Varcarolis’ Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing A Clinical Approach 7th Edition By Margaret Jordan Halter

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Varcarolis’ Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing A Clinical Approach 7th Edition By Margaret Jordan Halter

Chapter 06: Legal and Ethical Guidelines for Safe Practice

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A psychiatric nurse best applies the ethical principle of autonomy by:
a. exploring alternative solutions with a patient, who then makes a choice.
b. suggesting that two patients who were fighting be restricted to the unit.
c. intervening when a self-mutilating patient attempts to harm self.
d. staying with a patient demonstrating a high level of anxiety.

 

 

ANS:  A

Autonomy is the right to self-determination, that is, to make one’s own decisions. By exploring alternatives with the patient, the patient is better equipped to make an informed, autonomous decision. The distracters demonstrate beneficence, fidelity, and justice.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 99          TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse finds a psychiatric advance directive in the medical record of a patient experiencing psychosis. The directive was executed during a period when the patient was stable and competent. The nurse should:
a. review the directive with the patient to ensure it is current.
b. ensure that the directive is respected in treatment planning.
c. consider the directive only if there is a cardiac or respiratory arrest.
d. encourage the patient to revise the directive in light of the current health problem.

 

 

ANS:  B

The nurse has an obligation to honor the right to self-determination. An advanced psychiatric directive supports that goal. Since the patient is currently psychotic, the terms of the directive now apply.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 103-104                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Two hospitalized patients fight whenever they are together. During a team meeting, a nurse asserts that safety is of paramount importance, so treatment plans should call for both patients to be secluded to keep them from injuring each other. This assertion:
a. reinforces the autonomy of the two patients.
b. violates the civil rights of both patients.
c. represents the intentional tort of battery.
d. correctly places emphasis on safety.

 

 

ANS:  B

Patients have a right to treatment in the least restrictive setting. Safety is important, but less restrictive measures should be tried first. Unnecessary seclusion may result in a charge of false imprisonment. Seclusion violates the patient’s autonomy. The principle by which the nurse is motivated is beneficence, not justice. The tort represented is false imprisonment.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 100 | Page 103-104                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. In a team meeting a nurse says, “I’m concerned about whether we are behaving ethically by using restraint to prevent one patient from self-mutilation, while the care plan for another self-mutilating patient requires one-on-one supervision.” Which ethical principle most clearly applies to this situation?
a. Beneficence c. Fidelity
b. Autonomy d. Justice

 

 

ANS:  D

The nurse is concerned about justice, that is, fair distribution of care, which includes treatment with the least restrictive methods for both patients. Beneficence means promoting the good of others. Autonomy is the right to make one’s own decisions. Fidelity is the observance of loyalty and commitment to the patient.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 99-100 | Page 103-104           TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Select the example of a tort.
a. The plan of care for a patient is not completed within 24 hours of the patient’s admission.
b. A nurse gives a PRN dose of an antipsychotic drug to an agitated patient because the unit is short-staffed.
c. An advanced practice nurse recommends hospitalization for a patient who is dangerous to self and others.
d. A patient’s admission status changed from involuntary to voluntary after the patient’s hallucinations subside.

 

 

ANS:  B

A tort is a civil wrong against a person that violates his or her rights. Giving unnecessary medication for the convenience of staff controls behavior in a manner similar to secluding a patient; thus, false imprisonment is a possible charge. The other options do not exemplify torts.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 108-109                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. What is the legal significance of a nurse’s action when a patient verbally refuses medication and the nurse gives the medication over the patient’s objection? The nurse:
a. has been negligent. c. fulfilled the standard of care.
b. committed malpractice. d. can be charged with battery.

 

 

ANS:  D

Battery is an intentional tort in which one individual violates the rights of another through touching without consent. Forcing a patient to take medication after the medication was refused constitutes battery. The charge of battery can be brought against the nurse. The medication may not necessarily harm the patient; harm is a component of malpractice.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 108-109                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which nursing intervention demonstrates false imprisonment?
a. A confused and combative patient says, “I’m getting out of here, and no one can stop me.” The nurse restrains this patient without a health care provider’s order and then promptly obtains an order.
b. A patient has been irritating and attention-seeking much of the day. A nurse escorts the patient down the hall saying, “Stay in your room, or you’ll be put in seclusion.”
c. An involuntarily hospitalized patient with suicidal ideation runs out of the psychiatric unit. The nurse rushes after the patient and convinces the patient to return to the unit.
d. An involuntarily hospitalized patient with homicidal ideation attempts to leave the facility. A nurse calls the security team and uses established protocols to prevent the patient from leaving.

 

 

ANS:  B

False imprisonment involves holding a competent person against his or her will. Actual force is not a requirement of false imprisonment. The individual needs only to be placed in fear of imprisonment by someone who has the ability to carry out the threat. If a patient is not competent (confused), then the nurse should act with beneficence. Patients admitted involuntarily should not be allowed to leave without permission of the treatment team.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 106 (Box 6-3) | Page 108 | Page 109 (Box 6-4)       TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which patient meets criteria for involuntary hospitalization for psychiatric treatment? The patient who:
a. is noncompliant with the treatment regimen.
b. fraudulently files for bankruptcy.
c. sold and distributed illegal drugs.
d. threatens to harm self and others.

 

 

ANS:  D

Involuntary hospitalization protects patients who are dangerous to themselves or others and cannot care for their own basic needs. Involuntary commitment also protects other individuals in society. The behaviors described in the other options are not sufficient to require involuntary hospitalization.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 100-101                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse prepares to administer a scheduled injection of haloperidol decanoate (Haldol depot) to an outpatient with schizophrenia. As the nurse swabs the site, the patient shouts, “Stop! I don’t want to take that medicine anymore.  I hate the side effects.” Select the nurse’s best action.
a. Assemble other staff for a show of force and proceed with the injection, using restraint if necessary.
b. Stop the medication administration procedure and say to the patient, “Tell me more about the side effects you’ve been having.”
c. Proceed with the injection but explain to the patient that there are medications that will help reduce the unpleasant side effects.
d. Say to the patient, “Since I’ve already drawn the medication in the syringe, I’m required to give it, but let’s talk to the doctor about delaying next month’s dose.”

 

 

ANS:  B

Patients with mental illness retain their civil rights unless there is clear, cogent, and convincing evidence of dangerousness. The patient in this situation presents no evidence of dangerousness. The nurse, as an advocate and educator, should seek more information about the patient’s decision and not force the medication.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 99-100 | Page 102-103           TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse is concerned that an agency’s policies are inadequate. Which understanding about the relationship between substandard institutional policies and individual nursing practice should guide nursing practice?
a. Agency policies do not exempt an individual nurse of responsibility to practice according to professional standards of nursing care.
b. Agency policies are the legal standard by which a professional nurse must act and therefore override other standards of care.
c. Faced with substandard policies, a nurse has a responsibility to inform the supervisor and discontinue patient care immediately.
d. Interpretation of policies by the judicial system is rendered on an individual basis and therefore cannot be predicted.

 

 

ANS:  A

Nurses are professionally bound to uphold standards of practice regardless of lesser standards established by a health care agency or a state. Conversely, if the agency standards are higher than standards of practice, the agency standards must be upheld. The courts may seek to establish the standard of care through the use of expert witnesses when the issue is clouded.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 108-109                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A newly admitted acutely psychotic patient is a private patient of the medical director and a private-pay patient. To whom does the psychiatric nurse assigned to the patient owe the duty of care?
a. Medical director c. Profession
b. Hospital d. Patient

 

 

ANS:  D

Although the nurse is accountable to the health care provider, the agency, the patient, and the profession, the duty of care is owed to the patient.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 108        TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which action by a nurse constitutes a breach of a patient’s right to privacy?
a. Documenting the patient’s daily behavior during hospitalization
b. Releasing information to the patient’s employer without consent
c. Discussing the patient’s history with other staff during care planning
d. Asking family to share information about a patient’s pre-hospitalization behavior

 

 

ANS:  B

Release of information without patient authorization violates the patient’s right to privacy. The other options are acceptable nursing practices. See relationship to audience response question.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 104-106                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. An adolescent hospitalized after a violent physical outburst tells the nurse, “I’m going to kill my father, but you can’t tell anyone.” Select the nurse’s best response.
a. “You are right. Federal law requires me to keep clinical information private.”
b. “I am obligated to share that information with the treatment team.”
c. “Those kinds of thoughts will make your hospitalization longer.”
d. “You should share this thought with your psychiatrist.”

 

 

ANS:  B

Breach of nurse-patient confidentiality does not pose a legal dilemma for nurses in these circumstances because a team approach to delivery of psychiatric care presumes communication of patient information to other staff members to develop treatment plans and outcome criteria. The patient should also know that the team has a duty to warn the father of the risk for harm.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 104-106                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A voluntarily hospitalized patient tells the nurse, “Get me the forms for discharge. I want to leave now.” Select the nurse’s best response.
a. “I will get the forms for you right now and bring them to your room.”
b. “Since you signed your consent for treatment, you may leave if you desire.”
c. “I will get them for you, but let’s talk about your decision to leave treatment.”
d. “I cannot give you those forms without your health care provider’s permission.”

 

 

ANS:  C

A voluntarily admitted patient has the right to demand and obtain release in most states. However, as a patient advocate, the nurse is responsible for weighing factors related to the patient’s wishes and best interests. By asking for information, the nurse may be able to help the patient reconsider the decision. Facilitating discharge without consent is not in the patient’s best interests before exploring the reason for the request.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 100-101 | Page 109 (Box 6-4)

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation   MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Insurance will not pay for continued private hospitalization of a mentally ill patient. The family considers transferring the patient to a public hospital but expresses concern that the patient will not get any treatment if transferred. Select the nurse’s most helpful reply.
a. “By law, treatment must be provided. Hospitalization without treatment violates patients’ rights.”
b. “All patients in public hospitals have the right to choose both a primary therapist and a primary nurse.”
c. “You have a justifiable concern because the right to treatment extends only to provision of food, shelter, and safety.”
d. “Much will depend on other patients, because the right to treatment for a psychotic patient takes precedence over the right to treatment of a patient who is stable.”

 

 

ANS:  A

The right to medical and psychiatric treatment was conferred on all patients hospitalized in public mental hospitals with the enactment of the federal Hospitalization of Mentally Ill Act in 1964.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 101-102                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which individual with mental illness may need emergency or involuntary admission? The individual who:
a. resumes using heroin while still taking naltrexone (ReVia).
b. reports hearing angels playing harps during thunderstorms.
c. does not keep an outpatient appointment with the mental health nurse.
d. throws a heavy plate at a waiter at the direction of command hallucinations.

 

 

ANS:  D

Throwing a heavy plate is likely to harm the waiter and is evidence of dangerousness to others. This behavior meets the criteria for emergency or involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The behaviors in the other options evidence mental illness but not dangerousness. See related audience response question.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 100-101                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient in alcohol rehabilitation reveals to the nurse, “I feel terrible guilt for sexually abusing my 6-year-old before I was admitted.” Select the nurse’s most important action.
a. Anonymously report the abuse by phone to the local child protection agency.
b. Reply, “I’m glad you feel comfortable talking to me about it.”
c. File a written report with the agency’s ethics committee.
d. Respect nurse-patient relationship confidentiality.

 

 

ANS:  A

Laws regarding child abuse reporting discovered by a professional during the suspected abuser’s alcohol or drug treatment differ by state. Federal law supersedes state law and prohibits disclosure without a court order except in instances in which the report can be made anonymously or without identifying the abuser as a patient in an alcohol or drug treatment facility.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 106-107                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A family member of a patient with delusions of persecution asks the nurse, “Are there any circumstances under which the treatment team is justified in violating a patient’s right to confidentiality?” The nurse should reply that confidentiality may be breached:
a. under no circumstances.
b. at the discretion of the psychiatrist.
c. when questions are asked by law enforcement.
d. if the patient threatens the life of another person.

 

 

ANS:  D

The duty to warn a person whose life has been threatened by a psychiatric patient overrides the patient’s right to confidentiality. The right to confidentiality is not suspended at the discretion of the therapist or for legal investigations.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 106        TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A new antidepressant is prescribed for an elderly patient with major depression, but the dose is more than the usual geriatric dose. The nurse should:
a. consult a reliable drug reference.
b. teach the patient about possible side effects and adverse effects.
c. withhold the medication and confer with the health care provider.
d. encourage the patient to increase oral fluids to reduce drug concentration.

 

 

ANS:  C

The dose of antidepressants for elderly patients is often less than the usual adult dose. The nurse should withhold the medication and consult the health care provider who wrote the order. The nurse’s duty is to practice according to professional standards as well as intervene and protect the patient.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 108-110                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient diagnosed with schizophrenia believes a local minister stirred evil spirits. The patient threatens to bomb a local church. The psychiatrist notifies the minister. Select the answer with the correct rationale. The psychiatrist:
a. released information without proper authorization.
b. demonstrated the duty to warn and protect.
c. violated the patient’s confidentiality.
d. avoided charges of malpractice.

 

 

ANS:  B

It is the health care professional’s duty to warn or notify an intended victim after a threat of harm has been made. Informing a potential victim of a threat is a legal responsibility of the health care professional. It is not a violation of confidentiality.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 108-110                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient with psychosis became aggressive, struck another patient, and required seclusion. Select the best documentation.
a. Patient struck another patient who attempted to leave day room to go to bathroom. Seclusion necessary at 1415. Plan: Maintain seclusion for 8 hours and keep these two patients away from each other for 24 hours.
b. Seclusion ordered by physician at 1415 after command hallucinations told the patient to hit another patient. Careful monitoring of patient maintained during period of seclusion.
c. Seclusion ordered by MD for aggressive behavior. Begun at 1415. Maintained for 2 hours without incident. Outcome: Patient calmer and apologized for outburst.
d. Patient pacing, shouting. Haloperidol 5 mg given PO at 1300. No effect by 1315. At 1415 patient yelled, “I’ll punch anyone who gets near me,” and struck another patient with fist. Physically placed in seclusion at 1420. Seclusion order obtained from MD at 1430.

 

 

ANS:  D

Documentation must be specific and detail the key aspects of care. It should demonstrate implementation of the least restrictive alternative. Justification for why a patient was secluded should be recorded, along with interventions attempted in an effort to avoid seclusion. Documentation should include a description of behavior and verbalizations, interventions tried and their outcomes, and the name of the health care provider ordering the use of seclusion.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 103-104 | Page 110-112         TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A person in the community asks, “Why aren’t people with mental illness kept in state institutions anymore?” Select the nurse’s best response.
a. “Less restrictive settings are available now to care for individuals with mental illness.”
b. “There are fewer persons with mental illness, so less hospital beds are needed.”
c. “Most people with mental illness are still in psychiatric institutions.”
d. “Psychiatric institutions violated patients’ rights.”

 

 

ANS:  A

The community is a less restrictive alternative than hospitals for treatment of persons with mental illness. The distracters are incorrect and part of the stigma of mental illness.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 100        TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient experiencing psychosis asks a psychiatric technician, “What’s the matter with me?” The technician replies, “Nothing is wrong with you. You just need to use some self-control.” The nurse who overheard the exchange should take action based on:
a. the technician’s unauthorized disclosure of confidential clinical information.
b. violation of the patient’s right to be treated with dignity and respect.
c. the nurse’s obligation to report caregiver negligence.
d. the patient’s right to social interaction.

 

 

ANS:  B

Patients have the right to be treated with dignity and respect. The technician’s comment disregards the seriousness of the patient’s illness. The Code of Ethics for Nurses requires intervention. Patient emotional abuse has been demonstrated, not negligence. An interaction with the technician is not an aspect of social interaction. The technician did not disclose clinical information.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 105 (Box 6-2)                        TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. Which documentation of a patient’s behavior best demonstrates a nurse’s observations?
a. Isolates self from others. Frequently fell asleep during group. Vital signs stable.
b. Calmer; more cooperative. Participated actively in group. No evidence of psychotic thinking.
c. Appeared to hallucinate. Frequently increased volume on television, causing conflict with others.
d. Wore four layers of clothing. States, “I need protection from evil bacteria trying to pierce my skin.”

 

 

ANS:  D

The documentation states specific observations of the patient’s appearance and the exact statements made. The other options are vague or subjective statements and can be interpreted in different ways.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 110-112                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. After leaving work, a nurse realizes documentation of administration of a PRN medication was omitted. This off-duty nurse phones the nurse on duty and says, “Please document administration of the medication for me. My password is alpha1.” The nurse receiving the call should:
a. fulfill the request promptly.
b. document the caller’s password.
c. refer the matter to the charge nurse to resolve.
d. report the request to the patient’s health care provider.

 

 

ANS:  C

Fraudulent documentation may be grounds for discipline by the state board of nursing. Referring the matter to the charge nurse will allow observance of hospital policy while ensuring that documentation occurs. Notifying the health care provider would be unnecessary when the charge nurse can resolve the problem. Nurses should not provide passwords to others.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 110-112                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which individual diagnosed with a mental illness may need involuntary hospitalization?  An individual:
a. who has a panic attack after her child gets lost in a shopping mall
b. with visions of demons emerging from cemetery plots throughout the community
c. who takes 38 acetaminophen tablets after the person’s stock portfolio becomes worthless
d. diagnosed with major depression who stops taking prescribed antidepressant medication

 

 

ANS:  C

Involuntary hospitalization protects patients who are dangerous to themselves or others and cannot care for their own basic needs. Involuntary hospitalization also protects other individuals in society. An overdose of acetaminophen indicates dangerousness to self. The behaviors described in the other options are not sufficient to require involuntary hospitalization.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 100-101                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. An aide in a psychiatric hospital says to the nurse, “We don’t have time every day to help each patient complete a menu selection. Let’s tell dietary to prepare popular choices and send them to our unit.” Select the nurse’s best response.
a. “Thanks for the suggestion, but that idea may not work because so many patients take MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) antidepressants.”
b. “Thanks for the idea, but it’s important to treat patients as individuals. Giving choices is one way we can respect patients’ individuality.”
c. “Thank you for the suggestion, but the patients’ bill of rights requires us to allow patients to select their own diet.”
d. “Thank you. That is a very good idea. It will make meal preparation easier for the dietary department.”

 

 

ANS:  B

The nurse’s response to the aide should recognize patients’ rights to be treated with dignity and respect as well as promote autonomy. This response also shows respect for the aide and fulfills the nurse’s obligation to provide supervision of unlicensed personnel. The incorrect responses have flawed rationale or do not respect patients as individuals.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 99 | Page 105 (Box 6-2)         TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. In order to release information to another health care facility or third party regarding a patient diagnosed with a mental illness, the nurse must obtain:
a. a signed consent by the patient for release of information stating specific information to be released.
b. a verbal consent for information release from the patient and the patient’s guardian or next of kin.
c. permission from members of the health care team who participate in treatment planning.
d. approval from the attending psychiatrist to authorize the release of information.

 

 

ANS:  A

Nurses have an obligation to protect patients’ privacy and confidentiality. Clinical information should not be released without the patient’s signed consent for the release.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 104-106                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. In which situations would a nurse have the duty to intervene and report? Select all that apply.
a. A peer has difficulty writing measurable outcomes.
b. A health care provider gives a telephone order for medication.
c. A peer tries to provide patient care in an alcohol-impaired state.
d. A team member violates relationship boundaries with a patient.
e. A patient refuses medication prescribed by a licensed health care provider.

 

 

ANS:  C, D

Both keyed answers are events that jeopardize patient safety. The distracters describe situations that may be resolved with education or that are acceptable practices.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 105 (Box 6-2) | Page 108-109                                           TOP:    Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which actions violate the civil rights of a psychiatric patient?  The nurse: (select all that apply)
a. performs mouth checks after overhearing a patient say, “I’ve been spitting out my medication.”
b. begins suicide precautions before a patient is assessed by the health care provider.
c. opens and reads a letter a patient left at the nurse’s station to be mailed.
d. places a patient’s expensive watch in the hospital business office safe.
e. restrains a patient who uses profanity when speaking to the nurse.

 

 

ANS:  C, E

The patient has the right to send and receive mail without interference. Restraint is not indicated because a patient uses profanity; there are other less restrictive ways to deal with this behavior. The other options are examples of good nursing judgment and do not violate the patient’s civil rights.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 99-100   TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

Chapter 07: The Nursing Process and Standards of Care for Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A new staff nurse completes an orientation to the psychiatric unit. This nurse will expect to ask an advanced practice nurse to perform which action for patients?
a. Perform mental health assessment interviews.
b. Prescribe psychotropic medication.
c. Establish therapeutic relationships.
d. Individualize nursing care plans.

 

 

ANS:  B

Prescriptive privileges are granted to master’s-prepared nurse practitioners who have taken special courses on prescribing medication. The nurse prepared at the basic level performs mental health assessments, establishes relationships, and provides individualized care planning. Note that this question was also offered for Chapter 1.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 127        TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A newly admitted patient diagnosed with major depression has gained 20 pounds over a few months and has suicidal ideation. The patient has taken an antidepressant medication for 1 week without remission of symptoms. Select the priority nursing diagnosis.
a. Imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements
b. Chronic low self-esteem
c. Risk for suicide
d. Hopelessness

 

 

ANS:  C

Risk for suicide is the priority diagnosis when the patient has both suicidal ideation and a plan to carry out the suicidal intent. Imbalanced nutrition, hopelessness, and chronic low self-esteem may be applicable nursing diagnoses, but these problems do not affect patient safety as urgently as would a suicide attempt.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 123-124                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. A patient diagnosed with major depression has lost 20 pounds in one month, has chronic low self-esteem, and a plan for suicide. The patient has taken an antidepressant medication for 1 week. Which nursing intervention has the highest priority?
a. Implement suicide precautions.
b. Offer high-calorie snacks and fluids frequently.
c. Assist the patient to identify three personal strengths.
d. Observe patient for therapeutic effects of antidepressant medication.

 

 

ANS:  A

Implementing suicide precautions is the only option related to patient safety. The other options, related to nutrition, self-esteem, and medication therapy, are important but are not priorities.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 126-127                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. The desired outcome for a patient experiencing insomnia is, “Patient will sleep for a minimum of 5 hours nightly within 7 days.” At the end of 7 days, review of sleep data shows the patient sleeps an average of 4 hours nightly and takes a 2-hour afternoon nap. The nurse will document the outcome as:
a. consistently demonstrated. c. sometimes demonstrated.
b. often demonstrated. d. never demonstrated.

 

 

ANS:  D

Although the patient is sleeping 6 hours daily, the total is not one uninterrupted session at night. Therefore, the outcome must be evaluated as never demonstrated. See relationship to audience response question.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 127        TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

 

  1. The desired outcome for a patient experiencing insomnia is, “Patient will sleep for a minimum of 5 hours nightly within 7 days.” At the end of 7 days, review of sleep data shows the patient sleeps an average of 4 hours nightly and takes a 2-hour afternoon nap. What is the nurse’s next action?
a. Continue the current plan without changes.
b. Remove this nursing diagnosis from the plan of care.
c. Write a new nursing diagnosis that better reflects the problem.
d. Examine interventions for possible revision of the target date.

 

 

ANS:  D

Sleeping a total of 5 hours at night remains a reasonable outcome. Extending the period for attaining the outcome may be appropriate. Examining interventions might result in planning an activity during the afternoon rather than permitting a nap. Continuing the current plan without changes is inappropriate. Removing this nursing diagnosis from the plan of care would be correct when the outcome was met and the problem resolved. Writing a new nursing diagnosis is inappropriate because no other nursing diagnosis relates to the problem.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 127        TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

 

  1. A patient begins a new program to assist with building social skills. In which part of the plan of care should a nurse record the item, “Encourage patient to attend one psychoeducational group daily”?
a. Assessment c. Implementation
b. Analysis d. Evaluation

 

 

ANS:  C

Interventions are the nursing prescriptions to achieve the outcomes. Interventions should be specific.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 126-127                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. Before assessing a new patient, a nurse is told by another health care worker, “I know that patient. No matter how hard we work, there isn’t much improvement by the time of discharge.” The nurse’s responsibility is to:
a. document the other worker’s assessment of the patient.
b. assess the patient based on data collected from all sources.
c. validate the worker’s impression by contacting the patient’s significant other.
d. discuss the worker’s impression with the patient during the assessment interview.

 

 

ANS:  B

Assessment should include data obtained from both the primary and reliable secondary sources. The nurse, bearing in mind the possible effects of counter-transference, should evaluate biased assessments by others as objectively as possible.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 117-118                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient presents to the emergency department with mixed psychiatric symptoms. The admission nurse suspects the symptoms may be the result of a medical problem. Lab results show elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine. What is the nurse’s next best action?
a. Report the findings to the health care provider.
b. Assess the patient for a history of renal problems.
c. Assess the patient’s family history for cardiac problems.
d. Arrange for the patient’s hospitalization on the psychiatric unit.

 

 

ANS:  B

Elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatinine suggest renal problems. Renal dysfunction can often imitate psychiatric disorders. The nurse should further assess the patient’s history for renal problems and then share the findings with the health care provider.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 119-120 (Box 7-3)                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

 

  1. A patient states, “I’m not worth anything. I have negative thoughts about myself. I feel anxious and shaky all the time. Sometimes I feel so sad that I want to go to sleep and never wake up.” Which nursing intervention should have the highest priority?
a. Self-esteem–building activities c. Sleep enhancement activities
b. Anxiety self-control measures d. Suicide precautions

 

 

ANS:  D

The nurse would place a priority on monitoring and reinforcing suicide self-restraint because it relates directly and immediately to patient safety. Patient safety is always a priority concern. The nurse should monitor and reinforce all patient attempts to control anxiety, improve sleep patterns, and develop self-esteem, while giving priority attention to suicide self-restraint.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 124-125 (Table 7-2) | Page 125 (Table 7-3)            TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Select the best outcome for a patient with the nursing diagnosis: Impaired social interaction related to sociocultural dissonance as evidenced by stating, “Although I’d like to, I don’t join in because I don’t speak the language very well.” Patient will:
a. show improved use of language.
b. demonstrate improved social skills.
c. become more independent in decision making.
d. select and participate in one group activity per day.

 

 

ANS:  D

The outcome describes social involvement on the part of the patient. Neither cooperation nor independence has been an issue. The patient has already expressed a desire to interact with others. Outcomes must be measurable. Two of the distracters are not measurable.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 124        TOP:   Nursing Process: Outcomes Identification

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. Nursing behaviors associated with the implementation phase of nursing process are concerned with:
a. participating in mutual identification of patient outcomes.
b. gathering accurate and sufficient patient-centered data.
c. comparing patient responses and expected outcomes.
d. carrying out interventions and coordinating care.

 

 

ANS:  D

Nursing behaviors relating to implementation include using available resources, performing interventions, finding alternatives when necessary, and coordinating care with other team members.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 126-127                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Which statement made by a patient during an initial assessment interview should serve as the priority focus for the plan of care?
a. “I can always trust my family.”
b. “It seems like I always have bad luck.”
c. “You never know who will turn against you.”
d. “I hear evil voices that tell me to do bad things.”

 

 

ANS:  D

The statement regarding evil voices tells the nurse that the patient is experiencing auditory hallucinations and may create risks for violence. The other statements are vague and do not clearly identify the patient’s chief symptom.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 117 | Page 120-121                TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

 

  1. Which entry in the medical record best meets the requirement for problem-oriented charting?
a. “A: Pacing and muttering to self. P: Sensory perceptual alteration related to internal auditory stimulation. I: Given fluphenazine HCL (Prolixin) 2.5 mg po at 0900 and went to room to lie down. E: Calmer by 0930. Returned to lounge to watch TV.”
b. “S: States, ‘I feel like I’m ready to blow up.’ O: Pacing hall, mumbling to self. A: Auditory hallucinations. P: Offer haloperidol (Haldol) 2 mg po. I: Haloperidol (Haldol) 2 mg po given at 0900. E: Returned to lounge at 0930 and quietly watched TV.”
c. “Agitated behavior. D: Patient muttering to self as though answering an unseen person. A: Given haloperidol (Haldol) 2 mg po and went to room to lie down. E: Patient calmer. Returned to lounge to watch TV.”
d. “Pacing hall and muttering to self as though answering an unseen person. haloperidol (Haldol) 2 mg po administered at 0900 with calming effect in 30 minutes. Stated, ‘I’m no longer bothered by the voices.’”

 

 

ANS:  B

Problem-oriented documentation uses the first letter of key words to organize data: S for subjective data, O for objective data, A for assessment, P for plan, I for intervention, and E for evaluation. The distracters offer examples of PIE charting, focus documentation, and narrative documentation.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 127-128 (Table 7-4)               TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse assesses an older adult patient brought to the emergency department by a family member. The patient was wandering outside saying, “I can’t find my way home.” The patient is confused and unable to answer questions. Select the nurse’s best action.
a. Record the patient’s answers to questions on the nursing assessment form.
b. Ask an advanced practice nurse to perform the assessment interview.
c. Call for a mental health advocate to maintain the patient’s rights.
d. Obtain important information from the family member.

 

 

ANS:  D

When the patient (primary source) is unable to provide information, secondary sources should be used, in this case, the family member. Later, more data may be obtained from other information sources familiar with the patient. An advanced practice nurse is not needed for this assessment; it is within the scope of practice of the staff nurse. Calling a mental health advocate is unnecessary. See relationship to audience response question.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 118-119 | Page 122-123         TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse asks a patient, “If you had fever and vomiting for 3 days, what would you do?”

Which aspect of the mental status examination is the nurse assessing?

a. Behavior c. Affect and mood
b. Cognition d. Perceptual disturbances

 

 

ANS:  B

Assessing cognition involves determining a patient’s judgment and decision making. In this case, the nurse would expect a response of “Call my doctor” if the patient’s cognition and judgment are intact. If the patient responds, “I would stop eating” or “I would just wait and see what happened,” the nurse would conclude that judgment is impaired. The other options refer to other aspects of the examination.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 121 (Box 7-4)                        TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. An adolescent asks a nurse conducting an assessment interview, “Why should I tell you anything? You’ll just tell my parents whatever you find out.” Which response by the nurse is appropriate?
a. “That isn’t true. What you tell us is private and held in strict confidence. Your parents have no right to know.”
b. “Yes, your parents may find out what you say, but it is important that they know about your problems.”
c. “What you say about feelings is private, but some things, like suicidal thinking, must be reported to the treatment team.”
d. “It sounds as though you are not really ready to work on your problems and make changes.”

 

 

ANS:  C

Adolescents are very concerned with confidentiality. The patient has a right to know that most information will be held in confidence but that certain material must be reported or shared with the treatment team, such as threats of suicide, homicide, use of illegal drugs, or issues of abuse. The incorrect responses are not true, will not inspire the confidence of the patient, or are confrontational.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 118        TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse wants to assess an adult patient’s recent memory. Which question would best yield the desired information?
a. “Where did you go to elementary school?”
b. “What did you have for breakfast this morning?”
c. “Can you name the current president of the United States?”
d. “A few minutes ago, I told you my name. Can you remember it?”

 

 

ANS:  B

The patient’s recall of a meal provides evidence of recent memory. Two incorrect responses are useful to assess immediate and remote memory. The other distracter assesses the patient’s fund of knowledge.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 121 (Box 7-4)                        TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. When a nurse assesses an older adult patient, answers seem vague or unrelated to the questions. The patient also leans forward and frowns, listening intently to the nurse. An appropriate question for the nurse to ask would be:
a. “Are you having difficulty hearing when I speak?”
b. “How can I make this assessment interview easier for you?”
c. “I notice you are frowning. Are you feeling annoyed with me?”
d. “You’re having trouble focusing on what I’m saying. What is distracting you?”

 

 

ANS:  A

The patient’s behaviors may indicate difficulty hearing. Identifying any physical need the patient may have at the onset of the interview and making accommodations are important considerations. By asking if the patient is annoyed, the nurse is jumping to conclusions. Asking how to make the interview easier for the patient may not elicit a concrete answer. Asking about distractions is a way of asking about auditory hallucinations, which is not appropriate because the nurse has observed that the patient seems to be listening intently.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 118-119                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

 

  1. At what point in an assessment interview would a nurse ask, “How does your faith help you in stressful situations?” During the assessment of:
a. childhood growth and development c. educational background
b. substance use and abuse d. coping strategies

 

 

ANS:  D

When discussing coping strategies, the nurse might ask what the patient does when upset, what usually relieves stress, and to whom the patient goes to talk about problems. The question regarding whether the patient’s faith helps deal with stress fits well here. It would be out of place if introduced during exploration of the other topics.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 120-121 (Box 7-5)                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. When a new patient is hospitalized, a nurse takes the patient on a tour, explains rules of the unit, and discusses the daily schedule. The nurse is engaged in:
a. counseling. c. milieu management.
b. health teaching. d. psychobiological intervention.

 

 

ANS:  C

Milieu management provides a therapeutic environment in which the patient can feel comfortable and safe while engaging in activities that meet the patient’s physical and mental health needs. Counseling refers to activities designed to promote problem solving and enhanced coping and includes interviewing, crisis intervention, stress management, and conflict resolution. Health teaching involves identifying health education needs and giving information about these needs. Psychobiological interventions involve medication administration and monitoring response to medications.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 126-127                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. After formulating the nursing diagnoses for a new patient, what is a nurse’s next action?
a. Designing interventions to include in the plan of care
b. Determining the goals and outcome criteria
c. Implementing the nursing plan of care
d. Completing the spiritual assessment

 

 

ANS:  B

The third step of the nursing process is planning and outcome identification. Outcomes cannot be determined until the nursing assessment is complete and nursing diagnoses have been formulated.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 123-124                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. Select the most appropriate label to complete this nursing diagnosis: ___________ related to feelings of shyness and poorly developed social skills as evidenced by watching television alone at home every evening.
a. Deficient knowledge c. Social isolation
b. Ineffective coping d. Powerlessness

 

 

ANS:  C

Nursing diagnoses are selected based on the etiological factors and assessment findings, or evidence. In this instance, the evidence shows social isolation that is caused by shyness and poorly developed social skills.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 123-124                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. “QSEN” refers to:
a. Qualitative Standardized Excellence in Nursing
b. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
c. Quantitative Effectiveness in Nursing
d. Quick Standards Essential for Nurses

 

 

ANS:  B

QSEN represents national initiatives centered on patient safety and quality. The primary goal of QSEN is to prepare future nurses with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to increase the quality, care, and safety in the health care setting in which they work.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge)

REF:   Page 115-117 (Box 7-1)                 TOP:   Nursing Process: N/A

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse documents: “Patient is mute despite repeated efforts to elicit speech. Makes no eye contact. Inattentive to staff. Gazes off to the side or looks upward rather than at speaker.” Which nursing diagnosis should be considered?
a. Defensive coping c. Risk for other-directed violence
b. Decisional conflict d. Impaired verbal communication

 

 

ANS:  D

The defining characteristics are more related to the nursing diagnosis of impaired verbal communication than to the other nursing diagnoses.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 123-124                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. A nurse prepares to assess a new patient who moved to the United States from Central America three years ago.  After introductions, what is the nurse’s next comment?
a. “How did you get to the United States?”
b. “Would you like for a family member to help you talk with me?”
c. “An interpreter is available. Would you like for me to make a request for these services?”
d. “Are you comfortable conversing in English, or would you prefer to have a translator present?”

 

 

ANS:  D

The nurse should determine whether a translator is needed by first assessing the patient for language barriers. Accuracy of the assessment depends on the ability to communicate in a language that is familiar to the patient. Family members are not always reliable translators.  An interpreter may change the patient’s responses; a translator is a better resource.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 118-119                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. The nurse records this entry in a patient’s progress notes:

     Patient escorted to unit by ER nurse at 2130. Patient’s clothing was dirty. In interview room, patient sat with hands over face, sobbing softly. Did not acknowledge nurse or reply to questions. After several minutes, abruptly arose, ran to window, and pounded. Shouted repeatedly, “Let me out of here.” Verbal intervention unsuccessful. Order for stat dose 2 mg haloperidol PO obtained; medication administered at 2150. By 2215, patient stopped shouting and returned to sit wordlessly in chair. Patient placed on one-to-one observation.

How should this documentation be evaluated?

a. Uses unapproved abbreviations
b. Contains subjective material
c. Too brief to be of value
d. Excessively wordy
e. Meets standards

 

 

ANS:  E

This narrative note describes patient appearance, behavior, and conversation. It mentions that less-restrictive measures were attempted before administering medication and documents patient response to medication. This note would probably meet standards. A complete nursing assessment would be in order as soon as the patient is able to participate. Subjective material is absent from the note. Abbreviations are acceptable.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)

REF:   Page 127-128 (Table 7-4) | Page 128 (Box 7-7)              TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A nurse assessed a patient who reluctantly participated in activities, answered questions with minimal responses, and rarely made eye contact. What information should be included when documenting the assessment? Select all that apply.
a. The patient was uncooperative
b. The patient’s subjective responses
c. Only data obtained from the patient’s verbal responses
d. A description of the patient’s behavior during the interview
e. Analysis of why the patient was unresponsive during the interview

 

 

ANS:  B, D

Both content and process of the interview should be documented. Providing only the patient’s verbal responses would create a skewed picture of the patient. Writing that the patient was uncooperative is subjectively worded. An objective description of patient behavior would be preferable. Analysis of the reasons for the patient’s behavior would be speculation, which is inappropriate.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 117-118 | Page 127-128 (Box7-7)

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment          MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A nurse performing an assessment interview for a patient with a substance use disorder decides to use a standardized rating scale. Which scales are appropriate? Select all that apply.
a. Addiction Severity Index (ASI)
b. Brief Drug Abuse Screen Test (B-DAST)
c. Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)
d. Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE)
e. Recovery Attitude and Treatment Evaluator (RAATE)

 

 

ANS:  A, B, E

Standardized scales are useful for obtaining data about substance use disorders. The ASI, B-DAST, and RAATE are scales related to substance abuse. AIMS assesses involuntary movements associated with anti-psychotic medications. The CCSE assesses cognitive function.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 123 (Table 7-1)                                 TOP:              Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

 

  1. What information is conveyed by nursing diagnoses? Select all that apply.
a. Medical judgments about the disorder
b. Unmet patient needs currently present
c. Goals and outcomes for the plan of care
d. Supporting data that validate the diagnoses
e. Probable causes that will be targets for nursing interventions

 

 

ANS:  B, D, E

Nursing diagnoses focus on phenomena of concern to nurses rather than on medical diagnoses.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)

REF:   Page 123-124                                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis/Analysis

MSC:  Client Needs: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

  1. A patient is very suspicious and states, “The FBI has me under surveillance.” Which strategies should a nurse use when gathering initial assessment data about this patient? Select all that apply.
a. Tell the patient that medication will help this type of thinking.
b. Ask the patient, “Tell me about the problem as you see it.”
c. Seek information about when the problem began.
d. Tell the patient, “Your ideas are not realistic.”
e. Reassure the patient, “You are safe here.”

 

 

ANS:  B, C, E

During the assessment interview, the nurse should listen attentively and accept the patient’s statements in a nonjudgmental way. Because the patient is suspicious and fearful, reassuring safety may be helpful, although trust is unlikely so early in the relationship. Saying that medication will help or telling the patient that the ideas are not realistic will undermine development of trust between the nurse and patient.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

REF:   Page 120-121 (Box 7-4)                 TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity