Visualizing Nutrition 3rd Edition By Mary B. – Test Bank

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Visualizing Nutrition 3rd Edition By Mary B. – Test Bank

Package Title: Test Bank

Course Title: grosvenor3e

Chapter Number: 06

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) In general, plant proteins are used _____ efficiently as animal proteins to build proteins in the human body.

 

  1. a) less
  2. b) equally as
  3. c) more

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1:

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.1 Describe which types of foods provide the most concentrated sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

2) Animal foods provide a more concentrated source of protein in the diet as compared to plant foods.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.1 Describe which types of foods provide the most concentrated sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

3) A diet that is based on plant proteins alone cannot meet most people’s protein needs.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.1 Describe which types of foods provide the most concentrated sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

4) A diet that includes a variety of plant proteins can easily meet most people’s protein needs.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.1 Describe which types of foods provide the most concentrated sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

5) Animal products provide B vitamins and readily absorbable sources of minerals, such as iron, zinc, and calcium.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.1 Describe which types of foods provide the most concentrated sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

6) Which of the following is the best description of nutrients provided by animal protein sources: in fiber; in saturated fat and cholesterol; in readily absorbed forms of iron, zinc, and calcium?

 

  1. a) High; high; high
  2. b) Low; low; low
  3. c) High; high; low
  4. d) Low; high; high

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.2 Compare the nutrients in plant sources of protein with those in animal sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

7) In general, plant sources of protein provide _____absorbable forms of iron, zinc, and calcium as compared to animal protein sources.

 

  1. a) less
  2. b) equally
  3. c) more

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.2 Compare the nutrients in plant sources of protein with those in animal sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

8) Plant foods generally are excellent sources of

 

  1. a) fiber.
  2. b) phytochemicals.
  3. c) unsaturated fats.
  4. d) all of these choices.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.1 Discuss sources of proteins in foods, including differences between plant and animal proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.1.2 Compare the nutrients in plant sources of protein with those in animal sources of protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.1 Proteins in Our Food

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

9) Indicate each of the general structures for a, b, and c.

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.1 Describe the general structure of an amino acid and of a protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

Solution: a:amino group, b:acid group, c:side chain

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. A _________bond joins amino acids together.

 

  1. a) amino
  2. b) peptide
  3. c) lysine
  4. d) hydrogen

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.1 Describe the general structure of an amino acid and of a protein.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

11) If the diet is deficient in one or more of the _____amino acids, the body must break down existing proteins to provide the amino acids.

 

  1. a) nonessential
  2. b) essential
  3. c) dispensable
  4. d) dipeptide

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.2 Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino acids.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

12) There are certain conditions under which some of the nonessential amino acids cannot be synthesized to meet the body’s needs. When this occurs these amino acids are referred to as ____ amino acids.

 

  1. a) essential
  2. b) nonessential
  3. c) conditionally essential
  4. d) equally essential

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.2 Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino acids.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

13) For some of the amino acids that our body needs, we must get them from dietary sources because the body cannot make them in sufficient quantities to meet our body’s needs.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.2 Distinguish between essential and nonessential amino acids.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

14) The order and chemical properties of _____ in a polypeptide chain determine how the polypeptide fold, and thus the shape of the molecule formed.

 

  1. a) amino acids
  2. b) carboxylic acids
  3. c) lipoproteins
  4. d) water molecules

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.3 Discuss how the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain affects protein structure.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

15) The three-dimensional shape of a protein is impacted by all of the following EXCEPT the

 

  1. a) chemical properties of the amino acids.
  2. b) folding of the polypeptide.
  3. c) number of essential amino acids.
  4. d) order of the amino acids.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.3 Discuss how the order of amino acids in a polypeptide chain affects protein structure.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

16) When salivary amylase enters the stomach, the acid causes the structure of this enzyme to change so that it is no longer able to function. This change in structure is called

 

  1. a) deamination.
  2. b) deformation.
  3. c) denaturation.
  4. d) deactivation.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.4 Explain how a protein’s structure is related to its function.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

17) Foods are denatured by all of the following means EXCEPT by

 

  1. a) chilling.
  2. b) heat.
  3. c) mechanical agitation.
  4. d) the addition of acid.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.4 Explain how a protein’s structure is related to its function.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

18) The shape of a protein is essential to its function.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.4 Explain how a protein’s structure is related to its function.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

19) The phrase “structure determines function” is appropriately used in reference to protein. With this phrase in mind, discuss the following: what does the term “denature” mean? Describe how heating an egg is an example of a denatured protein. Describe how “soured” milk is an example of denatured protein.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

 

Learning Objective 1: 6.2 Explain the relationship between amino acids, protein structure, and protein function.

Learning Objective 2: 6.2.4 Explain how a protein’s structure is related to its function.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.2 The Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins

Solution: denatured – alteration of a protein’s 3-dimensional structure or a change from the natural state, heating an egg – the protein in raw egg white forms a clear, viscous liquid, when cooked, the egg white becomes white and firm and cannot be restored to its original form.  Soured milk – bacteria in milk metabolize the carbohydrate source, releasing acids, the acids lower the pH, which cause the milk proteins to become solid.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

20) Most protein digestion occurs in the

 

  1. a) mouth.
  2. b) pancreas.
  3. c) small intestine.
  4. d) stomach.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

21) _________ , an enzyme, is produced in the stomach and breaks some of the peptide bonds in polypeptide chains.

 

  1. a) Amylase
  2. b) Denaturase
  3. c) Dipeptidase
  4. d) Pepsin

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

22) The role of hydrochloric acid in protein digestion is to

 

  1. a) break down polypeptide chains.
  2. b) denature the protein.
  3. c) slow peristalsis.
  4. d) stimulate production of digestive enzyme in pancreas.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

23) The effective chemical digestion of protein in the stomach requires a/an ____ environment?

 

  1. a) acidic
  2. b) alkaline
  3. c) basic
  4. d) neutral

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

24) Review where digestive processes of protein occur.  Select the letter that indicates where transport proteins move the products of protein digestion into the mucosal cell.

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

25) Review where digestive processes of protein occur.  Select the letter that indicates where mechanical breakdown of protein occurs.

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

26) Review where digestive processes of protein occur.  Select the letter that indicates where protein-digesting enzymes are released from this organ, which aids brush border enzymes to breakdown protein.

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

27) Review where digestive processes of protein occur.  Select the letter that indicates where Pepsin begins the chemical digestion of protein.

 

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.1 Describe the process of protein digestion.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

28) The process by which amino acids enter the body involves an energy-requiring amino acid transport system.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.2 Discuss how amino acids are absorbed.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

29) Which of the following scenarios is a possibility if an amino acid supplement overwhelms the amino acid transport system?

 

  1. a) The amino acids from the supplement will use an alternate transport system.
  2. b) The amino acids from the supplement will be eliminated from the body.
  3. c) The amino acids from the supplement will compete with each other, increasing absorption of other amino acids
  4. d) The amino acids from the supplement will compete with each other, slowing absorption of other amino acids.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.2 Discuss how amino acids are absorbed.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

30) Nekesa is considering taking a nutrition supplement of the amino acid arginine.  Considering what you know about the absorption of amino acids, why would you caution her against this?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.3 Describe the digestion and absorption of proteins.

Learning Objective 2: 6.3.2 Discuss how amino acids are absorbed.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.3 Protein Digestion and Absorption

Solution: Amino acids with similar structures use the same transport system to cross the lumen of the small intestine. As a result, amino acids that use the same transport system may compete with one another for absorption. If there is an excess of any one of the amino acids sharing a transport system, more of it will be absorbed, slowing the absorption of competing amino acids and upsetting the balance of amino acids in the body.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

31) The ____ amino acid is the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body’s needs.

 

  1. a) essentiality
  2. b) framework
  3. c) limiting
  4. d) priority

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.1 Explain what is meant by the term limiting amino acid.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

32) If there is a shortage of an essential amino acid in the body, the absence of that amino acid limits protein synthesis.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.1 Explain what is meant by the term limiting amino acid.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

33) During the synthesis of a protein, a shortage of one amino acid will not stop synthesis, but two or more missing amino acids will impact protein synthesis negatively.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.1 Explain what is meant by the term limiting amino acid.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

34) Which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps that occur in protein synthesis?

 

  1. a) translation → transcription → mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes
  2. b) mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes → translation → transcription
  3. c) transcription → mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes → translation
  4. d) mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes → transcription → translation

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.2 Discuss the steps involved in synthesizing proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

35) Amino acids are used to make all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) creatine.
  2. b) histamine.
  3. c) melanin.
  4. d) Vitamin D.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.2 Discuss the steps involved in synthesizing proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

36) When your diet is high in iron, the gene that codes for the protein ferritin, which stores iron, is turned on. This scenario best describes which of the following processes?

 

  1. a) energy production
  2. b) gene expression
  3. c) mineral synthesis
  4. d) transamination

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.2 Discuss the steps involved in synthesizing proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

37) The amino acid pool is comprised of the

 

  1. a) only molecules that have been broken down from body proteins.
  2. b) protein molecules only consumed in the diet.
  3. c) protein molecules only consumed in the diet and from the breakdown of body glycogen.
  4. d) protein molecules consumed in the diet and from the breakdown of body proteins.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.2 Discuss the steps involved in synthesizing proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

38) Transamination is the process by which transfer RNA reads the genetic code and delivers the needed amino acids to the ribosome.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.2 Discuss the steps involved in synthesizing proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

39) What is the condition called that is depicted in this photograph?

SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.

 

  1. a) marasmus
  2. b) edema
  3. c) osmosis
  4. d) myosin

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.3 Name the four functions of body proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

40) Kendra is aware that amino acids and protein are important in making muscle, but she would like to know other functions that they have in the body. Explain to Kendra other functions of protein.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.3 Name the four functions of body proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

Solution: Skin, which is made primarily of protein, is the first barrier against infection and injury and if a foreign material gets in to the body, antibodies, which are immune system protein, help destroy it. Blood proteins contribute to the number of dissolved particles in the blood. If protein levels in the blood fall too low, osmosis causes fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and accumulate in the tissue, causing edema. Protein also regulates fluid balance because some are membrane transporters, which pump dissolved substances from one side of a membrane to the other.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

41) Proteins have both structural and regulatory functions in the body.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.3 Name the four functions of body proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

42) When the diet does not provide enough energy to meet the body’s needs (e.g. consuming a very-low-calorie-weight-loss diet) body protein is used to provide energy.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.4 Describe the conditions under which the body uses protein to provide energy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

43) Amino acids can be used by the body to make glucose and fatty acids.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.4 Describe the conditions under which the body uses protein to provide energy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

44) The amino group is removed by the process of transamination and converted into the waste product urea.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.4 Describe the conditions under which the body uses protein to provide energy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

45) Because our bodies do not store protein, functional body proteins, such as enzymes and muscle proteins, must be broken down to yield amino acids.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.4 Describe the synthesis and functions of proteins in the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.4.4 Describe the conditions under which the body uses protein to provide energy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.4 Protein Synthesis and Functions

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

46) The word kwashiorkor literally means “the disease that the first child gets when a second child is born”. Describe the circumstances that lead to the first born child developing kwashiorkor.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.1 Distinguish kwashiorkor from marasmus.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

Solution: When the new baby is born, the older child is no longer breast-fed. Rather than receiving the protein-rich breast milk the young child is fed a watered-down version of the diet eaten by the rest of the family. This diet is low in protein and difficult to digest. Because children are growing, their protein needs per unit body weight are higher than those of adults, resulting in a protein deficiency.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

47) Marasmus is a form of malnutrition that negatively impacts which of the following developing organs the worst?

 

  1. a) The brain
  2. b) The liver
  3. c) The kidneys
  4. d) The teeth

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.1 Distinguish kwashiorkor from marasmus.

Section Reference 1: Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

48) Kwashiorkor is an overall energy deficiency whereas marasmus is a protein deficiency.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.1 Distinguish kwashiorkor from marasmus.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

49) Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of kwashiorkor?

 

  1. a) Decreases in intelligence and learning ability
  2. b) Energy deficiency
  3. c) Muscle wasting
  4. d) Swollen belly

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.1 Distinguish kwashiorkor from marasmus.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

50) Why is protein-energy malnutrition more common in children than adults?

 

  1. a) The child’s stomach cannot digest protein from the diet.
  2. b) Adults eat protein sources from the diet that have a higher absorption rate.
  3. c) Because children are growing, their protein needs per unit body weight are higher.
  4. d) Children do not eat enough total calories so that protein must be used as an energy source.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.2 Explain why protein-energy malnutrition is more common in children than in adults.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

51) Protein-energy malnutrition is only seen in children.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.2 Explain why protein-energy malnutrition is more common in children than in adults.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

52) As validated by evidence-based research, the major health concern with high-protein diets is

 

  1. a) dehydration.
  2. b) kidney stone formation.
  3. c) urinary calcium excretion.
  4. d) a high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.3 Discuss the potential risks associated with high-protein diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

53) High-protein diets do not increase water loss.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.3 Discuss the potential risks associated with high-protein diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

54) Epidemiological studies suggest that diets that are rich in animal protein and low in fluid contribute to the formation of kidney stones.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.3 Discuss the potential risks associated with high-protein diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

55) A food intolerance is an adverse reaction to a food that involves production of antibodies.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.4 Explain how a dietary protein can trigger a food allergy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

56) Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the lining of the small intestine.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.4 Explain how a dietary protein can trigger a food allergy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

57) The food label must indicate whether the product contains any of the most common food allergens.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.4 Explain how a dietary protein can trigger a food allergy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

58) Which of the following is NOT a common food allergen?

 

  1. a) Chicken
  2. b) Eggs
  3. c) Low-fat milk
  4. d) Wheat germ

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.5 Discuss protein deficiency diseases and problems associated with too much dietary protein.

Learning Objective 2: 6.5.4 Explain how a dietary protein can trigger a food allergy.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.5 Protein in Health and Disease

 

 

59) Someone whose nitrogen output is greater than their nitrogen intake is said to be in

 

  1. a) nitrogen balance
  2. b) positive nitrogen balance
  3. c) negative nitrogen balance
  4. d) There is insufficient information provided to determine the status.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

60) You would expect that a child who is growing to be in _____ nitrogen balance.

 

  1. a) negative
  2. b) positive
  3. c) neither negative nor positive (equilibrium)

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

61) Most of the nitrogen we lose is lost in/through our

 

  1. a) feces.
  2. b) skin.
  3. c) sweat.
  4. d) urine.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

62) Protein requirements per unit of body weight are _______ for infants and children than for adults.

 

  1. a) less
  2. b) the same
  3. c) greater

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

63) Enzyme supplements that function inside body tissues provide no benefits because the enzyme is broken down into amino acids during digestion.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

64) Protein and amino acid supplements are rarely needed to increase protein needs.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

65) Most Americans consume more than enough grams of protein daily.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

66) Endurance and strength athletes have a greater protein daily recommendation than non-athletes; therefore, they must use amino acid supplements.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

67) A diet that provides 10% of calories from protein will meet the RDA for protein, but this is a relatively low-protein diet compared with typical eating patterns in the U.S.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.1 Describe how protein needs are determined.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

68) Protein _______ is a measure of how good the protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs.

 

  1. a) adequacy
  2. b) availability
  3. c) definability
  4. d) quality

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.2 Explain what is meant by protein quality.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

69) Of the following, which is the highest quality plant protein source?

 

  1. a) Black beans
  2. b) Rice
  3. c) Soy
  4. d) Wheat germ

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.2 Explain what is meant by protein quality.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

70) Plant proteins are referred to as incomplete dietary protein.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.2 Explain what is meant by protein quality.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

71) Protein quality is a measure of how good the protein in a food is at providing the non-essential amino acids the body needs to synthesize proteins.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.2 Explain what is meant by protein quality.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

72)The body will receive _______ total protein from a diet that contains protein from meat and dairy foods as compared to a diet that contains protein from wheat and rice, nuts, and pinto beans.

 

  1. a) less
  2. b) the same amount
  3. c) more

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.3 Review a diet and replace the animal proteins with complementary plant proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

73) Rice is high in the amino acids methionine but low in the amino acid lysine. Beans are high in lysine but low in methionine. Explain why eating rice and beans together increases the protein quality of a meal, as compared to eating a vegetarian meal that contains rice and no beans. Use the following terms in your response: essential amino acids, incomplete dietary protein, high quality protein, protein complementation. Is it necessary to eat the rice and beans at the same meal?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.3 Review a diet and replace the animal proteins with complementary plant proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

Solution: Plant proteins are lower in one or more of the essential amino acids, and are therefore referred to as incomplete dietary protein sources. When rice, which is limited in lysine but high in methionine, is eaten with beans, which are high in lysine but limited in methionine, are combined, the essential amino acids are provided in the amounts needed by the body. The process of combining proteins from different sources so that they collectively provide the proportions of essential amino acids required to meet the body’s needs is called protein complementation. Complementary proteins do not have to be consumed in the same meal.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

74) A poorly planned vegan diet is likely to be deficient in all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) calcium.
  2. b) phytochemicals.
  3. c) vitamin D.
  4. d) vitamin B12.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

75) Which of the following is the most likely responsible for the health-promoting effects (reduced incidence of obesity, high blood pressure, and some types of cancer) of vegetarian diets?

 

  1. a) High intake of fiber
  2. b) High intake of tofu
  3. c) Low intake of sodium
  4. d) The total dietary pattern

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

76) MyPlate and the Dietary Guidelines include recommendations regarding both animal and plant sources of protein to meet your need for protein and essential amino acids.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

77) A ____ excludes all animal flesh except fish.

 

  1. a) lacto vegetarian
  2. b) lacto-ovo vegetarian
  3. c) pescetarian
  4. d) vegan

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

78) Children who followed a vegetarian lifestyle will be malnourished.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

79) Why are vegans at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Easy

 

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.4 Discuss the benefits and risks of vegetarian diets.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

Solution: Vitamin B12 is only found in animal-based products.

 

 

80) What are some of the health benefits of consuming soy products?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.3 Review a diet and replace the animal proteins with complementary plant proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

Solution: Soy provides high-quality protein and is high in the healthy polyunsaturated fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals.  Soy protein is believed to lower blood lipid levels, and have preventive effects of breast cancer.

 

 

81) Soy provides phytochemicals called isoflavones, which have estrogen-like effects.  What are the beneficial aspects of isoflavones?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.3 Review a diet and replace the animal proteins with complementary plant proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

 

Solution: Consumption of isoflavones has been linked with reducing the symptoms of menopause, reducing bone loss, and having preventive effects in terms of certain types of cancer, including breast cancer.  However, the results of these studies are inconclusive in terms of the strength of the relationship.

 

 

82) An intake of about 50 grams of soy protein per day has been shown to lower blood cholesterol in some people. Based on the protein content of soy foods presented in the table, plan a daily menu for yourself that follows the dietary guidance illustrated in MyPlate and has 50 grams of soy protein.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: 6.6 Discuss healthy ways to meet the protein needs of the body.

Learning Objective 2: 6.6.3 Review a diet and replace the animal proteins with complementary plant proteins.

Section Reference 1: Section 6.6 Meeting Protein Needs

Solution: Menus will vary by student.

 

Package Title: Test Bank

Course Title: grosvenor3e

Chapter Number: 07

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) Which of the following MyPlate food group is the richest source of vitamin D?

 

  1. a) Dairy
  2. b) Fruits
  3. c) Grains
  4. d) Protein

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

2) All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except for the _____ group.

 

  1. a) Dairy
  2. b) Fruits
  3. c) Protein
  4. d) All of these are good sources of vitamin B12.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

3) All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of folate except for the _____ group.

 

  1. a) Dairy
  2. b) Fruits
  3. c) Grains
  4. d) Vegetables

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

4) Vegetable oils, such as peanut, cotton, and corn oils, are good sources of vitamin E.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

5)The best food sources of vitamin K are found in the MyPlate Protein and Vegetables food groups.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

6) Almost all foods contain some vitamins, and all the food groups contain foods that are good sources of a variety of vitamins.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

7) Not all fortification is mandated by the government.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

8) The amount of a particular vitamin in a food depends on all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) how much of the food is consumed.
  2. b) how the food is cooked.
  3. c) how the food is stored.
  4. d) what is added to the food during processing.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

9) Brian’s need for a vitamin is 100 milligrams each day. The bioavailability of this vitamin is 35%. This means that Brian needs to consume _____ milligrams each day for this vitamin to meet his needs.

 

  1. a) 65
  2. b) 100
  3. c) 135
  4. d) 170

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

10) For vitamins X and Y, the daily needs are 140 milligrams. The bioavailability of vitamin X is 45% and for vitamin Y is 20%. Which of the following statements is correct?

 

  1. a) Daily intake for vitamin X is higher than vitamin Y
  2. b) Daily intake for vitamin Y is higher than vitamin X
  3. c) Daily intake for vitamin X is the same as vitamin Y
  4. d) None of these statements are true.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

11) If the diet is chronically low in fat-soluble vitamins, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted most?

 

  1. a) Folate and vitamin B12
  2. b) Thiamin and riboflavin
  3. c) Vitamins A and D
  4. d) Vitamins C and E

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

12) Most of the water-soluble vitamins are bound to blood proteins for transport.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

13) Vitamin A is incorporated into chylomicrons for transport from the intestine.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

14) Which of the following statements is true regarding this organ?

 

  1. a) It releases bile to aid in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients.
  2. b) Some niacin is absorbed here.
  3. c) It secretes digestive enzymes that aid in the release of vitamins from the food.
  4. d) The bacteria here synthesize small amounts of vitamin B12.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

15) Which of the following statements is true regarding this structure?

 

  1. a) Vitamin E would be incorporated into this micelle for transport to the brush border.
  2. b) Niacin would be incorporated into this chylomicron for absorption into the blood capillary.
  3. c) Vitamin A would be incorporated into this chylomicron for transport to the microvilli.
  4. d) None of these statements are true regarding the highlighted structure.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

16) Summarize the absorptive activities of this structure.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

Solution: Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed from the small intestine directly into the blood.  Many depend on energy-requiring transport systems or must bind to specific molecules in the GI tract to be absorbed.  Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the lower portion of the small intestine.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

17) Coenzymes bind to enzymes to promote their activity.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

18) All the B vitamins are coenzymes.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

19) Which of the following vitamins have a coenzyme form?

 

  1. a) Niacin
  2. b) Vitamin A
  3. c) Vitamin D
  4. d) Vitamin K

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

20) Coenzymes are essential for the proper functioning of numerous hormones involved in metabolism.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

21) Which of the following is/are antioxidants?

 

  1. a) Vitamin C
  2. b) Vitamin E
  3. c) Selenium
  4. d) All of these nutrients serve as antioxidants.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

22) An antioxidant is a substance that protects against oxidative damage.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

23) Antioxidants act by enhancing the formation of free radicals.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

24) Which of the following vitamins must be included on the food label?

 

  1. a) Niacin and thiamin
  2. b) Riboflavin and iron
  3. c) Vitamins A and C
  4. d) Vitamins A and D

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

25) Vitamins C and D are directly involved in converting the energy in carbohydrate and fat into ATP.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

26) Because fat-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body to any great extent, deficiency symptoms are quick to appear.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

27) Mary needs to increase her thiamin consumption.  Which of the following contains the most thiamin?

 

  1. a) ¼ c sunflower seeds
  2. b) 3 oz pork chop
  3. c) 3 oz rainbow trout
  4. d) 1 c oatmeal

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

28) Clare reads on the food label that the pizza contains enriched flour.  Which of the following nutrients are added back to the flour in the enrichment process?

 

  1. a) calcium
  2. b) folate
  3. c) thiamin
  4. d) Vitamin C

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

29) The active ______ coenzyme is needed to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA.

 

  1. a) folate
  2. b) niacin
  3. c) riboflavin
  4. d) thiamin

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

30) Which of the following statements regarding thiamin is true?

 

  1. a) Alcoholics are particularly susceptible to thiamin deficiency because thiamin absorption is decreased due to the effect the alcohol has the GI tract.
  2. b) Beriberi is quite common in the U.S.
  3. c) Increasing thiamin intake increases the body’s ability to produce ATP.
  4. d) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a thiamin toxicity.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

31) One of the best sources of riboflavin in the diet is milk.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

32) An adequate consumption of riboflavin is crucial for the conversion of several other vitamins.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

33) Which of the following is NOT a symptom of pellagra?

 

  1. a) dementia
  2. b) dermatitis
  3. c) diabetes
  4. d) diarrhea

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

34) Niacin is synthesized in the body from the amino acid

 

  1. a) alanine.
  2. b) leucine.
  3. c) riboflavin.
  4. d) tryptophan.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

35) Which of the following are good sources of niacin?

 

  1. a) chicken and trout
  2. b) kiwi and apples
  3. c) corn and oatmeal
  4. d) orange juice and spinach

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

36) Niacin supplementation can be toxic.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

37) Raw egg whites contain the protein avidin that binds biotin and prevents its absorption.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

38) The wide distribution of pantothenic acid in foods makes deficiency rare in humans.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

39) Pantothenic acid is needed for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

40) Vitamin ___ is important for amino acid synthesis and protein metabolism.

 

  1. a) B2
  2. b) B6
  3. c) C
  4. d) B12

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

41) Which of the following is not a function of vitamin B6?

 

  1. a) Synthesis of hemoglobin
  2. b) Synthesis of the myelin sheath
  3. c) Synthesis of collagen
  4. d) Transamination and deamination

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

42) Based on the content in this visual, identify each of the three labeled parts in A:B:C order.

 

  1. a) cysteine: homocysteine: methionine
  2. b) homocysteine: cysteine: methionine
  3. c) methionine: homocysteine: cysteine
  4. d) methionine: cysteine: homocysteine

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

43) High levels of homocysteine in the blood increases cardiovascular risk.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

44) Vitamin B6 is needed for transamination and deamination reactions, and to remove the acid group from amino acids, as illustrated in the figure provided. What is the significance of each of these types of reactions?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

Solution: a transamination reactions – synthesize nonessential amino acids by transferring an amino group to a carbon compound, b deamination reactions – remove the amino group from amino acids so that the remaining carbon compound can be used to provide energy or synthesize glucose, c remove acid group – B6 removes the acid group from amino acids so that the remaining molecule can be used to synthesize neurotransmitters.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

45) The best food sources for folate and for vitamin B12 are fresh fruits and vegetables.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

46) Vitamin B12 deficiency is particularly problematic because

 

  1. a) it causes irreversible brain damage.
  2. b) it causes microcytic anemia.
  3. c) it prevents folate from being converted to one of its active forms.
  4. d) its UL is set too high.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Section Reference 1: The Water-Soluble Vitamins

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

47) Low maternal folate intake increases the risk of birth defects called neural tube defects.

 

Answer: True

 

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

48) Folate coenzymes are needed for the

 

  1. a) synthesis of collagen.
  2. b) synthesis of RNA.
  3. c) metabolism of some vitamins.
  4. d) synthesis of DNA and metabolism of some amino acids.

 

Answer: d

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

49) Folate deficiency can lead to macrocytic or megablastic anemia.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

50) Which of the following populations is not at increased risk of folate deficiency?

 

  1. a) The elderly
  2. b) Non-smoking teenage males
  3. c) Pregnant women
  4. d) Alcoholics

 

Answer: b

 

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

51) Megaloblastic anemia is a reduction in the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen that is characterized by abnormally large immature and mature red blood cells.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

52) The Intrinsic Factor is necessary for the absorption of which B vitamin?

 

  1. a) Folate
  2. b) Niacin
  3. c) Riboflavin
  4. d) Vitamin B12

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Di Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

53) Based on the information depicted in this visual, describe how a deficiency or toxicity of either folate or vitamin B12 can affect the functionality of the other.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

Solution: Vitamin B12 deficiency prevents folate from being converted into one of its active forms, so vitamin B12 deficiency causes folate to also be deficient.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

54) Which of the following statements regarding vitamin B12 is false?

 

  1. a) Vitamin B12 is synthesized by the microflora in the large intestine.
  2. b) Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the duodenum section of the small intestine.
  3. c) Vitamin B12 needs the Intrinsic Factor to be absorbed.
  4. d) The body stores and reuses vitamin B12 more efficiently than it does most other water-soluble vitamins.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

55) Which of the following MyPlate food groups is the richest in vitamin B12?

 

  1. a) Fruits
  2. b) Grains
  3. c) Protein
  4. d) Vegetables

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

56) When Vitamin C intake is below 10 mg per day, the symptoms of _______ begin to appear.

 

  1. a) beriberi
  2. b) pellagra
  3. c) rickets
  4. d) scurvy

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

57) A family member has been taking Vitamin C supplements, but is now wondering if he should continue to spend money on these supplements. What have you learned about Vitamin C that might help them with an evidence-based decision?

 

  1. a) Excessive supplementation can cause dementia.
  2. b) Vitamin C is known to prevent the common cold.
  3. c) Excessive supplementation can interfere with drugs prescribed to prevent blood clotting.
  4. d) Excessive supplementation can cause diarrhea and can interfere with drugs prescribed to slow blood clotting.

 

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

 

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

58) The symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include gums that swell and bleed. Why does this occur?

 

  1. a) The lack of vitamin C allows bacteria in the mouth to irritate the gums.
  2. b) The lack of vitamin C decreases the pH of the mouth.
  3. c) There is reduced collagen synthesis.
  4. d) There is increased plaque formation around the gums.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

59) Collagen is a __________. Vitamin C is necessary to form ___________ that hold adjacent collagen strands together and give the protein_________.

 

  1. a) mineral, muscle, strength
  2. b) protein, muscle, structure
  3. c) protein, bonds, strength
  4. d) vitamin, muscle, structure

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

60) Vitamin C is best known for its role in the synthesis and maintenance of collagen. What is collagen? How does vitamin C’s role in collagen related to the symptoms of scurvy?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins

Solution: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body, and can be thought of as the glue that holds the body together. It forms the basis of all connective tissue, the framework for bones and teeth, and is the main component of scars that bind a         wound together. Scurvy is a vitamin C deficiency disease that is characterized by        bleeding gums, tooth loss, joint pain, and bleeding into the skin and mucous      membrane. These symptoms occur because collagen is not being synthesized.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

61) Cells that are deficient in vitamin A become hard and dry because they produce _______, a protein.

 

  1. a) retinal
  2. b) opsin
  3. c) keratin
  4. d) xerophthin

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

62) The process whereby immature cells change in structure and function to become specialized is called

 

  1. a) cell differentiation.
  2. b) gene expression.
  3. c) night blindness.
  4. d) rhodopsin.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

63) Vitamin A deficiency can result in permanent blindness, as illustrated in this picture. Discuss blindness from vitamin A deficiency occurs in the context of vitamin A’s role in tissue formation. Use the following terms in your answer: epithelial tissue, mucus, differentiation, keratin, and a definition of xerophthalmia.

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Solution: Vitamin A is necessary for the maintenance of epithelial tissues that line the eyes. The lining of the eye normally contains cells that secrete mucus, which lubricate the eye. When these cells die, immature cells differentiate to become new mucus-secreting cells that replace the dead ones. Without vitamin A, the immature cells cannot differentiate normally, and instead of forming mucus-secreting cells, they             become cells that produce a hard protein called keratin. This results in the surface of the eye becoming dry and cloudy called xerophthalmia. As xerophthalmia     progresses, the drying of the cornea results in ulceration and infection, causing irreversible damage to the eye that results in permanent blindness.

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

64) Preformed vitamin A includes beta-carotene.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

65) Which of the following statements regarding vitamin A is FALSE?

 

  1. a) Protein and zinc status are important for healthy vitamin A status.
  2. b) Beta-carotene is the most potent vitamin A precursor.
  3. c) Pepsin is necessary to release the vitamin A from protein-based sources.
  4. d) Worldwide, vitamin A deficiency is rare.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

66) This visual represents a toxicity of ______ leading the toxicity disease _______.

 

  1. a) beta-carotene, hypercarotenemia
  2. b) niacin, pellagra
  3. c) vitamin A, xerophthalmia
  4. d) vitamin D, rickets

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

67) Vitamin D deficiency can result in bone deformation in children, as illustrated in this picture. What is the name of the vitamin D deficiency when it occurs in children? What are the physical characteristics? What is the name of the vitamin D deficiency when it occurs in adults? What are the physical characteristics? Why are the physical characteristics different for children as compared to adults?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Solution: Rickets is the vitamin D deficiency disease in children, which is characterized by poor bone development (bones are soft), causing short stature and bone deformities. Bowed legs occur because the bones are too weak to support the body. Osteomalacia is the vitamin D deficiency disease in adults. Osteomalacia does not cause bone deformities because adults are no longer growing, but rather bones are weakened because not enough calcium is available to form the mineral       deposits needed to maintain healthy bone. Insufficient bone mineralization leads   to fractures of the weight-bearing bones (hips, spine) in adults.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

68) Vitamin D deficiency disease in children is called

 

  1. a) osteopenia.
  2. b) osteoporosis.
  3. c) osteomalacia.
  4. d) rickets.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

69) Active ________ is required to maintain normal blood calcium and phosphorus levels.

 

  1. a) Vitamin A
  2. b) Vitamin E
  3. c) Vitamin C
  4. d) Vitamin D

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

70) Based on the visual, what effect does active vitamin D have at the small intestine level?

 

  1. a) Active vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
  2. b) Active vitamin D stimulates calcium retention.
  3. c) Inactive vitamin D is activated.
  4. d) Inactive vitamin D releases calcium and phosphorus into the blood.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

72) When vitamin D is deficient, calcium absorption is greatly affected.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

72) The parathyroid hormone is released to decrease blood calcium levels.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

 

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Difficulty: Medium

 

 

73) If you spend too much time in the sun, your body can reach toxic levels of vitamin D.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

74) Vitamin E protects membranes in red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, and lung cells. Why are these cells in particular in need of high amounts of vitamin E?

 

  1. a) All of these cells are important in fighting infections
  2. b) Oxygen concentrations in these cells are high
  3. c) These cells have an especially high energy need
  4. d) Lipid concentrations in these cells are high

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

75) In its role as an antioxidant, _____ guards cell membranes, body proteins, DNA, and cholesterol, and thus helps prevent heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic diseases.

 

  1. a) thiamin
  2. b) vitamin D
  3. c) Vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin K

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

76) Premature infants are at a higher risk of vitamin E deficiency than full-term babies.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

77) With a severe deficiency of _______, even a bruise or small scratch could cause you to bleed to death.

 

  1. a) Vitamin D
  2. b) Vitamin K
  3. c) Vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin A

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

78) _______is the major symptom of Vitamin K deficiency.

 

  1. a) Abnormal blood coagulation
  2. b) Anemia
  3. c) Night blindness
  4. d) Rickets

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

79) Vitamin K is used more rapidly than other fat-soluble vitamins, so a constant supply is necessary.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

80) To ensure normal blood clotting, newborn babies are typically given a vitamin K injection.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

81) Of the following dieters, who would benefit the most from taking a multivitamin/multimineral supplement?

 

  1. a) Robert, who has switched from whole milk to skim milk
  2. b) Robyn, who is on a diet that provides 1800 calories per day
  3. c) Andrew, who is taking the diet supplement Alli with meals
  4. d) Shaundra, who is on a diet that that provides 1200 calories per day

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

82) The best way to ensure that you meet your nutrient needs without taking a dietary supplement is to

 

  1. a) choose foods that are convenient and tasty.
  2. b) choose low-nutrient-dense foods daily.
  3. c) eat a very low calorie, high fiber diet.
  4. d) eat a variety of foods daily.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

83) Supplements of which of the following nutrients may be needed by older adults?

 

  1. a) Iron and folic acid
  2. b) Fluoride and vitamin D
  3. c) Vitamin C and vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

84) Women of childbearing age should consume _____ daily from fortified foods or supplements.

 

  1. a) Folic acid
  2. b) Vitamin D
  3. c) Iron
  4. d) Calcium

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

85) Which of the following is not a good reason why some people may need to take supplements to meet certain nutrient needs?

 

  1. a) excess nutrient losses.
  2. b) increased nutrient needs
  3. c) low nutrient intakes
  4. d) to be free from worry about their food choices

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

86) Dietary supplements provide energy, protein, minerals, and phytochemicals in addition to vitamins.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

87) There are no known risks to taking dietary supplements.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

88) Smokers have higher vitamin C needs than nonsmokers.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

89) Before taking medicinal herbs one should consult with a medical doctor to be sure there are no known food and drug interactions.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

90) Dietary supplements have regulations that are _____strict as compared to drugs.

 

  1. a) Less
  2. b) Equally
  3. c) More

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

91) The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act accomplished which of the following?

 

  1. a) Defined the term dietary supplement AND established safety standards for manufacturing practices.
  2. b) Defined the term dietary supplement AND created standards for labeling products.
  3. c) Defined the term dietary supplement AND established safety standards for manufacturing practices AND created standards for labeling products.
  4. d) Established safety standards for manufacturing practices AND created standards for labeling products.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

92) The FDA approves the safety and effectiveness of supplements before they are marketed.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

93) Herbs may decrease the effectiveness of some medications.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

94) When reading the label of dietary supplements you should examine all of the following before considering their use, EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) the expiration date.
  2. b) nutrients that are at or under 100 % of the Daily Value.
  3. c) nutrients that exceed 100% of the Daily Value and exceed the UL.
  4. d) toxic levels of nutrients.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.3 Evaluate the safety of a dietary supplement using a Supplement Facts Panel.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

95) A friend of yours shows you this Supplement Facts panel from a supplement marketed to reduce appetite and therefore promote weight loss.  Which of the following statements is NOT one that you should share with your friend regarding the efficacy of this supplement?

 

  1. a) This product isn’t recommended as it contains more than 100% of the DV for vitamin B6 and panthothenic acid.
  2. b) I don’t recommend you use the product as it contains a number of ingredients that are not vitamins and minerals and therefore have no Daily Value or UL amounts.
  3. c) The FDA monitors the label, so it should be safe to take.
  4. d) I don’t recommend you take it because losing weight is all about lessening the number of kcalories you eat while increasing the number kcalories you burn.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.3 Evaluate the safety of a dietary supplement using a Supplement Facts Panel.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

96) Advocates of herbal supplements feel that the wide availability allows people more control of their own health care.  What are some limitations of this availability?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

Solution: Answers will vary, but include a discussion on the safety and labeling of the supplements, the interactions with other herbs and prescription medications, and cost of not seeking or following the advice of a physician.

 

 

97) Hippocrates recommended garlic, which is shown in this picture, for treating pneumonia and other infections. Although it is recognized now that garlic is not effective in treating these conditions, what health promoting property has recently been demonstrated for garlic? Who should avoid garlic supplements?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

Solution: Recent research has shown that garlic may lower blood cholesterol. Therefore, those with heart disease or at heart disease risk may benefit from taking garlic supplements. Supplements could be harmful for people undergoing treatment for     HIV infection, and could lead to bleeding in those taking the blood-thinning drug warfarin (Coumadin).

 

 

98) Herbal supplements are popular as a “natural” remedy for a variety of illnesses. Your family is planning a trip to Walt Disney World and your aunt gets motion sickness on airplanes.  She read that ginger helps to alleviate motion sickness.  Based on your increased knowledge about herbal supplements, would you recommend that your aunt take the ginger?  Why or why not?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements

Solution: Answers will vary, but could include the side effects of taking ginger (gas, bloating, heartburn, and nausea); that herbal supplements as with all dietary supplements are not regulated by the government; and that the research is limited on the effectiveness of ginger in the alleviation of motion sickness.