Visual Anatomy & Physiology 3E By Martini – Test Bank

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Visual Anatomy & Physiology 3E By Martini – Test Bank

Visual Anatomy and Physiology, 3e (Martini)

Chapter 6   Bones and Bone Structure

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

  1. A) body support
  2. B) calcium homeostasis
  3. C) protection of internal organs
  4. D) blood cell production
  5. E) temperature regulation

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

2) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?

  1. A) tendons
  2. B) bones
  3. C) ligaments
  4. D) cartilages

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

3) The most abundant mineral in the human body is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) phosphorus.
  4. D) calcium.
  5. E) hydrogen.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

4) Which of the following is not true of the skeletal system?

  1. A) It interacts with the muscular system to provide movement.
  2. B) It interacts with the lymphatic system to regulate calcium levels.
  3. C) It interacts with the nervous system by providing protection to the spinal cord.
  4. D) It interacts with the cardiovascular system by providing blood cells.
  5. E) It interacts with the digestive system by absorbing more calcium when needed.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

5) Which of the following bones is classified as “irregular” in shape?

  1. A) patella
  2. B) frontal
  3. C) vertebra
  4. D) metatarsal
  5. E) ulna

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

6) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) irregular
  5. E) sesamoid

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

7) A rib is an example of a ________ bone.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) sutural
  5. E) sesamoid

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

8) Bones that develop within tendons are called ________ bones.

  1. A) irregular
  2. B) sesamoid
  3. C) sutural
  4. D) Wormian
  5. E) tendon

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

9) Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones.

  1. A) irregular
  2. B) sesamoid
  3. C) sutural
  4. D) sagittal
  5. E) tendon

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

10) The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the

  1. A) ramus.
  2. B) trochanter.
  3. C) tuberosity.
  4. D) tubercle.
  5. E) condyle.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

11) A rounded hole through a bone is termed a

  1. A) ramus.
  2. B) foramen.
  3. C) linea.
  4. D) tubercle.
  5. E) facet.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

12) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a

  1. A) crest.
  2. B) ridge.
  3. C) spine.
  4. D) condyle.
  5. E) trochlea.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

13) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a

  1. A) fossa.
  2. B) sulcus.
  3. C) facet.
  4. D) fissure.
  5. E) line.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

14) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) irregular
  5. E) sesamoid

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

15) A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.

  1. A) tuberosity
  2. B) fossa
  3. C) trochanter
  4. D) trochlea
  5. E) meatus

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

16) A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a

  1. A) tuberosity.
  2. B) ramus.
  3. C) condyle.
  4. D) diaphysis.
  5. E) process.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

17) A projection at an angle on a bone is termed a

  1. A) trochlea.
  2. B) canal.
  3. C) condyle.
  4. D) crest.
  5. E) ramus.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

18) A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a

  1. A) meatus.
  2. B) fissure.
  3. C) sinus.
  4. D) sulcus.
  5. E) facet.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

19) The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is termed a

  1. A) facet.
  2. B) diaphysis.
  3. C) head.
  4. D) tubercle.
  5. E) condyle.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

20) A ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.

  1. A) line
  2. B) ramus
  3. C) fissure
  4. D) process
  5. E) foramen

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

21) The adult skeleton contains ________ major bones.

  1. A) 114
  2. B) 167
  3. C) 206
  4. D) 276
  5. E) 311

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

22) The narrow region between the head and diaphysis of a long bone is called the

  1. A) canal.
  2. B) sulcus.
  3. C) trochlea.
  4. D) ramus.
  5. E) neck.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

23) A prominent ridge, as seen on the pelvis, is a

  1. A) crest.
  2. B) fossa.
  3. C) line.
  4. D) spine.
  5. E) ramus.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

24) The medullary cavity of bones contains

  1. A) compact bone.
  2. B) osteons.
  3. C) cartilage.
  4. D) marrow.
  5. E) periosteum.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

25) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the

  1. A) diaphysis.
  2. B) epiphysis.
  3. C) osseophysis.
  4. D) metaphysis.
  5. E) medullary cavity.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

26) The shaft of a long bone is called the

  1. A) epiphysis.
  2. B) diaphysis.
  3. C) epiphyseal plate.
  4. D) metaphysis.
  5. E) lamella.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

27) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone covers portions of what part of the bone?

  1. A) metaphysis
  2. B) diaphysis
  3. C) epiphysis
  4. D) nutrient foramen
  5. E) medullary cavity

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

28) Fat is stored within the

  1. A) medullary cavity.
  2. B) metaphysis.
  3. C) spongy bone.
  4. D) epiphysis.
  5. E) diaphysis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

29) ________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints.

  1. A) Yellow bone marrow
  2. B) Articular cartilage
  3. C) Red bone marrow
  4. D) Spongy bone
  5. E) The medullary cavity

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

30) The opening in the diaphysis through which blood vessels provide oxygen to osteons is named the ________ foramen.

  1. A) metaphyseal
  2. B) medullary
  3. C) epiphyseal
  4. D) nutrient
  5. E) articular

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

31) Which of the following best matches osteocyte?

  1. A) stem cell
  2. B) dissolves matrix
  3. C) mature bone cell
  4. D) secretes organic matrix
  5. E) produce blood cells

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

32) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called

  1. A) osteocytes.
  2. B) osteoprogenitor cells.
  3. C) osteoblasts.
  4. D) osteoclasts.
  5. E) chondrocytes.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

33) ________ are stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.

  1. A) Osteoclasts
  2. B) Osteocytes
  3. C) Osteomedullary cells
  4. D) Osteogenic cells
  5. E) Squamous osteons

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

34) Through the action of osteoclasts,

  1. A) new bone is formed.
  2. B) an organic framework is formed.
  3. C) bony matrix is dissolved.
  4. D) osteoid is calcified.
  5. E) fractured bones regenerate.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

35) Which of the following is not present in bone?

  1. A) calcium phosphate
  2. B) collagen fibers
  3. C) calcium carbonate
  4. D) chondroitin sulfate
  5. E) hydroxyapatite

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

36) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a

  1. A) Volkmann’s canal.
  2. B) lacuna.
  3. C) trabecula.
  4. D) Haversian canal.
  5. E) Venetian canal.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

37) ________ accounts for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.

  1. A) Water
  2. B) Calcium carbonate
  3. C) Collagen fibers
  4. D) Fluoride
  5. E) Calcium phosphate

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

38) Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.

  1. A) 25
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 15
  5. E) 50

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

39) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain

  1. A) blood cells.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) chondroblasts.
  4. D) bone marrow.
  5. E) capillaries.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

40) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called

  1. A) central canals.
  2. B) lacunae.
  3. C) canaliculi.
  4. D) medullary cavities.
  5. E) foramina.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

41) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.

  1. A) collagen-fiber
  2. B) protein-crystal
  3. C) mineral-crystal
  4. D) protein-protein
  5. E) hydroxyapatite-crystal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

42) The most abundant cell type in bone is

  1. A) osteoclasts.
  2. B) osteoblasts.
  3. C) osteolytes.
  4. D) osteogenic cells.
  5. E) osteocytes.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

43) How would denaturing collagen from the bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?

  1. A) The bone would be less flexible.
  2. B) The bone would be stronger.
  3. C) The bone would be more brittle.
  4. D) The bone would be more flexible.
  5. E) The bone would be less compressible.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

44) ________ cells, which differentiate into osteoblasts, are located in the endosteum and inner cellular layer of the periosteum.

  1. A) Osteocyte
  2. B) Osteoclast
  3. C) Osteoid
  4. D) Osteogenic
  5. E) Osteoblast

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

45) ________ is the organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone.

  1. A) Collagen
  2. B) Hydroxyapatite
  3. C) Lamella
  4. D) Osteocyte
  5. E) Osteoid

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

46) In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of

  1. A) calcium carbonate.
  2. B) hydroxyapatite.
  3. C) calcium apatite.
  4. D) carbonite.
  5. E) osteocyte.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

47) Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are important in

  1. A) osteogenesis.
  2. B) bone resorption.
  3. C) releasing hydrochloric acid.
  4. D) derived from macrophages.
  5. E) releasing hydroxyapatite.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

48) ________ are stronger than steel when stretched.

  1. A) Lamellae
  2. B) Collagen fibers
  3. C) Mesenchymal cells
  4. D) Hydroxyapatite cells
  5. E) Lacunae

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

49) ________ free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels.

  1. A) Osteoblasts
  2. B) Osteocytes
  3. C) Osteogenic cells
  4. D) Osteoclasts

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

50) The central canal of an osteon contains

  1. A) bone marrow.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) concentric lamellae.
  4. D) blood vessels.
  5. E) lacunae.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

51) The interconnecting struts and plates found in spongy bone are called

  1. A) osteons.
  2. B) trabeculae.
  3. C) concentric lamellae.
  4. D) interstitial lamellae.
  5. E) lacunae.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

52) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.

  1. A) spongy
  2. B) trabeculae
  3. C) compact
  4. D) lamellar
  5. E) irregular

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

53) The structural units of mature compact bone are called

  1. A) lacunae.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) osteons.
  4. D) canaliculi.
  5. E) lamellae.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

54) Which of the following is not a characteristic of compact bone?

  1. A) The matrix of the bone is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.
  2. B) The matrix of the bone contains osteocytes.
  3. C) Narrow channels pass through the matrix to allow for an exchange of nutrients.
  4. D) It is the site of hematopoiesis.
  5. E) It contains osteons.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

55) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are

  1. A) radial.
  2. B) anterior.
  3. C) parallel.
  4. D) proximal.
  5. E) diagonal.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

56) The femur can withstand ________ times the body’s weight without breaking.

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5 to 10
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 10 to 15
  5. E) 30

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

57) ________ bone does not contain capillaries, but receives nutrients through its canaliculi.

  1. A) Lamellar
  2. B) Osteonic
  3. C) Woven
  4. D) Compact
  5. E) Spongy

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

58) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.

  1. A) Short
  2. B) Irregular
  3. C) Spongy
  4. D) Compact
  5. E) Long

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

59) In compact bone, the osteons are

  1. A) arranged in concentric lamellae.
  2. B) lined up perpendicular to the long axis.
  3. C) arranged in an irregular pattern.
  4. D) separated by medullary spaces.
  5. E) lacking in the diaphysis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

60) The trabeculae of spongy bone

  1. A) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
  2. B) are organized along stress lines.
  3. C) are composed mostly of cartilage.
  4. D) will collapse under stress.
  5. E) are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

Figure 6-1

 

61) Which structure is termed a central canal?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 7
  5. E) 8

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

62) Which structure is characteristic of spongy bone?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

63) What are the structures labeled “4”?

  1. A) concentric lamellae
  2. B) perforating canals
  3. C) interstitial lamellae
  4. D) trabeculae
  5. E) periosteum

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

64) The structures labeled “3” are the result of which process?

  1. A) bone cells adding matrix between existing osteons
  2. B) surface growth of bone
  3. C) recycling of compact bone
  4. D) recycling of spongy bone
  5. E) osteoporosis

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

65) Where would osteoclasts be most active?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

66) Osteocytes are embedded in a dense matrix of hydroxyapatite. Which of the following describes how osteocytes receive nutrients?

  1. A) by osmosis from neighboring osteocytes.
  2. B) by diffusion from neighboring osteoblasts cells traveling through lamellae.
  3. C) by diffusion from nutrients released from vessels in the central canal that travel through canaliculi.
  4. D) by diffusion from nutrients released from vessels in the central canal that travel through perforating canals.
  5. E) by diffusion directly from nutrients stored in the periosteum.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

67) Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as

  1. A) perforating canals.
  2. B) concentric lamellae.
  3. C) osteons.
  4. D) lamellae.
  5. E) trabeculae.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

68) In appositional growth, successive layers of what structure are added to the outer surface of the bone?

  1. A) osteons
  2. B) perforating fibers
  3. C) osteoclastic crypts
  4. D) circumferential lamellae
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

69) During appositional growth,

  1. A) bones grow longer.
  2. B) bones grow wider.
  3. C) bone is replaced by cartilage.
  4. D) the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis.
  5. E) osteoblasts are overwhelmed by osteocytes.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

70) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the

  1. A) endosteum.
  2. B) periosteum.
  3. C) epimysium.
  4. D) perimysium.
  5. E) perichondrium.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

71) During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.

  1. A) osteolysis
  2. B) ossification
  3. C) appositional growth
  4. D) deposition
  5. E) perforation

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

72) Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the

  1. A) osteoblasts.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) osteoid.
  4. D) osteogenic cells.
  5. E) osteoclasts.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

73) What structure allows a bone to grow in length?

  1. A) lacunae
  2. B) epiphyseal cartilages
  3. C) periosteal bud
  4. D) metaphysis
  5. E) trabeculae

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

74) Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)

  1. A) fibrous connective-tissue model.
  2. B) cartilage model.
  3. C) membranous model.
  4. D) calcified model.
  5. E) osteoblasts model.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

75) Secondary ossification centers occur in

  1. A) the diaphysis.
  2. B) the periosteum.
  3. C) the epiphyses.
  4. D) the metaphyses.
  5. E) dermal bones.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

76) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,

  1. A) puberty begins.
  2. B) interstitial bone growth begins.
  3. C) appositional bone growth begins.
  4. D) long bones have reached their adult length.
  5. E) the bone becomes more brittle.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

77) When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones

  1. A) grow longer.
  2. B) grow wider.
  3. C) become shorter.
  4. D) become more porous and weaker.
  5. E) become thicker.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

78) When estrogen is increased in females at puberty, epiphyseal plates

  1. A) widen.
  2. B) become narrower.
  3. C) increase slowly.
  4. D) accelerate rapidly, but mostly in thickness.
  5. E) are hardly affected.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

79) The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification.

 

  1. Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage and perichondrium differentiates into osteoblasts.
  2. Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate to the epithyses forming the secondary ossification centers.
  3. Chondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify.
  4. Remodeling continues and the shaft becomes thicker.
  5. Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and invade the central region forming the primary ossification center.

 

What is the correct order for these events?

  1. A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2
  2. B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2
  3. C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2
  4. D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4
  5. E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

Figure 6-2

 

80) Where does endochondral lengthening occur?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

81) What type of tissue occurs at “1”?

  1. A) elastic tissue
  2. B) fibrocartilage
  3. C) bone
  4. D) hyaline cartilage
  5. E) marrow tissue

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

82) What process is shown at “6”?

  1. A) primary ossification
  2. B) secondary ossification
  3. C) length growth
  4. D) width growth
  5. E) fracture repair

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

83) Identify the structure at “4.”

  1. A) intramembranous bone
  2. B) spongy bone
  3. C) hyaline cartilage
  4. D) periosteum
  5. E) mesenchyme

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

84) Identify the structure labeled “2.”

  1. A) epiphysis
  2. B) diaphysis
  3. C) metaphysis
  4. D) marrow cavity
  5. E) trabeculae

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

85) When testosterone is increased in males at puberty, epiphyseal plates

  1. A) widen.
  2. B) become narrower.
  3. C) increase slowly.
  4. D) accelerate rapidly
  5. E) are hardly affected.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

86) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?

  1. A) roof of the skull
  2. B) carpal bones
  3. C) femur
  4. D) clavicle
  5. E) both the roof of the skull and the clavicle

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

87) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.

  1. A) osteoclast
  2. B) osteoprogenitor
  3. C) mesenchymal
  4. D) osteoblast
  5. E) osteocyte

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

88) The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification.

 

  1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized.
  2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue.
  3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers.
  4. Mesenchymal cells aggregate.

 

What is the correct order for these events?

  1. A) 4, 1, 2, 3
  2. B) 2, 1, 3, 4
  3. C) 4, 2, 1, 3
  4. D) 2, 3, 1, 4

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

89) Which of the following statements about Marfan’s syndrome is false?

  1. A) It results in short, stubby fingers.
  2. B) It results from a mutation.
  3. C) It affects connective tissue genes.
  4. D) It affects epiphyseal cartilages.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

90) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in

  1. A) osteoporosis.
  2. B) osteopenia.
  3. C) rickets.
  4. D) gigantism.
  5. E) dwarfism.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

91) Excessive growth hormone after puberty could result in

  1. A) osteoporosis.
  2. B) osteopenia.
  3. C) acromegaly.
  4. D) gigantism.
  5. E) dwarfism.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

92) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of

  1. A) potassium.
  2. B) iron.
  3. C) sulfate.
  4. D) calcium.
  5. E) sodium.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

93) The hormone calcitonin

  1. A) stimulates osteoclast activity.
  2. B) decreases the rate of calcium excretion.
  3. C) decreases the rate of calcium absorption.
  4. D) decreases the level of calcium ion in the blood.
  5. E) stimulates osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

94) Which of the following is true for parathyroid hormone?

  1. A) stimulates osteoblast activity.
  2. B) decreases the rate of calcium absorption.
  3. C) increase the rate of calcium excretion.
  4. D) lowers the level of calcium ion in the blood.
  5. E) inhibits calcitonin secretion.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

95) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone

  1. A) calcitonin.
  2. B) thyroid hormone.
  3. C) parathyroid hormone.
  4. D) growth hormone.
  5. E) testosterone.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

96) Which is greater?

  1. A) osteoclast activity when calcitonin is present
  2. B) osteoclast activity when calcitonin is absent

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

97) Which is greater?

  1. A) blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased
  2. B) blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is decreased

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

98) The intestinal response to PTH secretion when calcium ion levels are low is that calcium is

  1. A) released.
  2. B) excreted.
  3. C) conserved.
  4. D) absorbed quickly.
  5. E) absorbed slowly.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

99) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the

  1. A) epiphyseal plate.
  2. B) external callus.
  3. C) dense tuberosity.
  4. D) condyle.
  5. E) fracture facet.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

100) ________ fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin.

  1. A) Open or compound
  2. B) Closed or simple
  3. C) Compression
  4. D) Recurrent
  5. E) Comminuted

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

101) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.

  1. A) compression
  2. B) Pott’s
  3. C) displaced
  4. D) greenstick
  5. E) Colles

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

102) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott’s fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?

  1. A) hypertension
  2. B) tachycardia
  3. C) erythema
  4. D) hematoma
  5. E) cyanosis

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

103) Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a

  1. A) sprain.
  2. B) fracture.
  3. C) hematoma.
  4. D) callus.
  5. E) displacement.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

104) An open, or ________, fracture projects through the skin.

  1. A) simple
  2. B) compound

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

105) Put the following steps of fracture repair into the correct order.

 

  1. Extensive bleeding occurs.
  2. An internal callus forms from a network of spongy bone.
  3. Hematoma is formed to close off blood flow.
  4. Remodeling continues by osteoblasts and osteoclasts leaving little evidence of the break.
  5. Osteoblasts replace the central cartilage of the callus.
  6. A) 3,2,1,5,4
  7. B) 1,3,2,5,4
  8. C) 1,2,3,4,5
  9. D) 3,1,2,5,4
  10. E) 1,3,2,4,5

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

106) A fracture of the bone across its long axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.

  1. A) compression
  2. B) comminuted
  3. C) articulated
  4. D) spiral
  5. E) transverse

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

107) In a ________ fracture, one side of the shaft is split and the other side is bent.

  1. A) compression
  2. B) comminuted
  3. C) Pott’s
  4. D) greenstick
  5. E) Colles

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

108) A ________ fracture is produced by twisting stresses applied to the bone.

  1. A) comminuted
  2. B) displaced
  3. C) spiral
  4. D) nondisplaced
  5. E) transverse

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

109) A transverse fracture of the wrist that may be comminuted is called a ________ fracture.

  1. A) Colles
  2. B) Pott’s
  3. C) simple
  4. D) greenstick
  5. E) transverse

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

110) The fracture of vertebrae subjected to extreme vertical stress is called a ________ fracture.

  1. A) transverse
  2. B) spiral
  3. C) compression
  4. D) compound
  5. E) Pott’s

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

111) A ________ fracture produces shattered bone fragments.

  1. A) comminuted
  2. B) compression
  3. C) greenstick
  4. D) transverse
  5. E) displaced

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

112) Describe the axial and appendicular divisions of the skeleton. (Module 6.1A)

  1. A) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull. The appendicular skeleton consists of the remaining bones of the skeleton.
  2. B) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull and vertebral column. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the thorax, limbs, pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle.
  3. C) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thorax. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle.
  4. D) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, vertebral column, thorax, and pectoral girdle. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, and pelvic girdle.
  5. E) The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, vertebral column, thorax, pectoral and pelvic girdles. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

113) Identify the six broad categories for classifying a bone according to shape. (Module 6.2A)

  1. A) compact, lamellar, osteon, spongy, trabeculae, cancellous
  2. B) flat, sutural, long, irregular, sesamoid, short
  3. C) spine, line, fossa, crest, facet, ramus
  4. D) flat, thick, wide, long, triangular, round
  5. E) round, thick, square, triangular, trapezoid, skinny

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

114) List the major parts of a long bone. (Module 6.3A)

  1. A) epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, and medullary cavity
  2. B) compact bone, spongy bone, osteon, and periosteum
  3. C) periosteum, endosteum, red bone marrow, and yellow bone marrow
  4. D) articular cartilage, synovial cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  5. E) superficial osteons, deep osteons, concentric lamella, interstitial lamella

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

115) Describe the function of the medullary cavity. (Module 6.3B)

  1. A) The medullary cavity contains compact bone lamella oriented for strength.
  2. B) The medullary cavity contains spongy bone oriented along lines of stress.
  3. C) The medullary cavity is a fibrous membrane containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and sensory nerves.
  4. D) The medullary cavity contains cartilage that allows long bones to get longer.
  5. E) The medullary cavity contains the red bone marrow and the yellow bone marrow.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

116) Where is articular cartilage found, and how is it nourished? (Module 6.3C)

  1. A) Articular cartilage is found in the medullary cavity and is nourished by the nutrient artery.
  2. B) Articular cartilage is found down the length of the diaphysis and is nourished by the nutrient artery.
  3. C) Articular cartilage is found at both metaphyses and is nourished by the metaphyseal artery.
  4. D) Articular cartilage is found covering both epiphyseal portions of articulating bone and nutrients diffuse from synovial fluid within the joint.
  5. E) Articular cartilage is found in the medullary cavity and is nourished by the rich vascular red bone marrow.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

117) Describe the functions of osteogenic cells and osteoblasts. (Module 6.4A)

  1. A) Osteogenic cells are stem cells that form osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that secrete the organic components of bone matrix.
  2. B) Osteogenic cells are immature bone cells that secrete the organic components of bone matrix. Osteoblasts are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix.
  3. C) Osteogenic cells are stem cells that form osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are cells that remove bone matrix.
  4. D) Osteogenic cells are cells that remove bone matrix. Osteoblasts are immature bone cells that secrete the organic components of bone matrix.
  5. E) Osteogenic cells are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix. Osteoblasts are cells that remove the bone matrix.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

118) Describe the functions of osteocytes. (Module 6.4B)

  1. A) Osteocytes are stem cells that form osteoblasts.
  2. B) Osteocytes are immature bone cells that secrete the organic components of bone matrix.
  3. C) Osteocytes are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix.
  4. D) Osteocytes are cells that remove the bone matrix.
  5. E) Osteocytes are cells that form cartilage.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

119) How would the compressive strength of a bone be affected if the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite increased? (Module 6.4C)

  1. A) The compressive strength would decrease and the bone would become more flexible.
  2. B) The compressive strength would decrease and the bone would become less flexible.
  3. C) The compressive strength would increase and the bone would become more flexible.
  4. D) The compressive strength would increase and the bone would become less flexible.
  5. E) The compressive strength would not change but the bone would become more flexible.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

120) If osteoclast activity exceeds osteoblast activity in a bone, how will bone mass be affected? (Module 6.4D)

  1. A) The bone mineral content will increase and thus bone mass will increase.
  2. B) The bone mineral content will increase and thus bone mass will decrease.
  3. C) The bone mineral content will decrease and thus bone mass will decrease.
  4. D) The bone mineral content will decrease and thus bone mass will increase.
  5. E) The bone mineral content will decrease but bone mass will not change.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

121) Define osteon. (Module 6.5A)

  1. A) An osteon is the functional unit of spongy bone.
  2. B) An osteon is the functional unit of compact bone.
  3. C) An osteon is the structural unit of spongy bone.
  4. D) An osteon is functional unit of trabecular bone.
  5. E) An osteon is the nest that an osteocyte occupies.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

122) A sample of bone has lamellae that are not arranged in osteons. Is the sample more likely from the epiphysis or from the diaphysis? (Module 6.5C)

  1. A) epiphysis
  2. B) diaphysis

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

123) Define appositional growth. (Module 6.6A)

  1. A) Appositional growth is a decrease in bone diameter due to the addition of bone matrix at the endosteum of the medullary cavity.
  2. B) Appositional growth is a decrease in bone diameter due to the pulling of the epiphyses by muscles during physical activity.
  3. C) Appositional growth is an increase in bone diameter due to the pulling of the epiphyses by muscles during physical activity.
  4. D) Appositional growth is a decrease in bone diameter due to the addition of bone matrix at the bone’s outer surface.
  5. E) Appositional growth is an increase in bone diameter due to the addition of bone matrix at the bone’s outer surface.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

124) As a bone increases in diameter, what happens to the medullary cavity? (Module 6.6B)

  1. A) The medullary cavity increases in diameter because bone matrix is removed by osteoblasts.
  2. B) The medullary cavity increases in diameter because bone matrix is removed by osteoclasts.
  3. C) The medullary cavity decreases in diameter because bone matrix is added by osteoclasts.
  4. D) The medullary cavity decreases in diameter because bone matrix is added by osteoblasts.
  5. E) The medullary cavity diameter does not change but fills in with more bone marrow.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

125) Define endochondral ossification. (Module 6.7A)

  1. A) Endochondral ossification is the formation of hyaline cartilage.
  2. B) Endochondral ossification is the formation of elastic cartilage.
  3. C) Endochondral ossification is the formation of fibrocartilage.
  4. D) Endochondral ossification is the replacement of a cartilage model with bone.
  5. E) Endochondral ossification is bone formation within connective tissue without the prior development of a cartilage model.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

126) In endochondral ossification, what is the original source of osteoblasts? (Module 6.7B)

  1. A) The hyaline chondrocytes become osteoblasts.
  2. B) The differentiation of cells in the inner layer of the perichondrium.
  3. C) The differentiation of cells in the endochondrium.
  4. D) The differentiation of cells in the synovial cavity.
  5. E) The fibroblasts become osteoblasts.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

127) Define intramembranous ossification. (Module 6.8A)

  1. A) Intramembranous ossification is the formation of hyaline cartilage from mesenchymal cells.
  2. B) Intramembranous ossification is the formation of elastic cartilage from mesenchymal cells.
  3. C) Intramembranous ossification is the formation of fibrocartilage from mesenchymal cells.
  4. D) Intramembranous ossification is the replacement of a cartilage model with bone.
  5. E) Intramembranous ossification is bone formation within connective tissue without the prior development of a cartilage model.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

128) During intramembranous ossification, bone replaces which type of tissue? (Module 6.8B)

  1. A) hyaline cartilage
  2. B) elastic cartilage
  3. C) fibrocartilage
  4. D) embryonic, or fibrous connective tissue
  5. E) skeletal muscle

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

129) Explain the primary difference between endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification. (Module 6.8C)

  1. A) The primary difference is that in endochondral ossification, bone develops from a cartilage model, whereas in intramembranous ossification, bone develops from mesenchymal cells.
  2. B) The primary difference is that in endochondral ossification, bone develops from mesenchymal cells, whereas in intramembranous ossification, bone develops from a cartilage model.
  3. C) The primary difference is that in endochondral ossification, bone develops fast, whereas in intramembranous ossification, bone develops slowly.
  4. D) The primary difference is that in endochondral ossification, bone develops slowly, whereas in intramembranous ossification, bone develops fast.
  5. E) The primary difference is that endochondral ossification is embryonic bone development, whereas intramembranous ossification is post-natal bone growth.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

130) Why is pituitary growth failure less common today in the United States? (Module 6.9A)

  1. A) Because children have smaller pituitary glands which function more effectively at producing growth hormone.
  2. B) Because children have larger pituitary glands which function more effectively at producing growth hormone.
  3. C) Because children have better diets and are more nourished allowing greater growth hormone production.
  4. D) Because children can be treated with synthetic human growth hormone if they are deficient.
  5. E) Because children can receive a pituitary gland transplant if they are deficient in growth hormone.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

131) Compare gigantism with acromegaly. (Module 6.9C)

  1. A) Gigantism results from an overproduction of growth hormone before puberty, whereas acromegaly results from an overproduction of growth hormone after puberty.
  2. B) Gigantism results from an overproduction of growth hormone after puberty, whereas acromegaly results from an overproduction of growth hormone before puberty.
  3. C) Gigantism results from an overproduction of growth hormone during fetal bone development, whereas acromegaly results from an overproduction of growth hormone during childhood but before puberty.
  4. D) Gigantism results from an overproduction of growth hormone before puberty, whereas acromegaly results from an underproduction of growth hormone before puberty.
  5. E) Gigantism results from an overproduction of growth hormone before puberty, whereas acromegaly results from an underproduction of growth hormone after puberty.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

132) What is the ratio of organic compounds to inorganic components in the composition of bone? (Module 6.10A)

  1. A) Organic compounds make up 25%; inorganic components make up 75%.
  2. B) Organic compounds make up 75%; inorganic components make up 25%.
  3. C) Organic compounds make up 33%; inorganic components make up 67%.
  4. D) Organic compounds make up 67%; inorganic components make up 33%.
  5. E) Organic compounds make up 18%; inorganic components make up 82%.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  6.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

133) Which three organ systems coordinate to maintain normal blood calcium level?

(Module 6.10B)

  1. A) skeletal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system
  2. B) cardiovascular system, respiratory system, lymphatic system
  3. C) skeletal system, muscular system, integumentary system
  4. D) skeletal system, digestive system, urinary system
  5. E) cardiovascular system, urinary system, respiratory system

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

134) Identify the hormone that stimulates the release of calcium ions from bone matrix. Explain its mechanism of action. (Module 6.11A)

  1. A) parathyroid hormone; increases osteoblast break down of bone matrix
  2. B) parathyroid hormone; increases osteoclast break down of bone matrix
  3. C) calcitonin; increases osteoblast break down of bone matrix
  4. D) calcitonin; increases osteoclast break down of bone matrix
  5. E) cholecalciferol; increases osteoblast break down of bone matrix

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

135) How does calcitonin act to lower blood calcium? (Module 6.11C)

  1. A) Increases osteoblast break down of bone matrix, increases calcitriol production, increases intestinal absorption, and decreases renal excretion
  2. B) Increases osteoclast break down of bone matrix, decreases calcitriol production, increases intestinal absorption, and decreases renal excretion
  3. C) Decreases osteoblast break down of bone matrix, increases calcitriol production, increases intestinal absorption, and decreases renal excretion
  4. D) Decreases osteoclast break down of bone matrix, decreases calcitriol production, decreases intestinal absorption, and increases renal excretion
  5. E) Increases endochondral ossification

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

136) List the steps involved in fracture repair, beginning just after the fracture occurs.

(Module 6.12A)

  1. A) compact bone formation, spongy bone formation, callus formation, fracture hematoma formation
  2. B) fracture hematoma formation, spongy bone formation, callus formation, compact bone formation
  3. C) callus formation, fracture hematoma formation, compact bone formation, spongy bone formation
  4. D) callus formation, spongy bone formation, fracture hematoma formation, compact bone formation
  5. E) fracture hematoma formation, callus formation, spongy bone formation, compact bone formation

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

137) Define open fracture and closed fracture. (Module 6.12B)

  1. A) An open fracture is one where the bone pierces the skin; a closed fracture is one where no bone pierces the skin.
  2. B) An open fracture is one where no bone pierces the skin; a closed fracture is one where bone pierces the skin.
  3. C) An open fracture is one where the bone remains in alignment; a closed fracture is one where the bone is no longer in alignment.
  4. D) An open fracture is one where the bone is no longer in alignment; a closed fracture is one where the bone remains in alignment.
  5. E) An open fracture is one where the break is along the long axis of the bone; a closed fracture is one where the break is not along the long axis of the bone.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  6.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

Essay Questions

 

138) What is the difference between ossification and calcification?

Answer:  Ossification means specifically the conversion of connective tissue into bone tissue. Calcification means the depositing of calcium salts in any tissue, including bone.

Learning Outcome:  6.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

139) During the growth of a long bone, how is the epiphysis forced farther from the shaft?

Answer:  The chondrocytes near the center of the shaft increase greatly in size. The matrix is reduced to a series of small struts that soon begin to calcify. The enlarged chondrocytes then die and disintegrate, leaving cavities within the cartilage. Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and fibroblasts migrating with the blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts and begin producing spongy bone at a primary ossification center. Bone formation then spreads along the shaft toward both ends. On the shaft, the chondrocytes become ossified, “chasing” the expanding epiphyseal cartilage away from the shaft.

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

140) Would you expect to see changes in blood levels of the hormones calcitonin and PTH as a result of vitamin D3 deficiency? Explain.

Answer:  A person deficient in vitamin D3 would not be able to absorb calcium effectively from the digestive tract, leading to a shortage of calcium in the blood. To maintain homeostasis, the decrease in blood calcium would trigger the release of PTH. The PTH, in turn, would stimulate osteoclasts to release enough calcium from the bone to maintain proper calcium levels in the blood. Levels of calcitonin would decrease, because release of this hormone is triggered by high blood calcium levels.

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

141) Identify the functions of the skeleton. (Module 6.1B)

Answer:  The skeletal system supports the body, stores minerals and lipids, produces blood cells, protects delicate organs and tissues, and functions as levers for movement.

Learning Outcome:  6.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

142) Define bone markings. (Module 6.2B)

Answer:  Bone markings (surface features) are characteristics of a bone’s surface that have certain functions, such as forming a joint; serving as a site for muscle, tendon, or ligament attachment; or allowing the passage of nerves and blood vessels.

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

143) List the different terms used to describe projections. (Module 6.2C)

Answer:  Various terms for projections include process, ramus, head, tubercle, tuberosity, trochanter, crest, line, and spine.

Learning Outcome:  6.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

144) Why are bone injuries usually painful? (Module 6.3D)

Answer:  Bone injuries are usually painful because of the extensive presence of sensory nerves within the periosteum, diaphysis, medullary cavity, and epiphyses.

Learning Outcome:  6.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

145) Compare compact bone and spongy bone. (Module 6.5B)

Answer:  Compact bone, which lies over spongy bone and makes up most of a bone’s diaphysis, consists of compactly arranged osteons (Haversian systems); it protects, supports, and resists stress. Spongy bone makes up most of the volume of short, flat, and irregular bones and is also found at the epiphyses of long bones; it stores marrow and provides some support.

Learning Outcome:  6.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

146) Distinguish between the periosteum and the endosteum. (Module 6.6C)

Answer:  The periosteum is the superficial layer that surrounds a bone. It consists of an outer fibrous layer and an inner cellular layer. The endosteum is an incomplete cellular lining on the inner (medullary) surfaces of bones.

Learning Outcome:  6.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

147) How could x-rays of the femur be used to determine whether a person has reached full height? (Module 6.7C)

Answer:  X-rays of long bones, such as the femur, can reveal the presence or absence of the epiphyseal cartilage, which separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis so long as the bone is still lengthening. If the epiphyseal cartilage is present, growth is still occurring; if it is not present, the bone has reached its full length, and thus the person has reached his or her full height.

Learning Outcome:  6.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

148) Describe Marfan syndrome. (Module 6.9B)

Answer:  Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disorder of connective tissue that results in abnormally long and thin limbs and digits. The condition usually causes life-threatening cardiovascular problems.

Learning Outcome:  6.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

149) What physical signs would be expected in a person whose blood calcium was abnormally low? (Module 6.10C)

Answer:  If a person’s blood calcium were abnormally low, neuron and muscle cell functions would be disrupted. Skeletal muscles might not function properly, so the person’s movement would be altered. Cardiac muscle could also be affected, so heart rate is likely to be irregular.

Learning Outcome:  6.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

150) Describe the kidney and intestinal responses to PTH. (Module 6.11B)

Answer:  PTH stimulates an increase in the production of the hormone calcitriol by the kidneys. The additional calcitriol stimulates calcium reabsorption by the kidneys. PTH and calcitriol enhance the absorption of calcium ions by the intestines.

Learning Outcome:  6.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

Visual Anatomy and Physiology, 3e (Martini)

Chapter 7   The Skeleton

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following is not part of the axial division of the skeletal system?

  1. A) skull
  2. B) auditory ossicles
  3. C) hyoid bone
  4. D) pectoral girdle
  5. E) vertebral column

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

2) Which of the following is not a function of the axial skeleton?

  1. A) provides an attachment for muscles that move the axial skeleton
  2. B) provides an attachment for muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk
  3. C) provides an attachment for muscles involved in respiration
  4. D) provides an attachment for calf muscles
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

3) How many bones make up the axial skeleton?

  1. A) 50
  2. B) 60
  3. C) 70
  4. D) 80
  5. E) 90

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

4) The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the ________ suture.

  1. A) lambdoid
  2. B) calvarial
  3. C) coronal
  4. D) squamous
  5. E) sagittal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

5) The cranium (or braincase) is formed by the ________ bones.

  1. A) frontal, temporal, and maxillary
  2. B) frontal, parietal, and zygomatic
  3. C) temporal, parietal, and mandible
  4. D) frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

6) The suture that forms the articulation of the two parietal bones is the ________ suture.

  1. A) lambdoid
  2. B) calvarial
  3. C) coronal
  4. D) squamous
  5. E) sagittal

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

7) The skull contains ________ bones.

  1. A) 32
  2. B) 22
  3. C) 42
  4. D) 12
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

8) Sutures can be found at all of the joints of an adult skull, except between

  1. A) the mandible and the temporal bone.
  2. B) the zygomatic bone and the maxillary bone.
  3. C) the occipital bone and the parietal bone.
  4. D) the vomer and the zygomatic bone.
  5. E) None of these; they are all sutures.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

9) At a suture, bones are tied firmly together with

  1. A) neural tissue.
  2. B) muscle tissue.
  3. C) loose fibrous connective tissue.
  4. D) dense fibrous connective tissue.
  5. E) epithelial tissue.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

10) While playing softball, Gina is struck in the superior medial portion of her left zygomatic bone by a wild pitch. Which of the following complaints would you expect her to have?

  1. A) a broken jaw
  2. B) a black eye
  3. C) a headache at the back of the head
  4. D) a sore chest
  5. E) a sore back

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

11) The bony compartment that houses the brain is called the

  1. A) suture.
  2. B) skull.
  3. C) frontal bone.
  4. D) cranium.
  5. E) occiput.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

12) The parietal bones and occipital bone articulate at the ________ suture.

  1. A) coronal
  2. B) lambdoid
  3. C) squamous
  4. D) sagittal
  5. E) frontal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

13) The frontal and parietal bones articulate at the ________ suture.

  1. A) coronal
  2. B) lambdoid
  3. C) squamous
  4. D) sagittal
  5. E) frontal

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

14) The small bones that form the medial wall of the eye socket are the

  1. A) ethmoid bones.
  2. B) lacrimal bones.
  3. C) lacerum bones.
  4. D) nasal bones.
  5. E) zygomatic bones.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

15) Which of these is not one of the bones of the face?

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) maxilla
  3. C) vomer
  4. D) mandible
  5. E) zygomatic

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

16) The inferior nasal conchae

  1. A) attach muscles that move the eye.
  2. B) contain the nerves for olfaction.
  3. C) create turbulence in the nasal passageways.
  4. D) protect the pituitary gland.
  5. E) attach muscles that move the eyelids.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

17) Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the

  1. A) styloid process.
  2. B) mastoid process.
  3. C) articular tubercle.
  4. D) coronoid process.
  5. E) middle nasal conchae.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

18) A point of attachment for muscles that rotate or extend the head is the

  1. A) styloid process.
  2. B) mastoid process.
  3. C) articular tubercle.
  4. D) coronoid process.
  5. E) middle nasal conchae.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

19) Of the following bones, which is unpaired?

  1. A) vomer
  2. B) maxillary
  3. C) palatine
  4. D) nasal
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

20) Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?

  1. A) ethmoid bone
  2. B) sphenoid bone
  3. C) temporal bone
  4. D) mandible
  5. E) parietal bone

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

 

21) The inferior portion of the nasal septum is formed by the

  1. A) vomer.
  2. B) mandible.
  3. C) maxilla.
  4. D) lacrimal bone.
  5. E) frontal bone.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

22) The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones?

  1. A) temporal and maxilla
  2. B) frontal and temporal
  3. C) sphenoid and temporal
  4. D) zygomatic and maxilla
  5. E) temporal and zygomatic

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

23) The external acoustic meatus is a foramen in which skull bone?

  1. A) zygomatic
  2. B) vomer
  3. C) temporal
  4. D) parietal
  5. E) occipital

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

24) The alveolar process of the maxilla

  1. A) supports the upper teeth.
  2. B) supports the lower teeth.
  3. C) anchors the tongue.
  4. D) is the attachment site for several facial muscles
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

25) The prominent bulge just posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus is the

  1. A) mastoid process.
  2. B) styloid process.
  3. C) occipital condyle.
  4. D) condyloid process.
  5. E) temporal process.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

26) The superior and inferior temporal lines mark the points of attachment for

  1. A) muscles that stabilize the skull at the vertebral column.
  2. B) muscles that open and close the eye.
  3. C) muscles that close the mouth.
  4. D) muscles that turn the head.
  5. E) both muscles that stabilize the skull at the vertebral column and muscles that turn the head.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

27) The styloid process, zygomatic process, and auditory ossicles are associated with the

  1. A) parietal bone.
  2. B) occipital bone.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) temporal bone.
  5. E) ulna.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

28) The bony roof of the mouth is formed by the ________ bone(s).

  1. A) palatine
  2. B) vomer
  3. C) maxillary
  4. D) sphenoid
  5. E) palatine and maxillary

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

29) The zygomatic bone articulates with the ________ bone to form the zygomatic arch.

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) occipital
  3. C) nasal
  4. D) temporal
  5. E) parietal

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

30) An alternative term for the forehead is

  1. A) cornu.
  2. B) calvaria.
  3. C) braincase.
  4. D) temporal squama.
  5. E) frons.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

31) Each of the following landmarks is associated with the occipital bone, except the

  1. A) superior nuchal lines.
  2. B) lambdoid suture.
  3. C) hypoglossal canals.
  4. D) crista galli.
  5. E) external occipital crest.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

32) The lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone at the

  1. A) mandibular fossa.
  2. B) mastoid process.
  3. C) coronoid process.
  4. D) lateral palatine process.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

33) Each of the following is associated with the temporal bone, except the

  1. A) mastoid process.
  2. B) petrous portion.
  3. C) sella turcica.
  4. D) internal acoustic meatus.
  5. E) mandibular fossa.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

34) Identify the opening surrounded by the occipital bone.

  1. A) foramen rotundum
  2. B) foramen magnum
  3. C) foramen ovale
  4. D) foramen spinosum
  5. E) foramen lacerum

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

35) Ridges that anchor muscles that stabilize the head are the

  1. A) anterior and posterior nuchal lines.
  2. B) anterior and superior nuchal lines.
  3. C) inferior and superior nuchal lines.
  4. D) medial and lateral nuchal lines.
  5. E) cranial and caudal nuchal lines.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

36) The ________ passes through the ________.

  1. A) vagus nerve; foramen magnum
  2. B) trigeminal nerve; foramen lacerum
  3. C) acoustic nerve; external acoustic meatus
  4. D) internal jugular vein; jugular foramen
  5. E) internal carotid artery; jugular foramen

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

37) The foramen magnum is found in the ________ bone.

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) parietal
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) occipital
  5. E) temporal

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

Figure 7-1

 

38) Identify the sphenoid bone.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

39) Identify the internal occipital crest.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

40) What is the name of the structure labeled “8”?

  1. A) sella turcica
  2. B) foramen ovale
  3. C) foramen rotundum
  4. D) carotid canal
  5. E) foramen spinosum

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

41) Which structure has foramina for the olfactory nerves?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

42) Which structure encloses the pituitary gland?

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 7
  5. E) 8

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

43) The occipital ________ are where the occipital bone articulates with the first cervical vertebra.

  1. A) processes
  2. B) condyles
  3. C) foramina
  4. D) nuchal lines
  5. E) canals

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

44) The hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica contains the ________ gland.

  1. A) lacrimal
  2. B) pituitary
  3. C) olfactory
  4. D) nasal
  5. E) sellar

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

45) Each of the following structures is associated with the sphenoid bone except the

  1. A) foramen ovale.
  2. B) optic canals.
  3. C) pterygoid processes.
  4. D) sella turcica.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

46) A membrane that stabilizes the position of the brain is attached to the

  1. A) crista galli.
  2. B) pterygoid processes.
  3. C) styloid process.
  4. D) perpendicular plate.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

47) A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the

  1. A) maxilla.
  2. B) crista galli.
  3. C) sphenoid.
  4. D) ethmoid.
  5. E) cribriform.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

48) The stabilizing falx cerebri membrane attaches to which structure?

  1. A) pterygoid plates
  2. B) sella turcica
  3. C) orbital process
  4. D) crista galli
  5. E) middle nasal conchae

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

49) The “Turkish saddle” is a feature of which bone?

  1. A) sphenoid
  2. B) ethmoid
  3. C) palatine
  4. D) mandible
  5. E) hyoid

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

50) The nasal complex consists of all of the following bones except the ________ bone.

  1. A) zygomatic
  2. B) ethmoid
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) frontal
  5. E) maxillary

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

51) Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex except the ________ bone.

  1. A) lacrimal
  2. B) nasal
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) ethmoid
  5. E) frontal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

52) What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa?

  1. A) the pituitary gland
  2. B) the inner ear
  3. C) tear gland
  4. D) the lacrimal ramus
  5. E) the frontal sinus

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

53) The paranasal sinuses are located in all of the following bones except the

  1. A) frontal bone.
  2. B) ethmoid bone.
  3. C) sphenoid bone.
  4. D) maxillae.
  5. E) vomer.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

54) Which of the following statements about the functions of the paranasal sinuses is false?

  1. A) They provide an extensive area of mucous epithelium.
  2. B) They make skull bones lighter.
  3. C) The mucus they secrete enters the nasal cavities.
  4. D) They support cilia that move the mucus.
  5. E) They create a protected space for blood vessels and nerves.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

55) The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the

  1. A) nasal bones.
  2. B) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the palatine bones
  3. C) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer bone.
  4. D) vomer and sphenoid bone.
  5. E) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the sphenoid bone.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

56) Which of the following is true of the orbital complex?

  1. A) Nasolacrimal canal is formed by maxillae and ethmoid bone.
  2. B) Lacrimal fossa carry mucus from one sinus to another sinus.
  3. C) Infra-orbital foramen are formed by maxillae.
  4. D) Lacrimal sulcus allows passage of the optic nerve out of the orbit.
  5. E) Supra-orbital notch carries tears from the nasal cavity to the orbit.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

57) The nasal complex includes the bones that enclose the nasal cavity and the ________ sinuses.

  1. A) frontal
  2. B) sphenoid
  3. C) paranasal
  4. D) palatine
  5. E) maxillary

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

58) What process is the insertion site for the temporalis muscle?

  1. A) ramus of the mandible
  2. B) condylar process
  3. C) coronoid process
  4. D) mastoid process
  5. E) styloid process

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

59) A nerve that carries sensory information from the teeth and gums of the lower jaw passes through the

  1. A) ramus of the mandible.
  2. B) condylar process.
  3. C) mental foramen.
  4. D) mandibular foramen.
  5. E) maxillary foramen.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

60) The hyoid bone

  1. A) attaches to tongue muscles.
  2. B) contains greater and lesser condyles.
  3. C) is inferior to the larynx.
  4. D) is one of the auditory ossicles.
  5. E) directly articulate with the mandible.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

61) The hyoid bone is suspended by

  1. A) other bones.
  2. B) adipose tissue.
  3. C) tendons.
  4. D) ligaments.
  5. E) muscles.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

62) You witness your friend Greg in a fist-fight. He is hit in the jaw and when you look at him, his face appears misaligned. You drive him to the emergency department and are not surprised to learn that he has a broken

  1. A) temporal bone.
  2. B) zygomatic bone.
  3. C) mandible.
  4. D) external auditory meatus.
  5. E) clavicle.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

 

 

63) As the result of an accident, Bill suffers a dislocated jaw. This injury would involve the

  1. A) stylohyoid ligaments.
  2. B) hyoid bone.
  3. C) condylar process of the mandible.
  4. D) alveolar process of the mandible.
  5. E) greater cornu of the hyoid bone.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

64) Which of these is one of the auditory ossicles?

  1. A) malleus
  2. B) incus
  3. C) stapes
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

65) Each of the following statements concerning the development of the skull is true, except that

  1. A) the bones of the skull develop from a single ossification focus.
  2. B) at birth the cranial bones are connected by areas of fibrous connective tissue.
  3. C) the growth of the cranium is usually coordinated with the growth of the brain.
  4. D) the skulls of infants and adults differ in shape and structure of the skeletal elements.
  5. E) the most significant growth of the skull occurs before the age of 5.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

66) The anterior fontanel is

  1. A) posterior to the parietal bones.
  2. B) anterior to the frontal bone.
  3. C) connected to the posterior fontanel by the coronal suture.
  4. D) posterior to the frontal bone and anterior to the parietal bones.
  5. E) anterior and inferior to the frontal bone.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

67) The brain stops enlarging and the cranial sutures ossify by age

  1. A) 3.
  2. B) 2.
  3. C) 5.
  4. D) 1.
  5. E) 4.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

68) While visiting your friend who recently gave birth, she comments on her infant’s soft spot. You think to yourself that the correct term for the “soft spot” located at the intersection of the frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures is the

  1. A) sphenoidal fontanel.
  2. B) anterior fontanel.
  3. C) occipital fontanel.
  4. D) mastoid fontanel.
  5. E) cushion spot.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

69) While volunteering in an outpatient clinic for underprivileged families in your neighborhood, you observe the nurse assessing an infant. The mother had complained about the baby not eating and having several episodes of diarrhea lasting three days. You know the nurse suspects possible dehydration when she

  1. A) checks the anterior fontanel for depression.
  2. B) points out the dryness of the infant’s diaper.
  3. C) checks the infant’s reflexes.
  4. D) questions the mother about normal feeding habits.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyzing

70) ________ are non-ossified fibrous attachments between cranial bones.

  1. A) Cribriform plates
  2. B) Sella turcicae
  3. C) Zygomatic processes
  4. D) Fontanelles
  5. E) Sutures

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

71) ________ curves of the spine develop late in fetal development.

  1. A) Primary
  2. B) Secondary
  3. C) Compensation
  4. D) Accommodation
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

72) The part of the vertebrae that transfers weight along the axis of the vertebral column is the

  1. A) vertebral arch.
  2. B) vertebral body.
  3. C) articular processes.
  4. D) intervertebral space.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

73) The four curves of the adult spinal column are not all present at birth. Which of the following are the secondary curves, those that do not appear until several months later?

  1. A) cervical and lumbar
  2. B) thoracic and lumbar
  3. C) sacral and lumbar
  4. D) thoracic and sacral
  5. E) cervical and sacral

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

74) The four spinal curves include all but which of the following?

  1. A) thoracic
  2. B) cervical
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) axial
  5. E) sacral

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

75) The vertebral arch

  1. A) supports the articular, spinous, and transverse processes.
  2. B) is formed by the two pedicles.
  3. C) is formed by the two laminae.
  4. D) is separated by the vertebral disks.
  5. E) is also called the vertebral foramina.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

76) The primary spinal curves

  1. A) include the cervical and lumbar curves.
  2. B) include the thoracic and sacral curves.
  3. C) include all four spinal curves.
  4. D) include the cervical and thoracic curves.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

77) The widest intervertebral discs are found in the ________ region.

  1. A) cervical
  2. B) thoracic
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) sacral
  5. E) coccygeal

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

Figure 7-2

 

78) Identify the structure labeled “7.”

  1. A) transverse process
  2. B) lamina
  3. C) pedicle
  4. D) vertebral body
  5. E) spinous process

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

79) Which structure contacts the intervertebral disc?

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 6

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

80) Identify the structure labeled “1.”

  1. A) pedicle
  2. B) transverse process
  3. C) lamina
  4. D) spinous process
  5. E) transverse articular facet

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

81) Identify the structure labeled “2.”

  1. A) transverse process
  2. B) superior articular process
  3. C) pedicle
  4. D) inferior articular process
  5. E) lamina

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

82) The five vertebral regions are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and

  1. A) dorsal.
  2. B) ventral.
  3. C) coccygeal.
  4. D) axial.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

83) As you proceed from the head down the vertebral column,

  1. A) the vertebrae become smaller and lighter.
  2. B) vertebral bodies become absent.
  3. C) the transverse foramina become more evident.
  4. D) the vertebrae become larger and heavier.
  5. E) more odontoid processes become evident.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

Figure 7-2

 

84) Where is the spinal cord located?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 6
  5. E) 7

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

85) The odontoid process, also called the dens, is found on the

  1. A) atlas.
  2. B) axis.
  3. C) sacrum.
  4. D) coccyx.
  5. E) ribs.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

86) The vertebra prominens is another name for the ________ vertebra.

  1. A) first cervical
  2. B) second cervical
  3. C) seventh cervical
  4. D) first thoracic
  5. E) fifth lumbar

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

87) The ribs articulate with the

  1. A) cervical vertebrae.
  2. B) thoracic vertebrae.
  3. C) lumbar vertebrae.
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

88) The vertebral column contains ________ thoracic vertebrae.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 31

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

89) Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of

  1. A) transverse processes.
  2. B) transverse foramina.
  3. C) facets for the articulation of ribs.
  4. D) notched spinous processes.
  5. E) costal cartilages.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

90) Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of thoracic vertebrae?

  1. A) heart-shaped bodies
  2. B) long spinous processes
  3. C) contain costals facets
  4. D) have transverse processes
  5. E) form vertebra prominens

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

91) Gesturing “no” with the head does not depends on which of the following?

  1. A) atlas
  2. B) axis
  3. C) vertebra prominens
  4. D) transverse ligament
  5. E) odontoid process

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

92) Normal human skeletons contain ________ cervical vertebrae.

  1. A) 11
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 19
  5. E) 10

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

93) The ligamentum nuchae

  1. A) attaches the ribs to the thoracic vertebrae.
  2. B) helps to hold the head in an upright position.
  3. C) attaches the atlas to the occipital bone of the skull.
  4. D) attaches the sternum to the ribs.
  5. E) stabilizes the lumbar vertebrae.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

94) The first cervical vertebra is better known as the

  1. A) axis.
  2. B) atlas.
  3. C) axiom.
  4. D) vertebra prominens.
  5. E) odontoid process.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

95) The second cervical vertebra is usually called the

  1. A) axis.
  2. B) atlas.
  3. C) axiom.
  4. D) vertebra prominens.
  5. E) odontoid process.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

96) The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 31

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

97) Lumbar vertebrae are ________ massive and ________ mobile.

  1. A) least; most
  2. B) most; most
  3. C) least; least
  4. D) not; excessively
  5. E) most; least

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

98) All of the following are true of lumbar vertebrae except that

  1. A) the superior articular processes face medially.
  2. B) they lack costal facets.
  3. C) the transverse process is slender and projects dorsolaterally.
  4. D) the vertebral foramen is triangular.
  5. E) the vertebral bodies are delicate.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

99) The sacrum is a single bone consisting of the fused components of ________ sacral vertebrae.

  1. A) 1-3; it can vary
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 4-6; it can vary

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

100) All of the following are true of the sacrum except that it

  1. A) provides protection for reproductive, digestive, and excretory organs.
  2. B) provides a point of attachment for leg muscles.
  3. C) articulates with the pelvic girdle.
  4. D) articulates with the second and third lumbar vertebrae.
  5. E) articulates with the coccyx.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

101) Which of the following statements about the coccyx is true?

  1. A) It is the most caudal vertebral region.
  2. B) It articulates with the sacrum.
  3. C) It consists of 3-5 vertebrae.
  4. D) Fusion is delayed until mid-20s.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

102) The sacrum does not protect organs in the ________ system.

  1. A) reproductive
  2. B) digestive
  3. C) urinary
  4. D) nervous
  5. E) respiratory

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

103) The ribs articulate with the ________ of the vertebrae.

  1. A) spinous processes
  2. B) transverse processes
  3. C) laminae
  4. D) pedicles
  5. E) auric arches

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

104) Humans normally have ________ pairs of ribs.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 10
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 24

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

105) The costal groove

  1. A) is located on the exterior surface.
  2. B) is located on the interior surface.
  3. C) marks the path of blood vessels.
  4. D) is located on the exterior surface and marks the path of blood vessels.
  5. E) is located on the interior surface and marks the path of blood vessels.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

106) The part of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles is the

  1. A) manubrium.
  2. B) body.
  3. C) xiphoid process.
  4. D) angle.
  5. E) tubercle.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

107) The floating ribs are

  1. A) ribs 11-12.
  2. B) also called vertebrosternal ribs.
  3. C) ribs 1-7.
  4. D) ribs 11-12 and also called vertebral ribs.
  5. E) also called vertebrosternal ribs and ribs 1-7.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

108) The shallow indentation on the superior surface of the manubrium is called the

  1. A) xiphoid process.
  2. B) jugular notch.
  3. C) tubercle.
  4. D) costal facet.
  5. E) capitulum.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

109) Which bone(s) include(s) a manubrium?

  1. A) scapula
  2. B) clavicle
  3. C) sternum
  4. D) cervical vertebrae #1 and #2
  5. E) all the vertebrae

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

110) The sternum contains

  1. A) the manubrium.
  2. B) the jugular notch.
  3. C) the body.
  4. D) the xiphoid process.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

111) While performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on an unconscious person, you are careful to position your hands correctly to avoid damage to the

  1. A) ribs.
  2. B) scapula.
  3. C) xiphoid process.
  4. D) sacrum.
  5. E) ribs and xiphoid process.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

112) Vertebrosternal ribs are directly connected to the sternum by

  1. A) tubercles.
  2. B) costal facets.
  3. C) xiphoid processes.
  4. D) costal cartilages.
  5. E) the manubrium.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

113) Ribs that have no connection to the sternum are called

  1. A) pectoral ribs.
  2. B) true ribs.
  3. C) orphan ribs.
  4. D) non-articulators.
  5. E) floating ribs.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

114) Ribs 8 to 10 are called ________ because they do not attach directly to the sternum.

  1. A) hemi-attaching ribs
  2. B) vertebrosternal ribs
  3. C) vertebrochondral ribs
  4. D) vertebral ribs
  5. E) floating ribs

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

115) Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton?

  1. A) scapula
  2. B) tibia
  3. C) sacrum
  4. D) clavicle
  5. E) metacarpals

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

116) Which of the following is not a component of the appendicular skeleton?

  1. A) scapula
  2. B) metatarsals
  3. C) femur
  4. D) humerus
  5. E) None of these; all are appendicular bones.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

117) The clavicle articulates with the scapula

  1. A) distally with the coracoid process.
  2. B) distally with the glenoid cavity.
  3. C) distally with the acromion.
  4. D) distally with the manubrium.
  5. E) proximally with the coracoid cavity.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

118) The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the

  1. A) acromial end.
  2. B) superior border.
  3. C) sternal end.
  4. D) scapular spine.
  5. E) medial border.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

119) Which of the following is located closest to the jugular notch?

  1. A) medial end of scapula
  2. B) medial end of clavicle
  3. C) lateral end of scapula
  4. D) lateral end of clavicle
  5. E) None of these are close to the jugular notch.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

120) The three sides of this bone form a broad triangle.

  1. A) radius
  2. B) clavicle
  3. C) vertebra
  4. D) sternum
  5. E) scapula

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

Figure 7-3

 

121) Identify the structure labeled “7.”

  1. A) acromion
  2. B) scapular process
  3. C) spine
  4. D) coracoid process
  5. E) scapular notch

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

122) Identify the structure labeled “1.”

  1. A) spine
  2. B) scapular process
  3. C) acromion
  4. D) coracoid process
  5. E) scapular notch

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

123) Which structure is the acromion?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

124) Identify the structure labeled “2.”

  1. A) glenoid cavity
  2. B) acetabulum
  3. C) scapular cavity
  4. D) scapular notch
  5. E) rotator cup

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

125) What bone articulates on the structure labeled “2”?

  1. A) femur
  2. B) clavicle
  3. C) humerus
  4. D) manubrium
  5. E) radius

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

126) Which of these constitutes the pectoral girdle?

  1. A) clavicles only
  2. B) clavicles and scapulae
  3. C) clavicles, scapulae, and humerus
  4. D) clavicles, scapulae, humerus, radius, and ulna
  5. E) clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, and carpal bones

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

127) The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where the

  1. A) clavicle articulates with the humerus.
  2. B) clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum.
  3. C) coxal bones articulate with the femur.
  4. D) vertebral column articulates with the sacrum.
  5. E) clavicle articulates with the xiphoid process.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

128) Which of the following is most commonly fractured in a fall?

  1. A) manubrium
  2. B) hyoid
  3. C) clavicle
  4. D) navicular
  5. E) glenoid cavity

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

 

129) The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities and their supporting elements, called

  1. A) girdles.
  2. B) arches.
  3. C) scapulae.
  4. D) anchors.
  5. E) insertions.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

130) Two prominent features of the clavicle are the medial sternal end and the lateral ________ end.

  1. A) humeral
  2. B) glenoid
  3. C) coracoid
  4. D) acromial
  5. E) subscapular

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

131) The scapula articulates with the humerus at its ________ cavity.

  1. A) infraspinous
  2. B) scapular
  3. C) olecranon
  4. D) supraspinous
  5. E) glenoid

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

132) The coracoid process is a part of which bone?

  1. A) scapula
  2. B) clavicle
  3. C) ischium
  4. D) ulna
  5. E) sternum

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

133) Which of the following features is located near the proximal end of the humerus?

  1. A) medial epicondyle
  2. B) lateral epicondyle
  3. C) greater tubercle
  4. D) olecranon fossa
  5. E) capitulum

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

134) The depression on the posterior surface at the distal end of the humerus is the

  1. A) olecranon fossa.
  2. B) coronoid fossa.
  3. C) radial fossa.
  4. D) intertubercular groove.
  5. E) radial groove.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

135) Which of the following is a forearm bone?

  1. A) humerus
  2. B) femur
  3. C) tibia
  4. D) fibula
  5. E) radius

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

136) Which of the following surface features does the ulna not possess?

  1. A) olecranon
  2. B) styloid process
  3. C) trochlear notch
  4. D) capitulum
  5. E) head

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

137) The surface feature present along the lateral border of the shaft of the humerus is the

  1. A) radial groove.
  2. B) medial epicondyle.
  3. C) lateral epicondyle.
  4. D) deltoid tuberosity.
  5. E) coronoid process.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

138) In the anatomical position, the ulna is located ________ to the radius.

  1. A) distal
  2. B) proximal
  3. C) medial
  4. D) superior
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

139) Lateral to the coronoid process, the radial ________ accommodates the head of the radius in the radioulnar joint.

  1. A) notch
  2. B) tendon
  3. C) ligament
  4. D) groove
  5. E) muscle

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

Figure 7-4

 

140) Identify the structure labeled “9.”

  1. A) olecranon process
  2. B) medial epicondyle
  3. C) lateral epicondyle
  4. D) greater tubercle
  5. E) trochlea

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

141) Around which structure does the radius rotate?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

142) When the arm is extended at the elbow, which structure accepts the olecranon?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 8
  5. E) 9

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

143) Identify the place where the humerus often fractures.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 6
  5. E) 7

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

144) Which structure articulates with the glenoid cavity?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 4
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 6
  5. E) 7

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

145) Which of the following is not associated with the radius?

  1. A) head
  2. B) tuberosity
  3. C) styloid process
  4. D) coronoid process
  5. E) neck

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

146) The ________ of the radius helps stabilize the wrist joint.

  1. A) olecranon process
  2. B) coronoid process
  3. C) styloid process
  4. D) radial tuberosity
  5. E) capitulum

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

147) The distal radius articulates with the head of the ulna at the

  1. A) styloid process.
  2. B) radial tuberosity.
  3. C) olecranon.
  4. D) ulnar notch.
  5. E) coracoid process.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

148) The bones that form the palm are the

  1. A) carpals.
  2. B) tarsals.
  3. C) metacarpals.
  4. D) metatarsals.
  5. E) phalanges.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

149) The bones that give the wrist a wide range of motion are the

  1. A) carpals.
  2. B) tarsals.
  3. C) metacarpals.
  4. D) metatarsals.
  5. E) phalanges.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

150) The bones that form the fingers are the

  1. A) carpals.
  2. B) tarsals.
  3. C) metacarpals.
  4. D) metatarsals.
  5. E) phalanges.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

151) The carpus contains ________ bones.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 7
  5. E) 8

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

152) Which of the following is not an upper limb bone?

  1. A) ulna
  2. B) radius
  3. C) humerus
  4. D) metatarsals
  5. E) carpals

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

153) There are ________ carpal bones located in the wrist, which form ________ rows of bones in the wrist.

  1. A) 2; 8
  2. B) 10; 3
  3. C) 4; 2
  4. D) 8; 2
  5. E) 6; 2

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

154) Each hand has ________ phalangeal bones.

  1. A) 15
  2. B) 20
  3. C) 14
  4. D) 18
  5. E) 10

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

155) Tina falls and fractures her pisiform bone. What part of her body was injured?

  1. A) foot
  2. B) forearm
  3. C) wrist
  4. D) hand
  5. E) ankle

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying

156) The bumpy bone on the medial side of your wrist is actually the ________ bone.

  1. A) capitate
  2. B) pisiform
  3. C) trapezium
  4. D) hamate
  5. E) proximal

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

157) The anatomical term for the thumb is

  1. A) talus.
  2. B) triquetrum.
  3. C) hallux.
  4. D) pollex.
  5. E) patella.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

158) Which bone articulates with the coxal bone at the acetabulum?

  1. A) sacrum
  2. B) femur
  3. C) humerus
  4. D) tibia
  5. E) fibula

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

159) Each one of the coxal bones is formed by the fusion of ________ bones.

  1. A) 2
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 6

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

160) The largest component coxal bone is the

  1. A) pubis.
  2. B) ischium.
  3. C) ilium.
  4. D) femur.
  5. E) tibia.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

161) The superior border of the ilium that acts as a point of attachment for both ligaments and muscles is the

  1. A) anterior iliac spine.
  2. B) acetabulum.
  3. C) posterior superior iliac spine.
  4. D) iliac crest.
  5. E) iliac notch.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

162) The greater sciatic notch is a feature on the

  1. A) ilium.
  2. B) ischium.
  3. C) pubis.
  4. D) femur.
  5. E) patella.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

163) The sacrum articulates with the

  1. A) ilium.
  2. B) ischium.
  3. C) pubis.
  4. D) ilium and ischium.
  5. E) ischium and pubis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

164) The pubic and ischial rami encircle the

  1. A) pubic symphysis.
  2. B) lesser sciatic notch.
  3. C) greater sciatic notch.
  4. D) obturator foramen.
  5. E) acetabulum.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

165) Each coxal bone consists of which three fused bones?

  1. A) ulna, radius, and humerus
  2. B) ilium, ischium, and pubis
  3. C) femur, tibia, and fibula
  4. D) hamate, capitate, and trapezium
  5. E) femur, patella, and tibia

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

166) Which surface feature(s) along the ilium mark(s) attachment sites for large hip muscles?

  1. A) lunate surfaces
  2. B) greater sciatic notch
  3. C) gluteal lines
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

167) When seated, the weight of the body is borne by the

  1. A) ischial tuberosities.
  2. B) posterior inferior iliac spines.
  3. C) iliac crests.
  4. D) obturator foramen.
  5. E) inferior rami of the pubis.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

168) The two pubic bones join medially at the

  1. A) pectineal line.
  2. B) coronoid process.
  3. C) pubic tubercle.
  4. D) pubic symphysis.
  5. E) auricular surface.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

169) Which of the following is not a part of the pelvis?

  1. A) sacrum
  2. B) coccyx
  3. C) coxal bone
  4. D) lumbar vertebrae
  5. E) both coccyx and lumbar vertebrae

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

170) The pelvic organs are mostly found within the

  1. A) ischial spine.
  2. B) true pelvis.
  3. C) ischial fossa.
  4. D) obturator foramen.
  5. E) pubic symphysis.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

171) Which of these is not one of the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?

  1. A) coccyx
  2. B) ischial spines
  3. C) iliac crest
  4. D) inferior border of the pubic symphysis
  5. E) ischial tuberosities

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

172) The space enclosed by the true pelvis is called the

  1. A) greater pelvis.
  2. B) pelvic inlet.
  3. C) pelvic brim.
  4. D) pelvic meatus.
  5. E) sacroiliac.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

173) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the male pelvis?

  1. A) heavy, rough textured bone
  2. B) heart-shaped pelvic inlet
  3. C) angle of pubic arch greater than 100 degrees
  4. D) relatively deep iliac fossa
  5. E) ilia extend far above sacrum

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

174) Which of the following is a not characteristic of the female pelvis?

  1. A) broad pelvis (low pelvis)
  2. B) coccyx points anteriorly
  3. C) enlarged pelvic outline
  4. D) bone markings not very prominent
  5. E) a more circular pelvic inlet

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

175) A male has a ________ pelvic outlet when compared to the woman’s pelvic outlet.

  1. A) larger
  2. B) longer
  3. C) narrower
  4. D) wider
  5. E) deeper

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

176) The clearest distinction between a male and female skeleton is seen in the characteristics of the

  1. A) skull.
  2. B) pelvis.
  3. C) sacrum.
  4. D) teeth.
  5. E) thoracic cage.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

177) The longest and heaviest bone in the body is the

  1. A) humerus.
  2. B) femur.
  3. C) tibia.
  4. D) fibula.
  5. E) coxal bone.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

178) Powerful hip muscles attach posteriorly to the femur along the

  1. A) greater trochanter.
  2. B) lesser trochanter.
  3. C) linea aspera.
  4. D) medial epicondyle.
  5. E) fovea capitis.

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

179) The lateral bulge at your ankle is a projection from the

  1. A) fibula.
  2. B) femur.
  3. C) tibia.
  4. D) calcaneus.
  5. E) talus.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

180) The medial malleolus is found on the

  1. A) femur.
  2. B) tibia.
  3. C) fibula.
  4. D) patella.
  5. E) calcaneus.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

181) The medial border of the fibula is bound to the ________ by the interosseous membrane.

  1. A) femur
  2. B) tibia
  3. C) patella
  4. D) navicular
  5. E) femur and tibia

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

182) The largest bone of the lower limb is the

  1. A) tibia.
  2. B) femur.
  3. C) fibula.
  4. D) humerus.
  5. E) calcaneus.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

183) Which of these bones was not formed by the fusion of several bones?

  1. A) coccyx
  2. B) coxal bones
  3. C) sacrum
  4. D) femur
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

Figure 7-5

 

184) Identify the structure labeled “2.”

  1. A) greater trochanter
  2. B) linea aspera
  3. C) head
  4. D) lateral epicondyle
  5. E) lateral condyle

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

185) Identify the structure labeled “3.”

  1. A) greater trochanter
  2. B) lesser trochanter
  3. C) head
  4. D) lateral epicondyle
  5. E) lateral condyle

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

186) Identify the diaphysis of the femur.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 7

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

187) Identify the structure labeled “12.”

  1. A) greater trochanter
  2. B) linea aspera
  3. C) head
  4. D) lateral epicondyle
  5. E) lateral condyle

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

188) Which structure articulates with the acetabulum?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 9

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

 

189) Your ________ is your shinbone.

  1. A) fibula
  2. B) tibia
  3. C) ulna
  4. D) humerus
  5. E) talus

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

190) The tarsus contains ________ bones.

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 7
  5. E) 8

Answer:  D

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

191) Which of the following is the heel bone?

  1. A) talus
  2. B) navicular
  3. C) calcaneus
  4. D) cuboid
  5. E) patella

Answer:  C

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

192) The weight of the body is supported by the

  1. A) distal metacarpals.
  2. B) proximal metatarsals.
  3. C) distal metatarsals.
  4. D) calcaneus.
  5. E) distal metatarsals and calcaneus.

Answer:  E

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

 

193) Another name for the great toe is

  1. A) hallux.
  2. B) pollex.
  3. C) hyoid.
  4. D) lateral cuneiform.
  5. E) phalanx.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remembering

 

194) The Achilles tendon attaches to which anatomical structure?

  1. A) cuboid bone
  2. B) calcaneus
  3. C) talus
  4. D) lesser trochanter
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

195) The distal end of the tibia articulates with the

  1. A) talus.
  2. B) fibula.
  3. C) patella.
  4. D) calcaneus.
  5. E) coxal bone.

Answer:  A

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understanding

 

196) Tom stumbles and injures his hallux. What part of his anatomy is injured?

  1. A) his hand
  2. B) his foot
  3. C) his ankle
  4. D) his knee
  5. E) his hip

Answer:  B

Learning Outcome:  7.23

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Applying