Williams’ Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy 14th Edition by Staci Nix – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Williams’ Basic Nutrition & Diet Therapy 14e (LPN Threads) 14th Edition by Staci Nix – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

Chapter 5: Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The process of digestion involves _____ and _____ actions.
a. thermal, chemical
b. chemical, electrical
c. mechanical, chemical
d. mechanical, thermal

 

 

ANS:  C

For nutrients to be delivered to the cells, food goes through a series of mechanical and chemical changes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   65                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestine that propel food along are called
a. segmentation.
b. peristalsis.
c. cardiospasm.
d. pendular movements.

 

 

ANS:  B

Peristalsis is the alternating muscular contractions and relaxations that force the contents forward through the gastrointestinal tract. The smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal wall provide these two movements to ensure continuous passage of the food mass and valve control along its journey.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   66                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An example of a gastric secretion is
a. intestinal lipase.
b. pancreatic amylase.
c. bile.
d. hydrochloric acid.

 

 

ANS:  D

Gastric secretions include enzymes, hydrochloric acid and buffer ions, mucus, water and electrolytes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   67                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A pizza slice is being consumed by a hungry teen. The first actions of biting, chewing, and breaking up the slice into smaller particles is called
a. peristalsis.
b. segmentation.
c. pendular movements.
d. mastication.

 

 

ANS:  D

Mastication begins mechanical digestion in the mouth. Mastication is the biting and chewing that begins to break food into smaller particles.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   66                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A food that begins chemical digestion in the mouth is
a. chicken.
b. yogurt.
c. candy.
d. bread.

 

 

ANS:  D

In the mouth, salivary glands secrete salivary amylase, which is the general name for any starch-splitting enzyme. Thus a food with starch content, such as bread, could begin its chemical digestion in the mouth.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   69-70             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After ingested food is mixed and churned with gastric secretions, the semifluid mass is called
a. chyle.
b. chyme.
c. renin.
d. bolus.

 

 

ANS:  B

By the time the food mass reaches the lower portion of the stomach, it is a semiliquid, acid-food mix called chyme.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   67                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. One type of movement in the small intestine is
a. mastication.
b. segmentation.
c. kinetic propulsion.
d. expulsion.

 

 

ANS:  B

The intestinal muscles produce several types of movement that aid digestion, including peristalsis, pendular movements, segmentation, longitudinal rotation, and surface villi motions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Compared with the pH in the stomach, the pH in the small intestine is
a. lower.
b. higher.
c. the same.
d. neutral.

 

 

ANS:  B

The pH of the stomach is acidic (lower) and the pH of the small intestine is alkaline (higher).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The enzyme that would be most important for digesting a skinless chicken breast would be
a. sucrase.
b. lipase.
c. peptidase.
d. bile.

 

 

ANS:  C

A skinless chicken breast contains more protein than any other nutrient. The protein is partially digested to peptides by peptidase.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A food that is high in a macronutrient broken down by trypsin is
a. bread.
b. fruit.
c. margarine.
d. chicken.

 

 

ANS:  D

Trypsin breaks down protein to dipeptides. In this case, chicken is the high-protein food.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The lining of the stomach and intestine is protected from strong acid by
a. pepsinogen.
b. bile.
c. mucus.
d. the presence of food.

 

 

ANS:  C

Because the stomach contains hydrochloric acid, mucus is available to protect its lining from the erosive effects of the acid. Large quantities of mucus are secreted by the intestinal glands to protect the mucosal lining from irritation and erosion caused by the high acidic gastric contents entering the duodenum.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release its secretions is
a. gastrin.
b. enterogastrone.
c. cholecystokinin.
d. secretin.

 

 

ANS:  D

The hormone secretin, which is produced by the mucosal glands in the first part of the intestine, controls the secretion of enzymes and other substances from the pancreas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A meal consisting of country fried steak, carrots, and a baked potato with butter and sour cream would stimulate the hormone cholecystokinin because of the
a. presence of food in the duodenum.
b. presence of fat in the duodenum.
c. entry of the acidic chyme into the duodenum.
d. entry of bile into the duodenum.

 

 

ANS:  B

The stimulus for the release of cholecystokinin is the presence of fat in the duodenum. Once stimulated, cholecystokinin stimulates the gallbladder to release bile to emulsify fat.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After eating fried chicken the end products from the digestion of fat include
a. glycerol and fatty acids.
b. glucose and fatty acids.
c. amino acids and dipeptides.
d. cholesterol and glycerol.

 

 

ANS:  A

The end products of digestion of fats are glycerol and fatty acids. Intestinal lipase splits fat into glycerides and fatty acids.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A means of absorption that occurs in the small intestine is
a. exchange.
b. pinocytosis.
c. filtration.
d. electrochemical transport.

 

 

ANS:  B

Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active diffusion, and pinocytosis are the processes by which nutrients cross the inner intestinal wall and into the body circulation. Pinocytosis is the penetration of larger materials by attaching to the thicker cell membrane and being engulfed by the cell.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71|73              TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After absorption, the end products of carbohydrate and protein digestion enter the
a. lacteal.
b. bile duct.
c. blood system.
d. bowel.

 

 

ANS:  C

Once carbohydrates and protein are digested and absorbed, they cross the inner intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The primary nutritional function of the large intestine is
a. absorption of fats.
b. absorption of water.
c. excretion of waste products.
d. completion of the digestive process.

 

 

ANS:  B

The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the chyme. The water is absorbed in the first half of the colon.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Bacteria found in the colon are significant because they
a. synthesize some vitamins.
b. are a source of contamination.
c. finish digesting whatever remains in the colon.
d. are necessary for mineral absorption.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin K is synthesized from bacteria in the large intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   76                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Gas formation in the colon is the result of
a. ingestion of certain foods.
b. ingestion of too much water.
c. inadequate ingestion of fiber.
d. bacterial action on undigested items.

 

 

ANS:  D

Bacterial action on indigestible food items in the large intestine can contribute to the formation of gas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73-74             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After digestion, fatty materials are absorbed into the
a. bloodstream.
b. outer skin.
c. colon.
d. lacteals.

 

 

ANS:  D

Because fatty materials are not water soluble, these molecules pass into the lymph vessels in the villi (the lacteals), then into the larger lymph vessels of the body, and eventually into the bloodstream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Dietary fiber is beneficial because it
a. is high in nutrients.
b. is readily digested.
c. adds bulk to feces.
d. absorbs excess nutrients.

 

 

ANS:  C

Food fiber is not digested because human beings lack the specific enzymes required, but adds bulk to the diet.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The sum total of all the chemical changes that an organism performs to maintain its life and produce energy is the result of
a. metabolism.
b. digestion.
c. absorption.
d. respiration.

 

 

ANS:  A

Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for all its functions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   73                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Bile contains
a. hormones.
b. enzymes.
c. plasma.
d. emulsifiers.

 

 

ANS:  D

Bile is an emulsifying agent that aids in fat digestion and absorption.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Two organs that work with the small intestine in digestion are the
a. liver and kidneys.
b. stomach and large intestine.
c. pancreas and liver.
d. large intestine and colon.

 

 

ANS:  C

The pancreas aids in digestion by secreting enzymes to aid in protein, carbohydrate, and fat digestion. The presence of fat in the small intestine triggers the release of bile from the gallbladder; bile is made in the liver and the gallbladder is located in the liver.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Conversion of amino acids to glucose is called
a. metabolism.
b. glycogenosis.
c. gluconeogenesis.
d. catabolism.

 

 

ANS:  C

Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of amino acids to glucose.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71|75              TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The surface of the intestinal wall has mucosal folds, villi, and microvilli to
a. aid in peristalsis.
b. increase the surface area for absorption.
c. decrease the surface area for absorption.
d. increase the number of enzyme-secreting cells.

 

 

ANS:  B

Mucosal folds, villi, and microvilli combine to make the inner surface some 600 times greater than the area of the outer surface of the intestine. This increases the surface area available for absorption.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   71                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Ways to minimize formation of stomach gas include
a. avoiding caffeine.
b. chewing with your mouth open.
c. drinking liquids through a straw.
d. not gulping.

 

 

ANS:  D

Stomach gas can be minimized by avoiding carbonated beverages, chewing with the mouth closed, not gulping food, not drinking from a can or through a straw, and not eating while nervous.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   74                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A beverage that may cause intestinal gas in adults is
a. milk.
b. coffee.
c. apple juice.
d. cola.

 

 

ANS:  A

Many adults lack the enzyme lactase to digest milk. For adults who do not produce this enzyme, undigested lactose from milk is fermented by bacteria in the colon, causing intestinal gas.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   74

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Ms. J. complains of gas and bloating along with abdominal pain, especially after drinking milk or eating ice cream or cheese. She may have
a. lactose intolerance.
b. phenylalanine intolerance.
c. calcium deficiency.
d. vitamin D deficiency.

 

 

ANS:  A

Lactose intolerance is characterized by a wide range of gastrointestinal problems such as gas, bloating, and abdominal pain after eating milk and other dairy products. Patients with lactose intolerance do not produce lactase. Undigested lactose from dairy products is fermented by bacteria in the colon, causing gas and other symptoms.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   74                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following foods would require peptidases to assist in its chemical digestion?
a. chicken.
b. banana.
c. orange juice.
d. margarine.

 

 

ANS:  A

Proteins require amino peptidase to assist in removing end amino acids from polypeptides. Chicken is a food high in protein.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   68                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Chapter 7: Vitamins

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must
a. be synthesized by the body.
b. be required in large quantities.
c. perform a vital function.
d. be water soluble.

 

 

ANS:  C

For a compound to be defined as a vitamin, it must be a vital, organic, dietary substance that is not a carbohydrate, fat, protein, or mineral and is necessary in only very small amounts to perform a specific metabolic function or prevent an associated deficiency. It also cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient amounts to sustain life and must be supplemented by the body.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   95                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone than a vitamin is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:  B

Vitamin D is a prohormone made in the skin by sunlight.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The provitamin form of vitamin A that is found in plant pigments is
a. beta-carotene.
b. chlorophyll.
c. beta-xanthophyll.
d. calciferol.

 

 

ANS:  A

Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments. The body converts it to vitamin A, making it a primary source of the vitamin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of
a. beta-carotene.
b. vitamin A.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  A

Carotene is a group name of three red and yellow pigments (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene) found in dark green and yellow vegetables and some fruits. The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   98-99             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Liver is a rich source of
a. vitamin A (retinol).
b. vitamin C.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  A

Liver is a rich source of preformed, natural vitamin A. Other sources include fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, and cream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   98                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An important function of vitamin A is to
a. be incorporated into the bile.
b. help with blood clotting.
c. act as an antioxidant.
d. help form rhodopsin in the eye.

 

 

ANS:  D

Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A deficiency of vitamin A may result in
a. osteoporosis.
b. bile obstruction.
c. breakdown of cell membranes.
d. night blindness.

 

 

ANS:  D

Night blindness results from a deficiency of vitamin A. Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Fish liver oils are a good source of
a. vitamin D.
b. vitamin E.
c. protein.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:  A

Fish liver oils are a natural source of vitamin D. Some other foods are fortified with vitamin D. Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with this vitamin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is
a. cholecalciferol.
b. calciferol.
c. calcitriol.
d. calcitonin.

 

 

ANS:  C

The active form of vitamin D is calcitriol. Vitamin D is made in the body with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are
a. cereals and macaroni products.
b. milk and margarine.
c. flour and salt.
d. vegetable oils and shortenings.

 

 

ANS:  B

Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with vitamin D. Butter substitutes, such as margarines, are also fortified.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Synthesis of the active hormonal form of vitamin D is the result of the combined action of the
a. skin, liver, and kidney.
b. pancreas, thyroid, and liver.
c. skin, skeleton, and liver.
d. kidney, skeleton, and liver.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin D production begins in the skin with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99-100           TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The last organ involved in the production of the physiologically active form of vitamin D is the
a. liver.
b. kidney.
c. intestine.
d. skin.

 

 

ANS:  B

Cholecalciferol (inactive form found in skin) is activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99-100           TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the minerals
a. sodium and potassium.
b. iron and phosphorus.
c. calcium and phosphorus.
d. sodium and calcium.

 

 

ANS:  C

The primary function of vitamin D is the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin. In balance with these two hormones, vitamin D hormone stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones, is referred to as
a. rickets.
b. scurvy.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:  A

Rickets is a disease associated with vitamin D deficiency. It is characterized by malformation of skeletal tissue in growing children in which long bones are soft and often bend under the weight of the child.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because
a. exposure to sunlight varies.
b. it is present in so many foods.
c. the body stores such large amounts.
d. the amount in food varies with the season.

 

 

ANS:  A

Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because of its unique hormone-like nature, difference in exposure to sun (affected by time spent outside and climate), and limited food sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in
a. liver damage.
b. hyperpigmentation.
c. blindness.
d. calcification of soft tissues.

 

 

ANS:  D

A toxic level of vitamin D can result in calcification of soft tissues such as kidneys and lungs as well as fragile bones.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Sunflower oil is a rich source of
a. vitamin A.
b. vitamin B.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  D

The richest sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils. Other food sources include nuts, fortified cereals, and avocado.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   103                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The requirement for vitamin E varies by the amount of an individual’s
a. sun exposure.
b. dietary selenium.
c. animal fat intake.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

 

 

ANS:  D

The requirement for vitamin E varies with the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Vitamin E protects membranes because it acts as a(n)
a. barrier.
b. peroxide.
c. antioxidant.
d. clotting factor.

 

 

ANS:  C

Vitamin E protects membranes by acting as nature’s most potent fat-soluble antioxidant. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid membranes are easy for oxygen to break down, and vitamin E can interrupt this oxidation and protect the fatty acids of the cell membrane from damage.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The fat-soluble vitamin responsible for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:  D

The basic function of vitamin K is in the blood-clotting process. The most known vitamin K–dependent blood factor is prothrombin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   103                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A good food source of vitamin K is
a. spinach.
b. sunflower oil.
c. pork.
d. oranges.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables, which provide 50 to 800 mcg of phylloquinone per 100 g of food. Smaller amounts are found in milk and other dairy, meats, fortified cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   105                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. In the past, vitamin A content was listed in International Units (IU); it is now listed in
a. milligrams.
b. micrograms.
c. beta-carotene equivalents.
d. retinol equivalents.

 

 

ANS:  D

Vitamin A is listed in retinol equivalents. One IU of vitamin A equals 0.3 mcg retinol or 0.6 mcg beta-carotene.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97-98             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The hormones that participate in calcium metabolism are
a. estrogen and oxytocin.
b. cortisone and epinephrine.
c. aldosterone and thyroxine.
d. parathyroid and calcitriol.

 

 

ANS:  D

The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin to stimulate the absorption of calcium in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. There is a metabolic partnership between vitamin E and
a. zinc.
b. chromium.
c. selenium.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:  C

Selenium is a trace mineral that works with vitamin E as an antioxidant. A selenium-containing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is the second line of defense in preventing oxidative damage to cell membranes. Selenium spares vitamin E by reducing its requirement, the same as vitamin E does for selenium.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An athlete who increases his or her intake of pasta will also increase his or her need for
a. folic acid.
b. thiamin.
c. pyridoxine.
d. vitamin C.

 

 

ANS:  B

The starch in the pasta would be digested and absorbed as glucose. Thiamin acts a coenzyme factor related to the production of energy from glucose and the storage of energy as fat, making energy available to support normal growth.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in
a. biotin.
b. folic acid.
c. thiamin.
d. pyridoxine.

 

 

ANS:  C

Alcohol inhibits the absorption of thiamin. Alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency causes Wernicke’s encephalopathy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are the _____ systems.
a. nervous, respiratory, and urinary
b. nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal
c. gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine
d. lymphatic, cardiovascular, and endocrine

 

 

ANS:  B

The nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected by thiamin deficiency. The central nervous system depends on glucose for energy; if thiamin is not present in adequate amounts, sufficient energy cannot be made for the nerves to perform their functions. The heart muscle depends on thiamin as well. Without adequate thiamin, the heart muscle weakens and heart failure results. Thiamin also is necessary for the gastrointestinal tract to function properly. The cells of smooth muscle and secretory glands must have energy to perform their work, and thiamin is a necessary agent for producing that energy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The vitamin that is destroyed by light is
a. vitamin C.
b. niacin.
c. riboflavin.
d. biotin.

 

 

ANS:  C

Riboflavin is easily destroyed by light. Milk, a major source of riboflavin, is sold and stored in plastic or cardboard containers to protect it from light exposure.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The most important source of riboflavin is
a. milk.
b. lean meats.
c. enriched grains.
d. green leafy vegetables.

 

 

ANS:  A

Milk is the major source of riboflavin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The function of all B-complex vitamins is to
a. regulate fluid balance.
b. function as body structures.
c. function as coenzymes.
d. provide calories for energy.

 

 

ANS:  C

The B-complex vitamins function as coenzymes that are necessary agents to break down compounds, but are not consumed in the process.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   119-124         TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The disease associated with niacin deficiency is
a. anemia.
b. cheilosis.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:  C

Pellagra is a disease caused by the lack of niacin. It is characterized by skin lesions along with gastrointestinal, mucosal, neurologic, and mental symptoms. The four Ds associated with pellagra are dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The amino acid that can be converted to niacin in the body is
a. leucine.
b. phenylalanine.
c. tryptophan.
d. valine.

 

 

ANS:  C

Some of the niacin the body requires can be made from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The total requirement in the body for niacin is stated in terms of niacin equivalents to account for both sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

  1. A good food source of niacin is
a. a banana.
b. a tomato.
c. beef.
d. oatmeal.

 

 

ANS:  C

Meat is a major source of niacin. The greatest intake of niacin in the United States comes from mixed dishes high in meat, poultry, or fish.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   111                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The vitamin most closely associated with protein metabolism is
a. thiamin.
b. pyridoxine.
c. folic acid.
d. choline.

 

 

ANS:  B

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has an essential role in protein metabolism and functions in many cell reactions involving amino acids.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   112                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following diets can help ensure adequate and balanced vitamin intake?
a. a high-calorie diet composed of mainly fruits and vegetables
b. a high-protein diet concentrating on red meat and fish
c. a varied diet composed of all food groups eaten in controlled portions
d. a varied diet with a higher emphasis on grains and fish

 

 

ANS:  C

Eating a well-balanced, varied diet can help ensure adequate and balanced intake by supplying needed nutrients from all the food groups in proper portion sizes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   124

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

  1. The person most at risk for vitamin D deficiency is a
a. 12-year-old girl who plays soccer at the local playground twice a week.
b. 28-year-old mother who breastfeeds her 5-month-old infant and takes a daily stroll in the neighborhood.
c. 62-year-old woman who lives in a cold climate and rarely goes outdoors.
d. 42-year-old man who plays golf once a week.

 

 

ANS:  C

Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with exposure to sunlight. People who do not go outdoors may be at higher risk for developing a vitamin D deficiency.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The best food source of folic acid is
a. grapefruit.
b. chicken.
c. cheese.
d. broccoli.

 

 

ANS:  D

Rich sources of folate are found in liver, green leafy vegetables, yeast, and legumes. Broccoli would be a high source of folate among the choices.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   114                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A folic acid deficiency induces a form of anemia called _____ anemia.
a. microcytic
b. megaloblastic
c. pernicious
d. aplastic

 

 

ANS:  B

Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by a lack of folate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   113                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The B vitamin predominantly found in foods of animal origin is
a. pantothenic acid.
b. niacin.
c. thiamin.
d. cobalamin.

 

 

ANS:  D

Because cobalamin occurs as a protein complex in foods, its sources are mostly of animal origin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   116                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Vitamin C deficiency is associated with
a. scurvy.
b. beriberi.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. megaloblastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:  A

Extreme vitamin C deficiency is associated with scurvy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   107                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. A 62-year-old woman who smokes one pack of cigarettes a day and whose food intake records reveal a minimal intake of vitamin C foods may be at risk for
a. easy bruising and pinpoint hemorrhages.
b. cracked and bleeding lips.
c. fevers and infections.
d. neurologic disorders.

 

 

ANS:  A

Signs of vitamin C deficiency are tissue bleeding, including easy bruising and pinpoint skin hemorrhages. Smokers deplete their supply of vitamin C more rapidly than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoke is a source of environmental free radicals, and vitamin C is needed to break down toxic compounds in cigarette smoke.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   107

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. An example of a meal high in vitamin C is
a. bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich and strawberries.
b. hamburger, french fries, and salad.
c. pasta salad, whole-grain roll, and apple.
d. nachos with refried beans and salsa.

 

 

ANS:  A

The best sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, berries, melons, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and yellow vegetables.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   107                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Phytochemicals act as
a. vitamins and minerals.
b. cofactors and enzymes.
c. antioxidants and hormones.
d. antibiotics and antifungals.

 

 

ANS:  C

Phytochemicals act as antioxidants and hormones. The beneficial effects of phytochemicals are believed to result from synergistic actions of multiple nutrients as opposed to acting as an isolated compound.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   120                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Foods rich in phytochemicals include
a. mushrooms and algae.
b. fruits and vegetables.
c. yogurt and goat’s milk.
d. soy milk and tofu.

 

 

ANS:  B

Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of phytochemicals. The term phytochemical comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning “plant.”

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   120                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A young woman who is interested in becoming pregnant should be counseled on healthy eating choices, especially regarding folate-containing foods, which may help prevent
a. neural tube defects.
b. osteomalacia.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. aplastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:  A

Adequate folate intake before and during pregnancy greatly reduces the risk of neural tube defects in infants.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   121

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

Chapter 9: Water Balance

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The hormone that conserves body water is
a. vitamin D hormone.
b. antidiuretic hormone.
c. aldosterone.
d. parathyroid hormone.

 

 

ANS:  B

Antidiuretic hormone works on the kidneys’ nephrons to induce reabsorption and conservation of water.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   168                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The two minerals that occur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance are
a. calcium and potassium.
b. sodium and chloride.
c. phosphorus and magnesium.
d. potassium and magnesium.

 

 

ANS:  B

Sodium and chloride are the two minerals that occur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   163-164         TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A person is most likely to have a high body water content if he/she is
a. overweight.
b. underweight.
c. a bodybuilder.
d. sedentary.

 

 

ANS:  C

An athlete would have a high body water content related to the amount of muscle mass. Muscle mass contains a relatively large amount of water.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   161

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The term extracellular fluid includes
a. plasma and tissue secretions.
b. plasma and fluid inside cells.
c. fluid surrounding cells and in beverages.
d. fluid surrounding cells and fluid inside cells.

 

 

ANS:  A

Extracellular fluid is the total body water outside the cells.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   161                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A basic mechanism for maintaining body hydration is
a. thirst.
b. electrolyte balance.
c. acid-base balance.
d. activity level.

 

 

ANS:  A

Thirst is the basic mechanism for maintaining hydration.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   161                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The hormone responsible for promoting conservation of sodium in the kidney is
a. aldosterone.
b. antidiuretic hormone.
c. angiotensin.
d. renin.

 

 

ANS:  A

Aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which trigger the kidneys’ nephrons to reabsorb sodium.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   168                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Mr. Jones consumes approximately 1500 mL/day from fluid contained in liquids and foods and from metabolism of foods. What percent of his fluid requirement does he meet if he requires 2400 mL/day?
a. 41%
b. 51%
c. 62%
d. 84%

 

 

ANS:  C

The intake from liquids, liquids in foods, and metabolism is approximately 1500 mL/day so 1500 mL divided by 2400 mL = 62%.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   163                TOP:   Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. Water formed from metabolism comes from
a. what is contained in foods.
b. moving from compartment to compartment.
c. what is absorbed from gastrointestinal secretions.
d. oxidation of nutrients in the cells.

 

 

ANS:  D

Metabolic water, or water of oxidation, is the product of cell oxidation when nutrients are burned in the body for energy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   163                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The approximate volume of digestive secretions produced by the stomach each day is _____ mL.
a. 1000
b. 1500
c. 2000
d. 2500

 

 

ANS:  D

The approximate total volume of digestive secretions produced by an average-sized adult is 8200 mL per 24 hours. Of this amount, 2500 mL is from gastric secretions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   167                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The kidneys must excrete water in the urine because
a. the body needs to get rid of the ingested water.
b. water provides the vehicle for excretion of waste products.
c. they physiologically cannot retain all the water.
d. hormones ensure that a maximal amount of water is retained by the body.

 

 

ANS:  B

The largest amount of water exits through the kidneys. A certain amount of water must be excreted as urine to carry the various waste products of metabolism. This is called obligatory water loss because it is compulsory for survival and must occur daily for health.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   163                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Plasma proteins and electrolytes are examples of solutes
a. filtered from the plasma by the kidneys.
b. found in body fluids that influence movement of water.
c. released into the plasma by the liver.
d. recycled by the mucosa during digestion.

 

 

ANS:  B

Plasma proteins, mainly in the form of albumin and globulin, are organic compounds of large molecular size responsible for controlling water movement in the body and guarding blood volume by influencing the shift of water in and out of capillaries in balance with the surrounding water. Electrolytes are particles that are free to move throughout a solution to maintain chemical balance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   157|163-164  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An example of a substance that can pass through a capillary membrane is
a. glucose.
b. hemoglobin.
c. plasma proteins.
d. antibodies.

 

 

ANS:  A

Glucose passes through a capillary membrane. The walls of the capillaries are thin and porous; therefore water molecules and small particles can move freely across them.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An acid has a pH
a. greater than 7.0.
b. lower than 7.0.
c. greater than 5.0.
d. lower than 5.0.

 

 

ANS:  B

A pH less than 7.0 is considered acidic, whereas anything above 7.0 is considered basic. A pH of 7.0 is neutral.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   169                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An example of a cation is
a. sodium.
b. phosphate.
c. carbonate.
d. sulfate.

 

 

ANS:  A

Cations are ions carrying positive charges, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The organic molecule responsible for creating colloidal osmotic pressure is
a. glucose.
b. an electrolyte.
c. protein.
d. sodium.

 

 

ANS:  C

Protein is an organic molecule responsible for creating colloidal osmotic pressure.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An example of an electrolyte is
a. glucose.
b. iron.
c. potassium.
d. carbon dioxide.

 

 

ANS:  C

Electrolytes are small, inorganic substances that can dissociate or break apart in a solution and carry an electrical charge. Examples include potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, phosphate, and sulfate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   163-164         TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Ways in which water and solutes move across membranes include
a. diffusion and filtration.
b. capillary action and circulation.
c. peristalsis and contraction.
d. conduction and pulsation.

 

 

ANS:  A

Forces that move water and solutes across membranes include osmosis, diffusion, filtration, active transport, and pinocytosis.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   165-166         TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Functions of water in the body include
a. providing an energy source.
b. temperature control.
c. nerve impulse transmission.
d. transport of vitamins A, D, E, and K.

 

 

ANS:  B

The body water supply acts as a solvent, serves as a means of transport, provides form and structure, regulates temperature control, and provides lubrication for the body.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   158                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

  1. The term used to denote concentration of electrolytes in a given volume is
a. valence.
b. colloidal osmotic pressure.
c. pH.
d. milliequivalent.

 

 

ANS:  D

Milliequivalents are used to express the number of electrolytes per unit of fluid in a solution.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Cations primarily responsible for controlling body water distribution are
a. sodium and chloride.
b. calcium and phosphorus.
c. sodium and potassium.
d. sodium and bicarbonate.

 

 

ANS:  C

Sodium and potassium are cations that function to control the distribution of water in the body. Sodium is the major extracellular electrolyte and potassium is the major intracellular electrolyte.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A patient who is experiencing severe diarrhea and vomiting would have
a. increased body water requirements.
b. decreased body water requirements.
c. no change in body water requirements.
d. an immediate need for intravenous fluid.

 

 

ANS:  A

Diarrhea and vomiting increase the loss of fluid from the body and hence increase body water requirements to replace losses and maintain a state of homeostasis.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   159

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The kidneys “launder” the blood by
a. osmosis.
b. filtration.
c. active transport.
d. diffusion.

 

 

ANS:  B

The kidneys filter the blood to maintain the appropriate levels of all constituents of blood and remove waste products.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   167                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Oral rehydration therapy is preferred over intravenous therapy for fluid replacement caused by diarrhea because it
a. is quicker.
b. tastes better.
c. is more readily available.
d. provides electrolytes as well as fluid.

 

 

ANS:  C

Oral hydration is preferred over intravenous therapy if it is able to be consumed by the patient because it is just as effective as intravenous therapy, is more readily available, and is less expensive.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   168                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies, Basic Care and Comfort

 

  1. The predominant regulator(s) of circulating blood volume is(are)
a. electrolytes.
b. plasma proteins.
c. water intake.
d. hormones.

 

 

ANS:  B

Plasma protein molecules are retained in blood vessels, controlling water movement in the body and guarding blood volume by influencing the shift of water in and out of capillaries in balance with the surrounding water.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Water retention would be the result of the hormone
a. ADH.
b. estrogen.
c. progesterone.
d. insulin.

 

 

ANS:  A

Antidiuretic hormone promotes water conservation; it works on the kidneys’ nephrons to induce reabsorption of water. In any stressful situation with threatened or real loss of body water, this hormone is released to conserve vital body water.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   168                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. Thirst tends to be an unreliable index of fluid needs in
a. infants.
b. pregnant women.
c. breast-feeding women.
d. older adults.

 

 

ANS:  D

Thirst is an unreliable index of fluid needs in the elderly because the thirst mechanism usually diminishes with age and dehydration can easily occur.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   159|161

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. Plasma proteins maintain colloidal osmotic pressure because
a. they are large molecules.
b. proteins are not found in the cells.
c. proteins are positively charged.
d. they contain water as part of their structure.

 

 

ANS:  A

Plasma proteins maintain colloidal osmotic pressure because they are large molecules, mainly in the form of albumin and globulin. Plasma protein molecules are retained in the blood vessels, controlling water movement in the body and guarding blood volume by influencing the shift of water in and out of capillaries in balance with the surrounding water.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   164                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Treatment for diarrhea in children is to
a. withhold oral intake and immediately begin intravenous fluids until diarrhea stops.
b. sponge with an electrolyte solution of sodium, potassium, and sugar.
c. give an age-appropriate diet along with oral fluids that contain sodium, potassium, sugar, and sodium bicarbonate.
d. administer the BRAT (bananas, rice, applesauce, and tea) diet.

 

 

ANS:  C

Administering an age-appropriate diet along with fluids that contain sodium, potassium, glucose, and sodium bicarbonate is beneficial in treating diarrhea and replacing lost fluid and electrolytes to bring the body to a state of homeostasis.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   168

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Basic Care and Comfort

 

  1. The electrolyte present in the most abundance in gastric digestive fluids is
a. chloride.
b. potassium.
c. sodium.
d. bicarbonate.

 

 

ANS:  A

The approximate concentration of certain electrolytes in gastric secretions of the digestive fluids is mostly composed of chloride followed by sodium and potassium.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   167                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. For osmosis to occur there must be
a. a semipermeable membrane.
b. cations and anions.
c. membrane channels.
d. hormonal control.

 

 

ANS:  A

Osmosis is the process by which water moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; this can only happen if the two areas are separated by a semipermeable membrane.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   165                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

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