of the brain to which one receptor pathway leads is different from the region to which the other pathway leads
    D. The needle prick generates a stronger action potential in any one neuron than an ice cube does
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the determination of stimulus intensity is true?
    A.The frequency of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity
    B. The magnitude of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity
    C. The magnitude of receptor potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity
    D. Both the frequency of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity and the magnitude of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity are true
    E. Both the frequency of action potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity and the magnitude of receptor potentials increases with increasing stimulus intensity are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the precision of locating a somatic stimulus is true?
    A.The precision is greater in areas of the body that have small, overlapping receptive fields than in areas with large, nonoverlapping receptive fields
    B. The precision is greater in the lips and fingers than on the back
    C. The precision is greater for the skin than for the internal organs
    D. Both the precision is greater in areas of the body that have small, overlapping receptive fields than in areas with large, nonoverlapping receptive fields and the precision is greater in the lips and fingers than on the back are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The precision of locating a somatosensory stimulus is
    A.Greater in areas of the body that have large, nonoverlapping receptive fields than in areas with small, overlapping fields
    B. About the same for all parts of the skin
    C. Greater for pathways with extensive lateral inhibition than for those lacking lateral inhibition
    D. Both greater in areas of the body that have large, nonoverlapping receptive fields than in areas with small, overlapping fields and about the same for all parts of the skin are correct
    E. Both about the same for all parts of the skin and greater for pathways with extensive lateral inhibition than for those lacking lateral inhibition are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Lateral inhibition in the somatic sensory system serves to
    A.Reduce the intensity of nerve signals sent to the somatosensory cortex
    B. Enhance the precision of locating a stimulus by increasing the contrast between wanted and unwanted information
    C. Alter pain sensation by simultaneously activating other sensory systems
    D. Both reduce the intensity of nerve signals sent to the somatosensory cortex and enhance the precision of locating a stimulus by increasing the contrast between wanted and unwanted information are correct
    E. Both enhance the precision of locating a stimulus by increasing the contrast between wanted and unwanted information and alter pain sensation by simultaneously activating other sensory systems are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A stimulus to which afferent neurons X, Y and Z are sensitive is detected in the middle of Y’s receptive field. The same stimulus simultaneously activates receptors on the periphery of the receptive fields of X and Z. Which of the following is likely to be true?
    A.Neuron Y activates inhibitory interneurons that directly inhibit the synaptic transmission of neurons X and Z
    B. Neuron Y directly inhibits the synaptic transmission of neurons X and Z
    C. The synaptic activity of neuron Y is not affected by action potentials in neurons X and Z
    D. Both neuron Y activates inhibitory interneurons that directly inhibit the synaptic transmission of neurons X and Z and the synaptic activity of neuron Y is not affected by action potentials in neurons X and Z are correct
    E. Both neuron Y directly inhibits the synaptic transmission of neurons X and Z and the synaptic activity of neuron Y is not affected by action potentials in neurons X and Z are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Regarding the somatic sensations:
    A.They include information about the environment that is transduced by Pacinian corpuscles
    B. The sensations of “cold” and “warmth” are transduced by the same receptors; the rate of action potential firing in the afferent neurons associated with temperature receptors increases as the temperature increases
    C. They include proprioception and kinesthesia
    D. They include both information about the environment that is transduced by Pacinian corpuscles and the sensations of “cold” and “warmth” are transduced by the same receptors; the rate of action potential firing in the afferent neurons associated with temperature receptors increases as the temperature increases
    E. They include both information about the environment that is transduced by Pacinian corpuscles and they include proprioception and kinesthesia

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding sensory pathways is correct?
    A.All somatic sensory information that reaches the cerebral cortex is first processed in the thalamus
    B. Somatic sensory information from the left side of the body is projected to the left side of the somatosensory cortex
    C. All somatic sensory information travels together in a single tract in the spinal cord
    D. Stimulation of any neuron in a specific ascending pathway will convey information about only one stimulus type
    E. None of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the perception of pain is true?
    A.Substance P is an important neurotransmitter in specific pain pathways
    B. Transmission of information in the pain pathway may be inhibited by activation of neurons that synthesize endorphins
    C. Synaptic activity in afferent neurons associated with pain receptors can be inhibited by axon-axon synapses with neurons from descending pathways
    D. Both substance P is an important neurotransmitter in specific pain pathways and transmission of information in the pain pathway may be inhibited by activation of neurons that synthesize endorphins are true
    E. All of the choices are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following symptoms would a patient with a lesion (injury) on the right side of the spinal cord in the region of the neck be most likely to experience?
    A.Loss of both pressure sense and pain in the right foot
    B. Loss of both pressure sense and pain in the left foot
    C. Loss of pressure sense in the right foot and pain in the left foot
    D. Loss of pressure sense in the left foot and pain in the right foot

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Accommodation for near vision requires
    A.Elongation of the lens
    B. Contraction of the ciliary muscles
    C. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
    D. Both elongation of the lens and contraction of the ciliary muscles
    E. Both elongation of the lens and activation of the sympathetic nervous system

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. When viewing a distant object, the
    A.Firing of parasympathetic nerves to ciliary muscles increases
    B. Zonular fibers relax
    C. Lens flattens
    D. Both firing of parasympathetic nerves to ciliary muscles increases and zonular fibers relax are correct
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A person whose lens focuses light from distant objects in front of (rather than on) the retina has a condition called
    A.Presbyopia
    B. Hyperopia
    C. Myopia
    D. Cataract
    E. Glaucoma

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding vision is false?
    A.The cornea plays a larger role than the lens in focusing light on the retina
    B. Presbyopia is a condition in which the lens cannot accommodate adequately for near vision
    C. Myopia is a condition in which the lens focuses light from distant objects behind the retina
    D. Cataract results from an increase in opacity (clouding) of the lens
    E. The image of an object that is focused on the retina is upside down relative to the object’s actual position in space

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. While taking a human physiology midterm exam, Susan came across a question on material she had not studied. Suddenly she experienced difficulty reading the words on her exam. She correctly assumed that the most logical explanation for this was that
    A. She had suddenly developed presbyopia
    B.  Activation of her parasympathetic nerves had caused sudden contraction of her ciliary muscles
    C.  Activation of her sympathetic nerves had caused sudden contraction of her ciliary muscles
    D.  Activation of her parasympathetic nerves had inhibited contraction of her ciliary muscles
    E.  Activation of her sympathetic nerves had inhibited contraction of her ciliary muscles

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements with regard to vision is false?
    A. Photoreceptors are neurons
    B.  There are four different photoreceptors in the retina
    C.  There are four different photopigments in the retina
    D.  There are four types of chromophores in the retina
    E.  There are four types of opsin in the retina

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements about rods and cones in the retina is true?
    A. Cones enable us to see in dim light; rods provide color vision
    B.  Rods and cones all have the same kind of opsin
    C.  Cones are clustered in the fovea; rods are more scattered throughout the retina
    D.  Both cones enable us to see in dim light; rods provide color vision and rods and cones all have the same kind of opsin are true
    E.  Both cones enable us to see in dim light; rods provide color vision and cones are clustered in the fovea; rods are more scattered throughout the retina are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. When light strikes photoreceptors
    A. The chromophore retinal undergoes a change of shape
    B.  There is a decrease in neurotransmitter release from the photoreceptors
    C.  The photoreceptors become depolarized
    D.  Both the chromophore retinal undergoes a change of shape and there is a decrease in neurotransmitter release from the photoreceptors are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The plasma membranes of rod and cone cells are
    A.At their resting potential in the dark and depolarized in the light
    B. At their resting potential in the dark and hyperpolarized in the light
    C. Depolarized in the dark and hyperpolarized in the light
    D. Hyperpolarized in the dark and at their resting potential in the light
    E. Hyperpolarized in the dark and depolarized in the light

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Each of the following statements regarding vision is true. Which statement best explains why we cannot see colors in dim light?
    A. The human eye has three kinds of cone photoreceptors
    B.  There are six types of opponent color cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus
    C.  The human eye has only one kind of rod photoreceptor
    D.  All photoreceptors contain the same chromophore
    E.  Cone photoreceptors are concentrated in the fovea

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In ______ photoreceptors infoldings of the plasma membranes contribute to the bright light sensitivity and ability to accomplish color vision
    A.Bipolar cell
    B. Rod cell
    C. Ganglion cell
    D. Cone cell
    E. Pigment cell

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Vitamin A plays a critical role in night vision since
    A.It is required for the synthesis of the retinal portion of rhodopsin
    B. It is associated with the proper function of bright light receptors differentiating dimly lit or darkened objects
    C. It acts as the coenzyme required to degrade scotopsinin brightly lit circumstances
    D. It catalyzes the mitotic generation of light reflecting epithelial cells which support widely dispersed rod receptors
    E. It deactivates the photopigment transducing chemical pathways within cone photoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In light adaptation – i.e., eventually being able to see objects in a brightly lit place, after being in the dark
    A.Cone photoreceptors only, are stimulated
    B. Rods quickly deplete their stores of rhodopsin
    C. Rods continue to propagate sensory action potentials
    D. Cones and rods are stimulated equally, leading to difficulties in interpreting the sensory inputs to the brain
    E. Cones begin to diminish the frequency and intensity of action potentials they propagate and transmit

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In the visual pathway providing sensory action potentials to the brain, the first cells which are capable of initiating action potentials are
    A.Cone cells
    B. Rod cells
    C. Rods and cone cells
    D. Ganglion cells
    E. Bipolar cells

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements related to “ON pathways” and “OFF pathways” of visual pathways to the brain is correct?
    A.In the ON pathway bipolar cells fire action potentials only when bright light strikes the photoreceptors linked to them
    B. In the OFF pathway bipolar cells fire action potentials when the photoreceptors linked to them are struck by bright light
    C. The functional benefit of the coexistence of both pathways in the retina is to increase the brain’s ability to perceive contrast at the edges and borders of the visual field
    D. Both in the ON pathway bipolar cells fire action potentials only when bright light strikes the photoreceptors linked to them and the functional benefit of the coexistence of both pathways in the retina is to increase the brain’s ability to perceive contrast at the edges and borders of the visual field are correct
    E. Both in the OFF pathway bipolar cells fire action potentials when the photoreceptors linked to them are struck by bright light and the functional benefit of the coexistence of both pathways in the retina is to increase the brain’s ability to perceive contrast at the edges and borders of the visual field are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding hearing is true?
    A.The pitch of sounds is conveyed by the intensity of the vibration of the oval window
    B. Low-pitched tones selectively cause vibration of the basilar membrane at a point closer to the oval window than high-pitched ones do
    C. Sound is amplified as it is conducted from the oval window to the tympanic membrane
    D. Conduction deafness is a result of damage to the hair cells of the inner ear
    E. The loudness of a sound is conveyed by the frequency of action potentials generated in the cochlear nerve

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The ossicles in the middle ear
    A.Serve to keep the pressure on the two sides of the tympanic membrane equal
    B. Are part of the vestibular apparatus
    C. Are in direct contact with both the tympanic membrane and the round window
    D. Serve to amplify the pressure of sound vibrations from the air in the outer ear to the fluid in the inner ear
    E. Are easily damaged by loud sounds

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The actual receptors for hearing are called
    A.Baroreceptors
    B. Nociceptors
    C. Hair cells
    D. Pacinian corpuscles
    E. Somatic receptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The receptors for hearing are found on the
    A.Tympanic membrane
    B. Basilar membrane
    C. Stapes
    D. Oval window
    E. Scala vestibuli

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Distinguishing the pitch of sounds is possible because
    A.Different frequencies of sounds make the eardrum vibrate with different amplitudes
    B. Different frequencies of sounds stimulate different regions of the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct
    C. Different frequencies of sounds cause different kinds of action potentials in neurons in the auditory nerve
    D. Different frequencies of sounds cause different frequencies of action potentials in neurons in the auditory nerve
    E. There are many different receptors for sound, each of which responds only to one narrow range of frequency

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. As the pitch of a sound gets higher, displacements of the basilar membrane
    A.Occur closer to the oval window
    B. Occur closer to the helicotrema
    C. Occur uniformly throughout the membrane
    D. Become greater in amplitude
    E. Become smaller in amplitude

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles?
    A.Maintaining the proper amount of “stretch” or tension in the membranes of the middle and inner ear associated with proper auditory acuity
    B. Protection of the delicate inner ear from sudden intermittent loud sounds
    C. Reflexive contraction when vocalizing to reduce the loudness of your own voice
    D. Optimization of the state of the inner ear for hearing over certain frequency ranges

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the vestibular system is true?
    A.Hair cells in the cochlea are involved in the detection of movement and position of the head
    B. Receptors in the utricle and saccule detect changes in position of the head with respect to gravity
    C. Fluid in the semicircular canals causes deformation of receptor cells leading to their depolarization in response to changes in angular (rotational) acceleration of the head
    D. Both hair cells in the cochlea are involved in the detection of movement and position of the head and receptors in the utricle and saccule detect changes in position of the head with respect to gravity are true
    E. Both receptors in the utricle and saccule detect changes in position of the head with respect to gravity and fluid in the semicircular canals causes deformation of receptor cells leading to their depolarization in response to changes in angular (rotational) acceleration of the head are true

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Shaking one’s head “no” activates hair cells in the
    A.Cochlea
    B. Utricle
    C. Semicircular canals
    D. Olfactory mucosa
    E. Scalp

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Mechanoreceptors include
    A.Hair cells in the cochlea
    B. Hair cells in the ampulae of the semicircular canals
    C. Hair cells in the olfactory mucosa
    D. Hair cells in the cochlea and hair cells in the ampulae of the semicircular canals
    E. All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Receptors for the chemical senses are located in the
    A.Organ of Corti and the saccule
    B. Cochlea and lateral geniculate nucleus
    C. Skin and tendons
    D. Tongue and nose
    E. Fovea and the semicircular canals

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Olfactory receptors
    A. Can discriminate only among the four primary tastes – sweet, sour, salty and bitter
    B.  When stimulated, send impulses directly to the limbic system
    C.  Are stimulated by chemicals called odorants
    D.  Both can discriminate only among the four primary tastes – sweet, sour, salty and bitter and, when stimulated, send impulses directly to the limbic system are correct
    E.  Both, when stimulated, send impulses directly to the limbic system and are stimulated by chemicals called odorants are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Information from the vestibular system
    A. Is conveyed in the form of action potentials in the optic nerve
    B.  Is conveyed to nerves controlling eye movements
    C.  Does not reach consciousness
    D.  Both is conveyed in the form of action potentials in the optic nerve and is conveyed to nerves controlling eye movements are correct
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In addition the “classical taste sensation” areas of the tongue two new “tastes,” have or will be added to the list. Which of the sensations and its stimulus is associated with newest of these to gain scientific acceptance?
    A.Acids, sour
    B. Poisonous alkaloids, bitter
    C. Sugars, sweet
    D. Glutamate, umami
    E. Lipids, fatty acids

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The phenomenon known as referred pain
    A.Is a very infrequent perception of a false painful stimulus which is actually nonexistent; i.e., the mind playing a trick on us
    B. Is a direct association of an activity which is on the verge of causing tissue damage, to its specific location and cause in the body
    C. Is the projected perception of pain as a sensation being experienced at a site other than that of the actual injured or diseased tissue
    D. Is a process closely related to the specific nature of sensory action potentials along pathways dedicated to specific modalities ending in each specific sensory processing area of the brain which produces a correct precise perception of the source of painful stimuli every time
    E. Is synonymous with the persistence of perceptions of painful stimuli long after the activity responsible for triggering them has ceased

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. “Sensation” is sensory information that reaches the brain.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Perceptions are derived from higher-order processing of sensory information.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The transmission of information in a sensory system is analogous to the transmission of sound in a telephone system except that, unlike the telephone system, the sensory system does not retranslate the electrical signaling code back to the specific energy of the stimulus.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The process by which sensory receptors change various forms of energy into electrical energy is called translation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The greater the magnitude of the receptor potential generated by a stimulus, the greater the amplitude of the action potentials the receptor potential induces.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The rate of change of a stimulus may be important in determining receptor response.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. “Somatosensory” refers to the part of the cerebral cortex that receives synaptic input from specific ascending pathways originating only with receptors for touch.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Highly processed sensory information is invested with emotional significance by neurons in the association cortex of the temporal lobes.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Information about the location of a given stimulus on or in the body is conveyed by the same mechanisms that convey information about stimulus intensity.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The density of receptors in a receptive field is usually greatest in the periphery of the field.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In the somatosensory cortex, neuronal representation of body parts is proportional to their size.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The precision of locating a somatosensory stimulus is greater in areas of the body that have small, overlapping receptive fields than in areas with large, nonoverlapping fields.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7A.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The afferent pathways for pain differ from those for other somatic sensations in that information about the pain stimulus is transmitted to the hypothalamus.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A common neurotransmitter for afferent neurons carrying information about pain is prostaglandin.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The phenomenon of referred pain may occur because the ascending pathways for pain are not completely specific with respect to localization of the pain receptor.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. “Phantom limb” pain is imaginary pain because it is “felt” in an amputated limb.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Presbyopia is correctable by a convex lens in eyeglasses.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Increased pressure in the eye caused by an accumulation of aqueous humor is called astigmatism.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The optic nerve fibers from each eye meet at the optic chiasm, where they cross. Thus, visual information from the right eye is received by the left side of the brain.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The characteristics of the visual system are first sorted out by cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The conscious sensation of sight is a result of integration of information that is processed by cortical areas of the occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal lobes of the brain.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The greatest concentration of cones is in the fovea centralis of the retina.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The photoreceptor cell (rods and cones) is different from other sensory receptors in that it is the only type that is actually depolarized at rest.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. In both ON and OFF visual pathways, light stimulates the release of glutamate onto bipolar cells.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The response of a bipolar cell, i.e., whether it acts to bring about an “ON pathway” or an “OFF pathway” is directly dependent upon the amount of glutamate released within a very brief span of time.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. One function of saccades is to prevent adaptation of photoreceptors to a visual image.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A sound with a frequency of 4000 Hz has a lower pitch than a sound with a frequency of 1000 Hz.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The tympanic membrane separates an air-filled chamber from a fluid-filled chamber.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The vibration of the tympanic membrane varies in frequency according to the pitch of the sound it receives.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. The function of the tympanic membrane is to amplify sound waves on their way to the inner ear.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. A tone caused by striking one of the lowest notes on a piano keyboard will cause vibration of the basilar membrane at a point closer to the helicotrema than to the oval window.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Unlike information from the eyes, information from the ears bypasses the thalamus on its way to the cerebral cortex.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.03
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Hair cells in the semicircular canals detect changes in the rate of angular motion of the head, while the same kinds of cells in the utricle and saccule detect changes in the head’s rate of linear motion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. When you turn your head to the left to look over your left shoulder, the hairs in the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canals will be bent to the left.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Olfactory receptors are neurons.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Opponent color ganglion cells that respond to blue light by increasing their rate of firing will respond to red light by (increasing/decreasing) their rate of firing. White light will cause a/an (increase/decrease/no change) in the firing rate of these cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Indicate whether Pacinian corpuscles are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Hair cells in organ of Corti are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Cones are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.02
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Receptor cells in taste buds are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.05
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Nociceptors are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.01
Topic: Nervous System
 

  1. Hair cells in semicircular canals are
    A.mechanoreceptors
    B. chemoreceptors
    C. both mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
    D. neither mechanoreceptors nor chemoreceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section 7B.04
Topic: Nervous System